Table of content

Karbala Journal of Medicine

مجلة كربلاء الطبية

ISSN: 19905483
Publisher: Kerbala University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Karbala Journal of Medicine is a four monthly published journal issued by Karbala college of Medicine.The Journal accepts original articles, case reports, and letters to editors in all fields of medicine from all parts of the world. Review articles of high standards are also considered in this journal. All articles and manuscripts must be in english ,only the abstract must be in arabic and english.Papers are accepted, on understanding that the content has not been published in a whole or in part by other journals. The papers are subject to editorial revision, and the editor is responsible for the order of publication.Manuscripts are only accepted on the understanding that the author will permit editorial amendments, though proofs will always be submitted to the corresponding author before being sent finally to press. The Journal is peer- reviewed and each article is sent to two evaluators of the same specialty in addition to statistical and design review by expert statistician.
Date of first issue(2009)
No: of issue per year(4)
No. of pages per issue(120)
No. of issue published between 2009-2012) is(16)

Loading...
Contact info

Journal e-mail:karbalamedj@yahoo.com, karbalamedj@uokerbala.edu.iq
editor e-mail:dr.mohma.med.school@gmail.com
mobile: 07801363988

Table of content: 2008 volume:2 no.4, 5 issue:3

Article
Molecular Detection of Some Mutations Associated with Βeta-Thalassaemia in Iraq

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

the study was carried out in period between “1 August 2005 to 30 of December 2006”. Blood samples of 80 clinically thalassaemic patients were collected from three thalassaemia centers in Iraq, namely: Ibn Albalady central thalassaemia center in Baghdad, and also from Kerbalaa and Al-Qadissya governorates. Blood samples were also collected from 56 apparently healthy individuals to serve as a control group. DNA was isolated from blood and used for molecular detection of seven types of β-thalassaemia mutations (IVS1 nt.1 G--A , IVS1nt.5 G--C, IVS1 nt.6 T--C, IVS1 nt.110 G --A, codon 39 C--T, IVS2 nt.1G--A, and IVS2 nt.745 C--G) using the PCR based technique called ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutation System). Five out of seven of these diagnosed mutations were reported for the first time in Iraq, and the most frequent β-thalassaemia mutations were codon 39 and IVS1 nt.110 with the proportions (26.76%) and (20.34%), respectively. No IVS2nt.745 was detected within the studied samples. Genotypic distribution of the samples indicated that there is no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the frequency of homozygotes and heterozygotes within patient group, while there is a significant difference at (P < 0.01) in comparison with the control group. The study of association between the number and the types of mutations revealed that 28(58%) of positive cases have single mutation in a homozygous state or heterozygous state which significantly associated at (P < 0.05) with β-thalassaemia mutations, whereas 20(42%) of these cases have compound mutations. The most frequent association appeared between IVS1 nt.110 and Codon 39 mutations. Finally, mutations within families, pointed to a positive correlation between the types of mutations in sons or daughters and their fathers and/or mothers; this indicates the accuracy of the ARMS technique in detection of β-thalassaemia mutations. This conclusion should be taken with caution due to the limited number of families.

Keywords

Beta-thalassaemia --- mutation --- ARMS-PCR --- Iraq


Article
Prevalence and Severity of Mitral Valve Regurgitation in Patients with Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

background: Functional mitral regurgitation may develop in patients with congestive heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction, which is common, costly and lethal syndrome. Echo-Doppler is an extremely sensitive tool for the detection of mitral regurgitation. Objective: To determine the prevalence and severity of functional mitral regurgitation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction using echocardiography. B Setting : Al-Hussain Hospital echocardiography clinic in Karbala city. Methods: One hundred sixty patients were divided into two groups: Group A: constituted of 80 consecutive patients who had a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and group B: constituted of 80 consecutive patients who had a left ventricular ejection fraction >40%.The study patients underwent standard echocardiogram. Severity of mitral regurgitation was graded as mild, moderate and severe. Results: In patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (group A), mitral regurgitation was more common. It was mild in 22.5%, moderate in 52.5% and severe in 21.25%. Conclusion: The majority of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction had mitral regurgitation .Echo-Doppler should be included in the evaluation of these patients.

