Table of content

Journal of College of Education

مجلة كلية التربية

ISSN: 18120380
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Education
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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Scientific Journal issued by College of Education / The University of Musansiriya

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07716816052

Table of content: 2011 volume: issue:6

Article
الفهرست

Pages: 1-1
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Article
الغلاف

Pages: 1-1
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Article
هيأة التحرير

Pages: 1-1
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Article
Criticality Importance Measure and the Increase of System Reliability through Active Redundancy

Authors: Aliaa Adnan Kadhem
Pages: 1-16
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One of the important problems in reliability is “how to design better systems”. As known, active redundancy is a technique can be used for improving system reliability “makes it better”. If the system under usage is composed of different components, then we will have different improvements in the reliability of this system when we add active redundancy to its components. In this paper, we investigate the effect of active redundancy upon system reliability when applied at various places and in various systems. In our work, we study the problem of how to choose components for active redundancy. Some results are given, our results depend on component criticality importance also some examples are presented. ان احد المشاكل المهمة في المعولية هي كيفية تصميم انظمة افضل. كما نعرف ان المجانبة الفعالة هي طريقة تستخدم لتحسين معولية نظام معين "جعله افضل". اذا كان النظام المستخدم يتركب من مركبات مختلفة فاننا سوف نحصل على تحسينات مختلفة في معولية هذا النظام عند اضافة وحدات اضافية الى مركباته. في هذا البحث, سوف نفحص تاثير المجانبة الفعالة على معولية نظام عندما تطبق في اماكن مختلفة من النظام وعندما تطبق في انظمة مختلفة. في بحثنا سوف ندرس مسالة كيفية اختيار مركبات للمجانبة الفعالة. تم اعطاء بعض النتائج, ان نتائجنا تعتمد على "وقد تم تقديم بعض الامثلة ايضا. component criticality importance"

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Article
Collision Frequency Evaluation of Electrons in Argon-Helium GasMixture
حساب تردد تصادم الالكترونات في مزيج من غازي الآركون-هليوم

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In this research, mixture of different percentage for two rare gases, such as, Argon & Helium gases. In operation the gas is ionized, and free electrons, accelerated by the electrical field in the tube, collide with gas and atoms, for different ranges, E/N=(1×10-18 - 1×10-16 ) V. cm2. We have solved numerically transport equation through this gaseous medium, and obtained many different transport parameters, such as, νen, νei, νc, ω, ln Λ and –gd/bd. The obtained results appeared in agreement with the experimental and theoretical data. تم في هذا البحث مزج نسب مختلفة لغازين خاملين، هما غازي الآركون والهليوم، وتم تسليط مجال كهربائي خلال المزيج ولقيم مختلفة تتراوح بين E/N=(1×10-18 - 1×10-16 ) V. cm2 ، عندئذ فأن الغاز يتأين والالكترونات الحرة تتعجل بواسطة المجال الكهربائي في الأنبوب، حيث يؤدي إلى تهيج المزيج عن طريق التصادم بين الغاز والذرات، وبهذه الطريقة تم حل معادلة الانتقال عددياً خلال هذا الوسط الغازي، وعندما تم حساب عدد من معلمات الانتقال و هي كلٍ من تردد تصادم إلكترون- ذرة νen، تردد تصادم إلكترون- أيون νei، تردد التصادم الكلي للالكتروناتνc ، التردد الزاوي ω، اللوغارتم الكولومي Λ، ونسبة السماحية المعقدة –gd/bd . أظهرت النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها تطابقاً جيداً مع النتائج العلمية والنظرية المنشورة.

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Article
Energy loss straggling for slow ions in an electron gas

Authors: Sana Thamer Kadhem
Pages: 30-40
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Energy – loss straggling of ions with velocity small than Fermi velocity in an electron gas has been evaluated from phase shifts which are determined from nonlinear, density – functional calculations. The results show oscillations in straggling with increasing nuclear charge are correlated with the scattering properties of electrons at Fermi level. The linear behavior of the energy loss with the ion velocity is obtained under the free electron gas (FEG) in the frame of nonlinear density functional theory (DFT) or linear dielectric formalism. باستخدام إن تطوح الطاقة للايونات بسرعة اقل من سرعة فيرمي نموذج الغاز الالكتروني قد تم ايجادة من فرق الطور الذي يمكن أن يحسب من دالة الكثافة اللاخطية. النتائج قد وضحت إن هناك تذبذبات في مقدار تطوح الطاقة بازدياد الشحنة النووية والذي قد صحح باستخدام خواص الاستطارة للإلكترون عند مستوي فيرمي. إن التصرف الخطي بالنسبة للطاقة المفقودة للجسيم مع سرعته تم الحصول علية إما باستخدام نموذج الغاز الالكتروني ودالة الكثافة اللاخطية أو صيغة العزل الخطية.

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Article
High Efficiency AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Quantum Wells Solar Cells
الكفاءة العالية للخلايا الشمسية ذات الجيوب الكمية AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs

Authors: Belal A. Alshekhli
Pages: 41-55
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An analytical expression for the maximum obtainable photoconversion efficiency of graded band gap AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum wells solar cell was presented. Computer program WELL was designed to simulate the photocurrent density, spectral response and conversion efficiency to the proposed model. To improve this model, the effect of the number wells was studied. The photovoltaic parameters obtained from this model with 50 quantum wells are Jsc =55 mA/cm2, Voc= .924 V, FF= .875 and η= 52.8 % under AM1.5D solar spectrum conditions. Significant enhancements in short-circuit current and conversion efficiency have been obtained.تم ايجاد تعبير تحليلي لاكبر كفاءة تحويل للخلية الشمسية ذات الحجيرات الكمية والنظام المتدرج في فجوة الطاقة تم تصميم برنامج حاسوبي لكي يماثل كثافة التيارو الاستجابة الطيفية وكفاءة التحويل للخلية المفترضة. .AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs للتطوير هذا النموذج، تم دراسة تاثير عدد الحجيرات. العوامل الكهروضوئية التي تم الحصول عليها لخلية تحوي 50 حجيرة كمية . AM1.5D تحت ظروف الطيف الشمسي Jsc =55 mA/cm2, Voc= .924 V, FF= .875 and η= 52.8 % هي تم الحصول على تعزيز ملحوض في تيار الدائرة القصيرة وكفاءة التحويل.


Article
تأثير التشعيع على بعض قيم الثوابت البصرية للبولي ستايرين(PS)

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Films of polystyrene (PS) have been prepared by casting method at room temperature with 20μm thickness, Absorption and transmission spectra have been recorded in order to study the effect of irradiation of γ-rays on some optical parameter values such as Absorption coefficient ( α ), extinction coefficient ( Ko ), reflectance ( R ) , refractive index ( no ) , real part ( ε1 ) and imaginary part (ε2 ) of dielectric constant .The results showed that all these parameter were affected by irradiation. حُضرت أغشية البولي ستايرين (PS) بطريقة الصب ( casting method )وبسمك 20 مايكرون وفي درجة حرارة الغرفة. ولدراسة تأثير التشعيع بأشعة كاما على بعض قيم الثوابت البصرية لأغشية بوليمر البولي ستايرين مثل ( معامل الامتصاص ) ( α ، معامل الخمود ( Ko ) ، الانعكاسية ( R ) ، معامل الانكسار ( no ) ،ثابت العزل الكهربائي بجزئيه الحقيقي ( ε1 ) والخيالي ( ε2 )) سُجل طيف الامتصاصية والنفاذية لهذه الأغشية ولمدى الأطوال الموجية .( 200 – 900 nm ) وتبين ان للتشعيع تأثيراً على الخواص البصرية لأغشية بوليمر البولي ستايرين(PS) .

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Article
Total Serum Bilirubin and Related Anemia in Thalassemic Patients
البيليروبين الكلي في المصل وصلته بفقر الدم في مرضى الثلاسيميا

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The aim of present study was to evaluate total serum bilirubin TSB (direct and indirect SB) for thalassemic patients and to verify the correlation between Hb level, age and TSB level (direct and indirect) for the same patients. To achieve this aim, Forty-three thalassemic patients (19 females & 24 male) with mean ages of 12.61±4.54 with a range of 4-22 years were enrolled. Thirty one healthy individuals (12 females & 19 males) of ages 11.55± 5.36 were enrolled as control group. The total serum bilirubin, (direct and indirect) levels in sera of patients and control group were measured by a colorimetric method. The results show a highly significant increase for TSB (P<0.001), for patients in compared with healthy control while Hb levels were decreased significantly (P<0.01) for the same patients. The linear regression analysis exhibited strong positive significant correlations for direct SB (r= 0.48, P< 0.01), indirect SB(r= 0.53, P< 0.01) with age while its negative significant relationship for direct SB (r= -0.33, P< 0.05), indirect SB(r= -0.75, P< 0.0001) with Hb levels in thalassemic patients. Conclusion, elevation of TSB in thalassemic patients and its inverse correlation with Hb consider the best indicator of the presence of anemia. المباشر TSB هدفت الدراسة الحالية لتقييم مستوى البيليروبين الكلي(بنوعيه المباشر وغير المباشر) في المصل ودراسة نوع العلاقة بين مستوى الهيموغلوبين مرضى الثلاسيميا لدى Indirect SB وغير المباشر Direct SB غير المباشر) ) والعمر لنفس المرضى لتحقيق هذا الغرض SB المباشر و SB) TSB والبليروبين الكلي Hb تم دراسة 43 من مرضى الثلاسيميا (19 اناث و24 ذكور) معدل اعمارهم 4.54±12.61وبمدى عمر 4-22 سنة تضمنت الدراسة ايضا 31 شخصا من الاصحاء ( 12 اناث و19 ذكور) معدل اعمارهم 5.36± 11.55 قيس مستوى البلروبين الكلي في المصل (المباشر وغير المباشر) بالطريقة اللونية اخذت كمجموعة سيطرة للمرضى مقارنة بالاصحاء (مجموعة TSB) قي مستوى البلروبين الكلي P<0.001 بينت النتائج زيادة معنوية اظهر تحليل الارتباط (P<0.01) بصورة ملحوظة Hb الهيموغلوبين انخفضت مستويات السيطرة ) بينما Indirect SB, (r= 0.48 P< 0.01) Direct SB علاقات ارتباطية معنوية طردية متزايدة مع العمر لكل من (r= -0.33, P< 0.05), Direct SBلكل من بينما العلاقة الارتباطية سالبة وعكسية, (0.53, P< 0.01) مع مستوى الهيموغلوبين. الاستنتاج: ان ارتفاع مستوى البيلروبين (r= -0.75, P< 0.0001) Indirect SB الكلي في مرضى الثلاسيميا وعلاقته العكسية مع مستوى الهيموغلوبين تعتبر دليل جيد على وجود فقرالدم .

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TSB --- Thalassemia --- Anemia


Article
Cole- Cole Diagrams of GexS1-x Thin Films

Authors: Bushra A.Hasan --- Issam M. Ibrahim
Pages: 84-100
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The germanium sulfide GexS1-xthin films with different germanium concentration (0.1 0.2,and0.3) weight %have been prepared by thermal evaporation under vacuum of (10 -5 Toor) with thickness (0.15µm ) at room and annealed at( 373and 423K). Measurements of The dielectric properties are carried out over frequency range (102-107 Hz) for all the prepared films .It was found that all samples displayed dielectric dispersion thus the curves log ε1 versus log w, log ε2 versus log w gave direct evidence of the existence of Debye-type relaxation have a wide distribution of relaxation times. The results show that distribution parameters (α ) decreases while microscopic relaxation time (τ0 )increases with the increasing of germanium content and temperature of thermal treatment . The dielectric constant ε1 decreases sharply with the increasing of germanium content in the prepared GexS1-x films .