Keywords


Article
A Comparative Study of Two Different Methods for Episiotomy Repair

Authors: Al-Khafaji, Z. H. H.
Pages: 280-288
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of using (vicryl) thread material by subcuticular technique for repair of episiotomy and compare it with the standard method that use (catgut) by interrupted mattress technique. Design: A Karbala J. Med. Vol.2, No.4,5 July 2008 randomized controlled study based in hospital. Setting: Labour ward at AL-Zahraa maternity & pediatric teaching hospital at AL-Najaf city. O Population: 300 women who have undergo vaginal delivery with episiotomy. Methods: • The study was conducted at maternity and pediatric hospital in Al-Najaf city from the first of march 2005 to the end of January 2006 . • The study included women attending labour ward in the hospital for vaginal delivery with episiotomy (total no. 300 women) • Women with the following criteria were excluded from this study :

Keywords


Article
ß - Lactamase Producing Bacteria Isolated From Patients Infected With Otitis Media

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the relation between the causative agents of otitis media and the parameter related to the patients (e.g., gender, age) the criteria of causative agents include type of bacteria, growth conditions, susceptibility to antibiotics, and the ability to produce ß-lactamase enzymes. A total of 50 ear swabs were obtained from outpatients infected with otitis media. The results showed that Staphylococcus epidermidis (30%) was the predominant pathogens followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%), Proteus mirabilis (8%), and Proteus vulgaris (4%). The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern showed that all bacteria were resistant to cephalothin and moderate resistant to other antibiotics. For detection of ß-lactamase producing bacteria, results showed that Ps. aeruginosa was recorded a high percentage in producing of ß-lactamase enzymes (55.6 %) in comparison with the other bacteria.

Keywords


Article
Flow-Injection and Batch Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Metoclopramide .HCl in Pharmaceutical Formulations

Authors: Hussan, M. J. --- Al-Da'amy, M. A. --- Al-Ameri, S. A
Pages: 295-301
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: This study describes a batch and flow-injection spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Metoclopramide.HCI in aqueous solution and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reaction of Metoclopramide.HCI with ferric nitrate to produce Fe(II) ion which upon further reaction with potassium hexacyanoferrate in acidic medium forms a Prussian blue colored product that has a maximum absorption at 770 nm. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine Metoclopramide.HCI in the range of 0.2-6 μg.ml-1 for the batch spectrophotometric method and 2-80 μg.ml-1 for flow-injection (FI) spectrophotometric method with correlation coefficients of 0.9997 and 0.9999, deletion limits of 0.114 μg.ml-1and 0.700 μg.ml-1, and relative standard deviations of 0.46% and 0.41% respectively. Both procedures were applied to analyze the assay of Metoclopramide.HCI in pharmaceutical preparation with recoveries of 99.46% and 99.85% respectively. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate A simple accurate and sensitive FIA system to determine Metoclopramid.HCL in pharmaceutical preparations.


Article
The Effect of Cinnamon Oil on Multi-Drug Resistant Klebseilla Pneumoniae Strains.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

he study was carried out to assess the effect of cinnamon oil on multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of Klebseilla pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens. 150 specimens were collected from Al-Hakeem Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf Governorate, Karbala J. Med. Vol.2, No.4,5 July 2008 21 isolates were found to be Klebseilla spp. On further study at the species level only six of these isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae. The results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that most of these isolates were highly resistant (resistance percentage was 50-80%) for the used antibiotics, these strains were defined as a multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae. The antimicrobial effect of cinnamon oil on these isolates was tested via performing disk diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests. The results showed a similarity in the antimicrobial actions between this oil and Ceftazidim, Cefotaxim, and Ciprofloxacin in 50% of cases. The study concluded that cinnamon oil could be used as an effective antimicrobial even in case of difficult treated MDR K. pneumoniae as well as it could be used as a safe external ointment in the treatment of infected wounds and vaginal infections.