Article
Determination of alpha particles concentrations in blood Samples taken from area situated in Anbar governorate by using nuclear track detector (CR-39)
حساب تراكيز مطلقات الفا في نماذج الدم لمناطق مختلفة من محافظة الانبار باستخدام كاشف الأثر النووي (CR-39)

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The aim of the present work is to determine the alpha particles concentration in the human blood samples emitted from the radioactive elements (radio nuclides) (U-238,Th-232, Ra-226 and Po-218) in blood samples by using nuclear track detector (CR-39) from area situated in Anbar governorate (AL-Falluja, ,AL-Ramadi,AL-Kalidyi). The results obtained have shown that the highest average alpha particles concentration in blood samples was found in AL-Falluja region which was (0.136 ppm), while the lowest average alpha particles concentration was found in AL-Ramadi region which was (0.075 ppm) .الهدف من البحث الحالي هو حساب تراكيز مطلقات ألفا في نماذج دم بشري باستخدام تقنية عد آثار جسيمات ألفا المنبعثة من نماذج دم بشري للنوى المشعة ( (Po-218,Ra-226,Th-232,U-238في كاشف الأثر النووي (CR-39) ولمناطق مختلفة من محافظة الانبار وهي (الفلوجة ,الرمادي, ,الخالدية) . وقد أوضحت النتائج التي حصلنا عليها أن أعلى معدل لتركيز مطلقات ألفا في الدم في منطقة الفلوجة حيث بلغت التركيز (0.136 ppm) , بينما اقل معدل لتركيز مطلقات ألفا في الدم كان في منطقة الرمادي (0.075 ppm).

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Article
Stopping power and phase shift for slow ions in an electron gas

Authors: Sana Thamer Kadhem --- Saher Mezeher Meteshar
Pages: 111-128
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The results of the stopping power and the Fermi – level phase shifts are presented for slow ions moving with velocity smaller than Fermi velocity in an electron gas. The calculations are made based on nonlinear density functional theory (DFT). For slow ion the interaction of the ion – electron gas occurs via scattering at the Fermi surface and can be codified in phase shifts at the Fermi energy leading to scattering cross sections and energy loss. The phase shift was computed using the single particle wave functions using the density functional method. The single particle wave functions are used to calculate the ground – state density of the electron. Further, nonlinear – phase shift results of stopping power are also calculated in classical and quantum mechanics taking into consideration the effective charge . إن نتائج قدرة الإيقاف وفرق الطور عند مستوي فيرمي قد بينت للايونات . البطيئة المتحركة بسرعة اقل من سرعة فيرمي في الغاز الالكتروني لقد تم إجراء الحسابات بالاعتماد على نظرية الكثافة اللاخطية. فللايونات البطيئة يحصل تفاعل الايون مع إلكترون الغاز بواسطة الاستطارة عند سطح فيرمي والذي يمكن إن ينسق باستخدام فرق الطور عند طاقة فيرمي مؤديا إلى حساب المقطع العرضي للاستطارة والطاقة المفقودة. كذلك تم حساب فرق الطور باستخدام دالة الموجة لجسيم منفرد الذي ينشا من دالة الكثافة والتي تستخدم في حساب كثافة الالكترونات للمستوي الأرضي. إن نتائج فرق الطور قد تم حسابها من النظرية اللاخطية باستخدام الميكانيك الكمي والكلاسيكي مع الأخذ بعين الاعتبار تأثير الشحنة الفعالة.

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Article
A Study the effect the direction of the distribution of lighting to improve Images in different lighting by using technique adaptive histogram equalization
دراسة تأثير اتجاه توزيع الإضاءة على تحسين الصور مختلفة الإضاءة بتقنية معادلة المخطط التكراري

Authors: Salema S.S. Zuheri --- Dr. Ali A. D. Al-Zuky
Pages: 129-151
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We went in this research is to study the effect of the distribution of lighting on the quality of still images under different conditions thereby improving the resulting image of the imaging system using a technique adaptive histogram equalization depending on the space YIQ by depending on Component of lighting only where the use of reverse conversion of this space to the basic space RGB colors and then corrected using the theory based on human vision system. Results were analyzed and measuring of quality improvement by using various statistical criteria based on the expense of Mean, standard deviation and contrast. توجهنا في هذا البحث لدراسة تأثير توزيع الإضاءة على جودة الصور الثابتة تحت شروط مختلفة ومن ثم يتم تحسين الصور الناتجة من منظومة التصوير باستخدام تقنية معادلة المخطط التكراري بالاعتماد على فضاء YIQ عن طريق معالجة مركبة الإضاءة فقط ، اذ تم استخدام التحويل العكسي من هذا الفضاء الى الفضاء الأساسي RGB ثم صححت الألوان باستخدام نظرية تعتمد على نظام الرؤية للإنسان . تم تحليل النتائج وتقديرجودة التحسين باستخدام معاييرإحصائية متعددة تعتمد على حساب المعدل والانحراف المعياري والتباين .

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Article
The Study of Design and Theoretical Considerations of Dusty Plasma Systems
دراسة الاعتبارات التصميمية والنظرية لمنظومات البلازما الغبارية

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In this study we deal with the dusty plasma and calculation of distance and potentials for equilibrium of dust grain between cathode and anode . The theoretical equation of equilibrium has been solved for dusty plasma case , the effect Mach No. with debye length in the plasma medium for silica ( 40 μ m ) grain was discussed . The programming code used for selection the dimensions of design.في هذا البحث تم تناول حسابات المسافة وجهد التوازن حبيبات الدقائق الغبارية على الكاثود والانود وحل المعادلة النظرية الخاصة بالتوازن لحالات البلازما الغبارية وتأثيرها على رقم ماخ الذي يمثل تغير نسبة السرعة المطلوبة ودراسة علاقة طول ديباي مع الوسط البلازمي المختار لحبيبة السليكا ( 40 μm ) وباستخدام برنامج حاسوبي لاختيار الابعاد التصميمة .

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Article
Studying the viscosity effect on excited dimer formation of (2-Methylnaphthalene)
دراسة تأثير اللزوجة على تكوين المعقد الجزيئي لمركب(2- مثيل نفثالين)

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The excimer fluorescence spectra of (2-methylnaphthalene) solution which dissolved in hexane & paraffin as a function of concentration at excitation wavelength (λex= 270nm) was measured & investigated at room-temperature. The quantum yield of monomer & excimer fluorescence ΦFM & ΦFD were calculated from the area under the monomer & excimer fluorescence spectra which is corrected from self-absorption effect. The (half-value) concentration [M]h was measure which is equal to ([M]h= 1.11 mol) for (2MN) in hexane, while (2MN) in paraffin the half-value concentration equal to ([M]h= 1.05), this difference because of solvent viscosity. Other molecular parameter were measured like the molar excimer/monomer fluorescence yield (K), Stern-Volmer (KSV) coefficient & excimer quantum efficiency (qFD) which is equal to (qFD= 0.38) for (2MN) in hexane. (qFD = 0.45) for (2MN) in paraffin. The excimer quantum efficiency is increase with increase viscosity, the rate parameter of excimer formation KDM [M] is inversely proportional to viscosity. تم دراسة و قياس طيف الفلورة لمحلول (2-مثيل نفثالين) المذاب في المذيبات (الهكسان و البراڤين) كدالة للتركيز المولاري و بطول موجي مهيج(λex= 270nm) في درجة حرارة الغرفة. كما تم حساب الناتج الكمي للجزيئة المونمر و الاكسايمر (ΦFD, ΦFM) من تكامل المساحة تحت طيف الفلورة المصحح من ظاهرة الامتصاص-الذاتي. فضلاً عن حساب تركيز النصف [M]h حيث وجد أنه مساوي إلى 1.11 mol)=[M]h ) لمحلول (2-مثيل نفثالين) في الهكسان. أما لمذيب البراڤين فأن [M]h=1.05 mol)). تم حساب بعض المعاملات الجزيئية مثل ناتج فلورة الاكسايمر/المونمر المولاري (K) , معامل Stern-Volmer (KSV) و الكفاءة الاكسايمر الكمية (qFD) حيث وجد أنها تساوي (qFD=0.38) لمحاليل (2-مثيل نفثالين) في الهكسان و تساوي ((qFD=0.45 لمحاليل (2-مثيل نفثالين) في البراڤين حيث نلاحظ أن قيم الكفاءة الكمية تزداد مع زيادة لزوجة المذيب أما ثابت معدل تكوين الاكسايمرKDM[M] فأنه يتناقص مع زيادة لزوجة المذيب.

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Article
Calculations of Delta Mixing Ratios for -Transitions populated in 79Kr Isotope Using a2-Ratio and LSF Methods
حساب نسب الخلط لانتقالات كاما في النظير باستخدام طريقة a2-Ratio و طريقة موائمة أقل المربعات (LSF).

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تم في هذا البحث حساب نسب الخلط لانتقالات كاما المنبعثة بين مستويات الطاقة في النظير . وقد تم استخدام طريقة نسب المعامل a2 وطريقة موائمة اقل المربعات LSF. أظهرت نتائجنا توافقا جيدا مع القيم العملية. إن قيمة نسبة الخلط للانتقال الكامي 284 keV ( ) التي حصلنا عليها غير متوافقة مع النتائج العملية ولكنها تعتبر قيمة مقبولة إذا أخذنا نسبة الخطأ فيها.

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Article
Stopping power and phase shift for slow ions in an electron gas

Authors: Sana Thamer Kadhem --- Saher Mezeher Meteshar
Pages: 237-248
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Abstract

The results of the stopping power and the Fermi – level phase shifts are presented for slow ions moving with velocity smaller than Fermi velocity in an electron gas. The calculations are made based on nonlinear density functional theory (DFT). For slow ion the interaction of the ion – electron gas occurs via scattering at the Fermi surface and can be codified in phase shifts at the Fermi energy leading to scattering cross sections and energy loss. The phase shift was computed using the single particle wave functions using the density functional method. The single particle wave functions are used to calculate the ground – state density of the electron. Further, nonlinear – phase shift results of stopping power are also calculated in classical and quantum mechanics taking into consideration the effective charge .

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Article
Off-Line Arabic Signature Recognition Based On Invariant Moments Properties

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The signature recognition process is special case of handwritten recognition. The process includes many complexity, where the signature is a dynamic feature that affected by many operators like psychology, the kind of pen and paper and other operators. In this paper, a number of persons were selected to use their signature as a database for the work. Six signatures were taken from each person through two separated period of time using the same pen and paper. The adopted method consists of three main steps. In the first step, the digital image of the signature transformed into contours. After that the main contours were extracted and the noise was rejected. These extracted contours and their dimensions were measured precisely according to their (x) and (y) axis. Second step is the coding step, where the (Chain Code) method was used to code the extracted contour from the first step, converted them into vectors in which they are very easy to deal with. Using length of the vectors were sorted descending by that can be easily used in comparison process. The third (final) step includes application of the (Invariant Moments) method with these chain vectors and the calculated mean of the output for the five signatures taken for each signer and used it as a reference feature for the signer in the recognition process. The signature recognition process completed using the (Minimum Distance) method as a classifier to identify the personal signature.

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Article
دراسة ساينوبتيكية للأمطار في العراق باستخدام بيانات الأقمار الاصطناعية

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Rain is the one of most important meteorological parameter and the most parameter that varies in space and time. Because of the climate change of the Earth that occurred particularly during the second half of the past century, the precipitation patterns has been change and many areas has been suffering from water recourses shortage, and many of these areas droughted and became desert. For these reasons, there has been an increasing interests in the climate researches, especially those concerning rain. In addition, the industrial developments lead to more sophisticates measuring instruments and today it is possible measure rainfall rate with radars and satellites. The aim of this research is study the synoptic situation of rainfall over Iraq using satellite data. To carry out this research, rainfall and meteorological parameters extracted from satellite images provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) for the period ١٩٩٨ – ٢٠٠٨ were used. To verify the NCEP rainfall data, they were compared with corresponding data recorded by the Iraqi Meteorological Organization (IMO) and by the National Aeronautic and Space Agency (NASA). The results indicated that the values of rainfall from the three sources were very closes with a correlation coefficients of ٠.٩٧١ between IMO and NCEP data, ٠.٩٦١ between IMO and NASA, and ٠.٩٦٦ between NCEP and NASA. Results of data analysis showed that the low pressure systems over Iraq were characterized by an atmospheric pressure of ٨٠٠ to ٨٤٠ mb, relative vorticity of (١.٢ x ١٠-١ to ٣ x ١٠-٥ s-١), vertical velocity of (- ٠.٢٥ to -٠.٤ Pa/s), and wind speed of (٤ to ٦ m/s). The results also illustrated that Mediterranean low pressure system is more effective than the Sudani low pressure system in producing rain storms over Iraq and surrounding regions and the most frequent occurrence of Mediterranean low rain storms occurred during the month of April, and most frequent occurrence of Sudani low rain storms occurred during the month of January. In general, rain storms in Iraq occurred more frequently during the months of January to May that during the months of October to December.