Keywords


Article
Comparative Study of Internal Fixation for Displaced Closed Fractureof Medial Malleolus Using Malleolar Screw Versus Tension-band Wiring

Authors: Al-Lamy, W. A. --- Al-Obaidy, M. H.
Pages: 308-318
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

in a prospective, randomized trial of 40 patients with displaced closed fracture of medial malleolus at Al-Sader, Al-Hakeem, Al-Manathera & private hospitals in Najaf from March 2005 to March 2008, we compared two methods of internal fixation namely malleolar screw and tension-band wiring. The patients were then allocated to two treatment groups (20 patients in each group). The populations of the groups were similar in age (median 37 years), sex, fracture type (Danis-Weber type B and C), and aetiology (twisting, fall or motor vehicle accident). The patients were evaluated clinically, radiologically, and functionally with follow-up for average of one year. Radiological union took place in the group treated with tension-band (mean time 9.4 weeks) earlier than those treated with malleolar screw (mean time 11.8 weeks) (p=0.03). Excellent and good results were achieved in 80% with malleolar screw fixation and in 90% with tension-band wiring (p=0.049). Although better range of motion was noticed in the group treated with malleolar screw, it did not reach significance level (p=0.628). The preliminary results of the current study suggest that tension-band wiring may be more valid option than malleolar screw for internal fixation of medial malleolar fractures.

Keywords


Article
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy 7 years Experience in Hilla

Authors: Al-Khafaji, M. M. --- Al-Taee, M.
Pages: 319-322
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

objectives: To evaluate the results of patients under went laparoscopic cholecystectomy ,rate of complications and causes of conversion to open cholecystectomy. Memost of them thod: 1200patients operated upon in Al-Hilla teaching hospital from 2000 – 2007 e were female (860) &(340) were male. all operations done under G.A. & using co2 pneumoperitoneum . Results: 44 % of patients were between 41-50 years of age.860 (71.6%) patients were female and 340 (28.4%) patients were male.78.7% of patients presented with chronic calculus chlecystitis and 20.6% of patients presented with acute calculus chlecystitis and 0.58% of patients presented with acute a calculus chlecystitis. Conversion rate was 6.2% (75 patients).The most common cause of conversion was failure to progress due to anatomical variations in 65 patients. Complications occurred in 45 (3.7%) of patients. The most common complication was port site infection in 18 patients. Complete transaction of C.B.D occurred in one patient. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe & minimally invasive procedure. The complication rate is relatively lower than in the open technique in expert hands. During Laparoscopic cholecystectomy we can do diagnostic or exploratory laparoscopy to fined out other things in the patients that can explain the patients symptoms.

Keywords


Article
The Frequency of Circumcision in Infants and Children in Diwaniah

Authors: Al-Shamsi M. M. --- Al-Zamili A. H.
Pages: 323-330
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

background: Circumcision is a central feature of islam and is recommended at an early age. Obfrom 1 day jectives: To determine the frequency of circumcision in male infants and children to more than 6 years of age in Diwaniah. Materials &Methods: Hundred infants and children were randomly selected from each age group of the following : 1-40 days , 41 days-6 months , 6-12 months , 12-18 months , 18 months- 24 months , 25 – 36 months , 37 – 48 months , 49 – 60 months , 61 – 72 months and more than 72 months. The frequency of circumcision was determined in each group together with other variables. Results: Six percent of infants between 1 day – 40 days were circumcised , 13 % of those between 40 days – 6 months. Most circumcisions were done by a male nurse and most of the families of the infants and children think that circumcision is better to be done at an older age group. Conclusion: Sixty two percent of our infants and children up to the age of more than six years are circumcised , there is a need for an extensive education on early circumcision because of outstanding benefits of early circumcision.