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Article
علاقة مستوى التكثيف الرفعي مع درجة الحرارة والرطوبة النسبية لمدينة بغداد

Authors: رؤى مازن ابراهيم
Pages: 289-299
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The study of lifted condensation level (LCL) has been given a clear idea about the momentum of the energy in convective cloud , that help an air parcel to rise upward from the surface that happen either by mountains or rising of an air parcel upward from the surface. The goal of this research is to increase the knowledge for what happening from thermodynamics and dynamics processes inside the cloud. By fixating on some climatic elements like (temperature and relative humidity) which they have great impact on the quality and quantity and period of precipitation. In this study calculation the LCL for (٢٠٠٢),for four main times (٠٠:٠٠,٠٦:٠٠,١٢:٠٠,١٨:٠٠ GMT) for Baghdad then select practically months that shown have high quantity of rain (January ,February) . The results shown the proportional relationship between the ( LCL) and temperature ,while it become inversely proportional to relative humidity. In general of the rain in Iraq is convective especially in tow months (January ,February) at where temperature (١٩.٣١Ca) and relative humidity is (٤٨.١٤ %) at the LCL (٥.٦٠ m) this is in January , while in February the temperature become (١٦.٤Ca ) and the relative humidity is (٩٠.٢٨%) and is LCL ( ١٤.٤٣ m) where highest rain be at these values .

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Article
استخدام شبكات بيز الهجينة بدلاً من شبكات بيرت الاحتمالية في حل مشاكل الوقت للمشاريع - تطبيق عملي / لأحدى معامل شركة الصناعات الخفيفة (معمل انتاج الثلاجات عشتار 9 قدم)

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This research deals with new style to find project completion total time, the style is hybrid Bayesian network which is considered as expanded to probabilistic PERT networks, since both styles assuming that time is a random variable, the styles depend upon priority between activities, there is a frequent conditional relation between them , the accomplishing result depends upon the proceeding one and will influence to the next one, so we have to find the conditional distribution for each stage of project, and how to find the marginal function, to get expected time for it. There is a practical application made in “Mild industrial company/ the refrigerators projection factory ASHTAR Refrigerators No.9 is chooses for application.

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Article
Synthesis and Characterization Of Poly( Eugenolyl Acrylate ) and Poly ( P- Styrene Eugenolyl Sulfonate ) and Study of Their Controlled Release Behavior
تحضير وتشخيص بولي (يوجينوليل اكريليت ) وبولي ( بارا - ستايرين يوجينوليل سلفونيت ) ودراسة سلوك التحرر المسيطر عليه

Authors: Khudheyer,J.K. --- Abass N AL-Sharify --- Firyal M .A
Pages: 317-332
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In this paper many types of drug polymers were prepared .Poly(4-eugenolyl styrene sulfonate) N2 was prepared from reaction of poly(4-styrene sulfonyl chloride) N1 with Eugenol and poly(Eugenolyl acrylate) N5 was also prepared from reaction of polyacryloylchloride N4 with Eugenol. The prepared polymers were characterized and identified by IR,UV-spectroscopy .The physical properties and the intrinsic viscosity were measured .The drug releasing was studied with different PH media. Eugenol has the ability to relieve pain of irritated or diseased tooth .


Article
Preparation of Condensed Polymers of Sulfonated Aminoacids with Benzidine.
تحضير البوليمرات التكاثفية للحوامض الامينية المسلفنة مع البنزدين

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In this paper many new condensed polymers were synthesized from reaction of sulfonated amino acids such as histidine, alanine and asparging with benzidine. The new condensed polymers were characterized by FTIR and UV. spectroscopy. The physical properties were measured, and the swelling % were studied with different non solvents. The intrinsic viscosity was measured by Ostwald-viscometer, using DMF as a solvent The TGA and DTA were studied. The high softening points were measured for all condensed polymers which have higher than 240 OC. The controlled release were studied in different pH values at 37 0C. The inserted moiety units of sulfonated aminoacids could enhanced the biocompatibility, bioactivity and biodegradability properties for these prepared biomaterials polymers, and the incorporation of aminoacids through backbone of the condensed polymers.

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Article
Synthesis, structural characterization, and biological activity of a silver (I) thiosemicarbazides complex and new ligands of thiadiazole, triazole and oxadiazole derived from isonicotinoyl chloride
تحضير ، ودراسة وبايولوجية لمعقدات ايون الفضة ( I ) مع الثايوسميكاربازايد وتحضي مشتقات جديدة لحلقات غير متجانسة للثايودايزول ، والترايزول ، والاوكسادايوزول

Authors: صفاء ابراهيم قادر
Pages: 344-365
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In this work isonicotinoyl chloride (1) was prepared from isonicotinic acid & thionyl chloride, and then converted into the isonicotinoyl hydrazide (2) and isonicotinoyl thiosemicarbazide (3). Treatment of compound (2) with (HCl/NH4SCN) or (KOH/CS2) or phenyl isothiocyanate gave isonicotinoyl thiosemicarbazide (3), 2- thiol-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (4) and 1-isonicotinoyl-4-phenyl thiosemicarbazide (5) which upon refluxing with (NaOH) yielded the corresponding 3-thiol-4-phenyl-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole (6). Compound (4) thiol`s group is converted into hydroxyl group by treating with (H2O2/NaOC2H5) giving the compound 2-hydroxy- 5-(4- pyridyl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol (7). Reaction of isonicotinoyl thiosemicarbazide (3) with (NaOH) or cold conc. (H2SO4) leads to ring closure giving 2-thiol-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-triazol (8) and 2-amino- 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol (9). Complex (C3 and C5) were prepared from compounds (3 and 5) with silver nitrate. Compound and complex structures were characterized by IR, U.V spectra, and elemental analysis. Structural studies of complexes (C3 and C5) showed that the silver ion is four-coordinated with a square planar environment. Finally the biological activity of the synthesized compounds upon E.coli were evaluated. The ligands and complexes were found sensitive.


Article
Substituted Polyitaconicacid with Different Amines as Biodegradable Polymers.

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New biodegradable poly itaconic acid which substituted with different primary amines such as 4-aminopyridine,2-amino pyrimidine, 2-amino naphthol, amoxilline, cephalexine. All the prepared polymers were characterized by IR.,UV. Spectroscopy, thermal analysis, chemical tests, C.H.N analysis and physical properties were studied, and the intrinsic viscosities were determined at 30ºC. The swelling % of the prepared polymers were calculated. We concluded from all the results that the inserted different units as a pendant groups which enhanced the biodegradable and biocompatible behaviors of the prepared polymers.

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Article
MSM-Photodetectors Based on AlxGa1-xN/GaN Heterostructures Grown on Si(111) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Wisam Jaafer Aziz
Pages: 378-387
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This research has been fabricated and studied the structural, optical and electrical characterization of photo-detectors of AlxGa1-xN based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) grown on Si (111) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) are presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the sample I (Al0.24Ga0.76N/GaN) and sample II (Al0.43Ga0.57N/GaN) were epitaxially grown on Si substrates. FWHM for samples I and II were equal to 0.69 and 0.65o respectively. The Schottky barrier height and ideality factor for samples I and II were equal to 0.60, 0.67 eV and 1.29, 1.32 respectively. Maximum peak responsivity for sample I was 0.123 A/W at 305 nm and for sample II, maximum peak responsivity was 0.864 A/W at 275 nm. في هذا البحث تم صناعة ودراسة الخصائص التركيبية, البصرية والكهربائية لكواشف ضوئيه (معدن- شبه موصل- معدن ) مصنوعه من تركيبة ثلاثية AlxGa1-xN على اساس سليكون (111) صنعت بواسطة منظومة البناء .(PA-MBE) قياسات أشعة اكس اظهرت البناء الدقيق والمنظم للعينات I (Al0.24Ga0.76N/GaN) و II (Al0.43Ga0.57N/GaN) ذات الاساس السليكوني. FWHM للعينات I و II كان 0.69 و 0.65 على التوالي. ارتفاع حاجز شوكلي كان eV 0,60 و 0,67 على التوالي و المعامل المثالي 1,29 و 1,32 على التوالي. أعلى قمة للاستجابة للعينة I كانت A/W0,123 في nm 305 وللعينه II كانت A/W 0,864 في nm 275 .

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Article
Experimental and analytical investigation of pressure Drop and void fration for vertical downward Two - phase (Annular) flow in large diameter pipe
دراسة تحليلية وعملية لتغير الضغط ونسبة الفراغ لجريان العمود النازل ثنائي الطور لأنبوب كبير القطر

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An experimental and an analytical in co-current downward two-phase (Annular) flow was preformed . The results of observation of flow rates , void fraction and pressure drop in annular flow pattren were presented. Air-water mixture were used in transport test-section of 7.35 cm I.D. and 3.25 m length with operation condition of 36-42 Cº temperature and 129 Kpa and 143 Kpa pressure .Void fraction was measured locally by using a new method which is Auto-transformer technique .The experimental results of pressure drop was compared very well with analytical results presented .

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Article
Estimation of the poisoning with some metals in Diala Region Samera H. Hamad
تقدير التسمم ببعض العناصر في منطقة جسر ديالى

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In this study many elements were detected (chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and lead) in daily using water. Water samples were taken from wells that excavated in many regions of Diala Bridge (first region [Al- Difafaa], middle region [Al-Reath] and the last region which means [Al- Ereffea]), many water samples were also collected from homes wells which are used for washing, cleaning and many other uses, blood samples from the populations who used this water were also collected to detect the same elements in it. It was found that many regions have high levels from some elements, also the concentrations of some sera elements increased compared to normal values.

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Article
Cole- Cole Diagrams of GexS1-x Thin Films

Authors: Bushra A.Hasan --- Issam M. Ibrahim
Pages: 418-432
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The germanium sulfide GexS1-xthin films with different germanium concentration (0.1 0.2,and0.3) weight %have been prepared by thermal evaporation under vacuum of (10 -5 Toor) with thickness (0.15μm ) at room and annealed at( 373and 423K). Measurements of The dielectric properties are carried out over frequency range (102-107 Hz) for all the prepared films .It was found that all samples displayed dielectric dispersion thus the curves log 1 versus log w, log 2 versus log w gave direct evidence of the existence of Debye-type relaxation have a wide distribution of relaxation times. The results show that distribution parameters ( ) decreases while microscopic relaxation time (0 )increases with the increasing of germanium content and temperature of thermal treatment . The dielectric constant 1 decreases sharply with the increasing of germanium content in the prepared GexS1-x films .


Article
Preparation of Sulfonamide Derivatives of Phenolic Resins

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In this paper the phenol formaldehyde resin was sulfonated by using chlorosulfonic acid at oc then the sulfonated phenol formaldehyde was modified to its corresponding sulfonamide using different amines such as 4-amino pyridine,2-amino pyrimdine, benzidine, 2,¯2,5,ˉ5- tetramethyl benzidine and amoxilline. The different derivatives were characterized by FT-IR and UV. spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis was measured , and physical properties were measured and the rate of hydrolysis of sulfonamide for amoxilline derivative was studied, therefore it was concluded that the amoxilline sulfonamide phenol formaldehyde resin could be possibly used as antimicrobial material for hospitals equipments and other applications.

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Article
Optimal Estimation of Critical Angle for the Wind Power (Energy) to Generate High Electrical Power in Baghdad City
تخمين الزاوية الحرجة المثلى لطاقة الرياح لتوليد أعلى قدرة كهربائية في مدينة بغداد

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The wind energy is regarded one of the important renewed energies invested by man from ancient time to execute some of his works and he is still challenging and continuing in finding the best techniques to exploit as much as he could and consider them a new source for the renewed energy to meet his requirements. The aim of the research is to estimate the usability of the wind energy to get high efficient of electrical power in Baghdad city through the analyzing the impact of some explanative variables ( Mean Temp. , High Temperatures , Time of High Temperatures Registration , Low Temperatures , Time of Low Temperatures Registration , Heat Degree Days , Cool Degree Days , Rain , Average Wind Speed , High Wind Speed , and Time of High Wind Speed Registration ) on the function of Dom. Dir. in the studied area in period ( 1/1/2009 – 31/12/2009 ) through transforming in angler form on the circumference of the presumptive circle starting with zero degree in front of the north pole with a clockwise to enabling of applied the Model of predicting optimal critical angle estimate/or obtaining the best electrical power through using the Multiple Linear Regression Model , which is for the first time as far ( as we know ). Some recommendations and suggestions were given.


Article
Study the Characteristic of the Coupling Parameter ( Г ) in Dusty Plasma by Computer modeling

Authors: Bayan G. Ali --- Hamid H. Murbat
Pages: 467-477
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Computer modeling has been used to investing the Coulomb coupling parameter Г. The effects of the structure parameter K, grain charge Z, plasma density N, temperature dust grain Td, on the Coulomb coupling parameter had been studied. It was seen that the Γ was increasing with increasing Z and N, and decrease with increasing K and T. Also the critical value of Γ that the phase transfer of the plasma state from liquid to solid was studied.


Article
Effect of the Direct Current Modulation on the Relaxation Oscillation and Turn-on Delay for a QWL In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs

Authors: Nabiel M. Naser --- Saman Q. Mawlud --- Mazin S. Othman
Pages: 478-488
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In this paper the basic physical aspects of laser diode modulation and the operating principles of the laser modulation were described. The direct modulation characteristics of a quantum well laser diode (QWL) In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs is investigated theoretically using computer program to simulate the optical output of a semiconductor laser subjected to current modulation. The specific laser device output characteristics for threshold current of 8.25 mA and the slope efficiency 1.13 W/A were obtained. The effect of the DC current on the turn-on delay and the relaxation oscillation frequency as a function of the DC current for a variable number of biasing bits were studied, it was obtained that the relaxation oscillation reaches a GHz region and the turn-on delay will limited between 0-1nsec.


Article
Synthesis of New Proline Derivatives

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Reaction of Proline with acetic anhyhride gave compound (A1), which upon treatment with hydrazine afforded The lactame (A2). The reaction of (A2) with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid, obtained diazonium Salt in good Yield. Then, diazonium Salt has bean treated with secondary amines and with ethylacetoacetate to give compounds (A3-A5) and compound (A6) respectively Compound A6 could be cyclised by hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine to give A7 and A8 Upon The reaction of A2 with aldehyde, Schiff's bases were obtained in a good yield (A9-A13).The structure of the synthesized compounds have been elucidated by physical and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, C.H.N. analysis

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Article
Interference function effect when dicluster hydrogen ion interaction with solid matter with no damping

Authors: Saher Mazeher Matesher
Pages: 497-508
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This research discuss interaction of dicluster hydrogen ions with solid matter with no damping. its study traveling dicluster through solid targets (Se,Ag,Ge,Cs). we canvas interference function (vicinage function) of dicluster hydrogen ions at high and low velocities and we study the effect of wigner-seitz radius (density parameter rs) on vicinage function (interference function) under different adverb. this research give detailed studying about interference effect of dicluster hydrogen ions at its traveling through solid matter .

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Article
Estimation of Radiation levels due to Organic Agricultural Fertilizers

Authors: A. H. Farhan --- H. H. Hussain
Pages: 509-521
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The usage of organic fertilizers in Iraq is increased because of the land reclamation and agriculture activities. The ore of some organic fertilizers contains various a mounts of natural radioactive elements such as 238U, 232Th and 40K. For this reason, organic fertilizers are considered one of many sources of radionuclide and radioactivity in the environment. So, it becomes necessary to study the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). In order to assess the level index for organic fertilizers, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl) detector. The results show that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K are (11.53-68.71 Bq/kg), (10.78-52.33 Bq/kg) and (165.21- 3592.78 Bq/kg) respectively. The radium equivalent activity were also calculated and found to vary from (155.40-2842.86 Bq/kg), the radium equivalent activities were lower the world average in eight samples. In general, the results indicated that the highest level of radium equivalent activity was in animal organic fertilizers. The level index of organic fertilizers was calculated and the maximum value of level index is 2.91 which is found in local animal organic fertilizer, while the minimum value is 0.3 which is found in imported plant organic fertilizer.


Article
دراسة خاصية التوصيل الحراري في ظروف مختلفة لمواد متراكبة دقائقية

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Study the evaluation of coefficient of thermal conductivity for different composite materials based on polymeric (unsaturated polyester) with glass powder (flint), Calcium Carbonate (CaCo3) and magnesium oxide (MgO) with volume fraction (30%) using hand lay- up technique in preparation of moldes. Study included also the variation of thermal conductivity (k) in different conditions (heat to 40C∘ and 50C∘ and also immersion in water for 60 days تم في هذا البحث دراسة تغير معامل التوصيل الحراري لنماذج من مواد متراكبة مبنية على اساس بوليمري من مادة البولي استر المشبع والمدعم بدقاق من مادة مسحوق الزجاج (flint) وكاربونات الكالسيوم ( CaCo3) واوكسيد المعنيسيوم (MgO) وبكسر حجمي (Vf 30%) تم استخدام طريقة القولبة اليدوية في تحضير العينات وشملت الدراسة التعرف على قيم معامل التوصيل الحراري للنماذج الثلاثة في ظروف درجة حرارة المختبر والتسخين بدرجة حرارة 40C∘ و50C∘ وبعد الغمر في الماء لمدة 60 يوم وكانت النتائج تشير الى زيادة قيم معامل التوصيل الحراري بعد التسخين والغمر في الماء.

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Article
Modification of Polyvinylpyrrolidinon With 4-Aminoantipyrine As Drug Polymer

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In this work a new drug polymer was prepared from reaction of PVP with 4-aminoantipyrine as antibiotic in 10:1 dioxane :DMF solvent mixture. The prepared drug polymer was formed with 72% conversion percentage. The physical properties were studied and intrinsic viscosity was equal to 0.83 dl/g. The drug polymer was characterized by FTIR and UV. Spectroscopy. The swelling % were studied in different non solvents. The C,H,N analysis and T.G were analyzed. The controlled release rates for drug polymer were studied in different pH value at 30C0 for 4days. The softening point of the prepared 4-aminoantipyrine drug polymer was 212-220 C0.

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Article
Synthesis and Characterization Complexes of 2-Thiotolylurea with Matel Salts.
تحضير وتشخيص معقدات2- ثايوتوليل يوريا مع ايونات ثنائية الشحنة

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Complexes of some metal ions with 2-thiotolylurea were prepared in ethanolic medium using (1:1) (Metal : Ligand) ratio yielded series of neutral complexes as the general formula [M(L)Cl2]. The prepared complexes were identified by atomic absorption FT.IR, UV-Visble spectra, molar conductivity and magnetic properties. From the above data the tetrahedral structure was suggested for all complexes يتضمن هذا البحث تحضير وتشخيص معقدات لبعض آيونات الفلزات الثنائية الشحنة مع الليكاند (2- thiotolyl urea) وذلك من خلال مفاعلته مع آيونات المنغنيز , الكوبالت , النيكل , النحاس والزنك الثنائية الشحنة في مذيب الايثانول وبنسبة مولية (1:1) ( فلز : ليكاند) المعقدات المحضرة مواد صلبة بعضها ملون وقد تم تشخيصها بالطرائق المعروفة ومنها الامتصاص الذري وأطياف الأشعة تحت الحمراء والأشعة فوق البنفسجية – المرئية فضلاً عن قياسات الحساسية المغناطيسية والتوصيلية الكهربائية. ومن الدراسات التشخيصية اعلاه امكن اعطاء الصيغة العامة لهذه المعقدات وهي [M(L)Cl2] حيث M تمثل الايون الفلزي الثنائي الشحنة ( ZnII, CuII , NiII, CoII , MnII ) 2- thiotolyurea = L

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Article
Lattice Thermal Conductivity of (CdTe) at a Wide Range of Temperature
التوصيل الحراري الشبيكي لـ ((CdTe في مدى واسع من درجات الحرارة

Authors: Isra'a M.Ali اسراء محمد علي
Pages: 554-571
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In this paper, we have calculated the lattice thermal conductivity for the compound CdTe at a temperature range (1.5-300K) , according to Awad model (Awad's formulas contains the contribution due to the transverse and longitudinal phonons).The study reveals a good agreement between the theatrical and experimental values of the lattice thermal conductivity. The percentage contribution of different phonon scattering relaxation rates in the total phonon scattering relaxation rate calculated for both modes of conduction. The effect of temperature exponent m(T) on the lattice thermal conductivity has been discussed in this paper. Furthermore , it has been found the transverse phonons in general make have the major contribution to the lattice thermal conductivity. Our results are in good agreement with other researchers. في هذا البحث تم حساب التوصيل الحراري الشبيكي للمركب CTde في مدى درجات حرارة (1.5-300) درجة مطلقة ، وفقاً لنموذج عواد (صيغ عواد المتضمنة إسهام الفونونات الطولية والمستعرضة) ، حيث توصلت الدراسة الى تطابق جيد بين القيم النظرية والعملية للتوصيل الحراري الشبيكي. تم حساب الإسهام المئوي المعدل إسترخاء التشتتات الفونونية المختلفة في معدل استرخاء التشتت الفونوني الكلي ولكلا نمطي التوصيل ، كما تم دراسة تأثير دالة الأس الحراري m(T) على التوصيل الحراري الشبيكي . كما وجد ان إسهام الفونونات المستعرضة في التوصيل الحراري اكبر منه في الفونونات الطولية . لقد كانت نتائجنا مطابقة لنتائج باحثين اخرين.


Article
Study the Narrow band pass laser filter

Authors: Hala Fhaker Dagher
Pages: 572-582
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Abstract

This study was made depending on the equivalent theory performance of narrow pass band filter. This paper studies the equivalent refractive index (N) and the equivalent thickness (Г) to the symmetric arrangements which consists of two materials containing three layers arranged as multilayer: (LHL) & (HLH). The wavelength of the laser which is modified with multilayer filter is (λ0=625nm) containing of materials arranged symmetrically. اعتمادا على النظرية المكافئةلأداء فلتر ضيق حزمة العبور تمت هذه الدراسة. تم في هذا البحث دراسة معامل الانكسار المكافئ (N) والسمك المكافئ (Г) للترتيب المتناسق الذي يشتمل على مادتين تحتوي على ثلاث طبقات مرتبة بشكل متعدد الطبقات (LHL) &(HLH). ان الطول الموجي لليزر المعدل بفلتر متعدد الطبقات هو (λ0=625nm) اذ يحتوي على مواد مرتبة بشكل متماثل.

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Article
Synthesis and characterization of new 1,3-Oxazol-5-(4H)-one derivatives

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Abstract

New 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-one (3a – b) was synthesized by cyclization of [(Pyridyl-3-yl-carbonyl)amino]acetic acid (2). The starting were readily obtained by acylation of 2-amino acetic acid (Glycine) with nicotinoyl chloride. Imidazole was synthesized by reaction of compounds (3a - b) with hydrazine hydrate (99%). Compounds (4a - b) were converted into a variety of derivatives. All new compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy.حضرت مركبات جديده لمركب 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-one(3a – b) بواسطه الغلق الحلقي لمركب [(Pyridyl-3-yl-carbonyl)amino]acetic acid (2) المركب الاساس حضر من تفاعل الحامض الاميني الكلايسين مع كلوريد النيكوتينويل. مركبات الاميدزول (4a - b ) حضرت من تفاعل المركبات((3a - b مع الهيدرازين المائي (99%) بقية المشتقات حضرت من المشتقات (4a – b) شخصت المشتقات المحضره بواسطه الطرائق الطيفيه (FTIR, HNMR).

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Table of content: volume: issue:6