Keywords


Article
The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of C-Reactive Protein in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Al-Jashami, M.
Pages: 331-335
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

the aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic and the prognostic value of C-reactive protein in patients with acute myocardial infarction. From October 2005 to October 2007 one hundred patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) in Diwaniya Teaching Hospital were studied regarding the value of C-reactive protein during the first 72 hours of the infarction and through out the period of complications. The results were compared with those obtained from control group which consisted of 30 persons of matched age and sex. We found that the mean serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) of those with AMI was 68mg/L+59.93 and its concentration reaches a peak in all patients in the second day of infarction. The level was significantly higher than the level of CRP in the control group (mean =6mg/L), (p<0.005). We also found that CRP remained persistently high in patients with complicated AMI in comparison with uncomplicated patients. So this study showed that CRP level is useful diagnostically and prognostically in patients with AMI and it is a simple bed side test that it is available in different medical centers.

Keywords


Article
Chilblains in Iraqi patients in Hilla City (Clinical study)

Authors: Mohammed K. Al-Hattab
Pages: 336-344
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

chilblain is a major medical problem in Iraqi population in winter time and the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical patterns of involvement in patients at Hilla city. A total of 60 patients with chilblains were assessed in the department of dermatology in Merjan teaching hospital during the cold months between January 2007 to February 2008. Their ages ranged from 1.5-70 years (mean ± SD, 22.6±13.6 years).The duration of the disease ranged from 2-90 days (mean ±SD, 24.5±20.7 days). There were 40 females (66.6%) and 20 males (33.4٪) with a sex ratio of 2:1. The majority of patients were between 11-30 years of age (71.6%) and females forming about 79.5%, female: male ratio was about 3.8:1. All patients were presented in January and February and the attacks in majority of patients started in December (20 patients) and January (30 patients) forming about 83.3%. Family history in close relatives were positive in 14 patients (23.3 %).Thirty one patients developed similar attacks at previous winters (51.6%). Numbers of previous attack of perniosis / winter were from 1- 215 attacks. Associated systemic and dermatological diseases were: hypertension (3.3%), diabetes mellitus (3.3%), systemic lupus erythematosus (3.3%), pregnancy (3.3%), atopic dermatitis (3.3%), allergic rhinitis (3.3%), anemia (1.6%) and hand eczema (1.6%). Regarding the sites of the lesions, chilblains commonly affected either hands alone (48.3%), feet alone (33.3%) and to a lesser extent both hands and feet (18.3 % ). The feet alone were commonly affected in females (88.2%) while the hands alone in males (60 %). Hands and feet were affected together most commonly in females (91%).Ears, nose and buttock were also affected (1.6%) for each. Clinically, the types of lesions in patients with chilblains were: erythematous cyanotic swelling (81.6%), some with diffuse welling sausage - like (13.3%),erythema multiforme –like picture with target lesions (20 %), purpuric rash (15 %),ulcerated lesions (11.6%), eczematization with fissuring (11.6%),blisters or vesicles (6.6%),dusky red papules (6.6%), lupus erythematosus – like rash on dorsum of the hands (5%) and nodules (3.3%). In Iraq, chilblains clinically could be presented in a form of erythema multiforme-like, erythema nodosum –like, lupus erythematosus-like or sausage-like swelling with cold fingers and toes, pain, tenderness and itching. مرض تشرين ( الشرث ) عند المرضى العراقيين في مدينة الحلة, دراسة سريريه: 70 سنة أي بمعدل 22.6 سنة. وجد - تمت دراسة 60 حالة من المرضى المصابين بمرض تشرين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 1.5 ب

Keywords


Article
Isovolumetric Relaxation Time “IVRT” as an Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function: M-Mode Derived Versus Doppler Derived

Authors: Akeel A. M. Hassan Zwain
Pages: 345-351
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Isovolumetric Relaxation Time” IVRT” may be defined as: That part of the cardiac cycle between the time of aortic valve closure and mitral opening, during which the ventricular muscle decreases its tension without lengthening so that ventricular volume remains unaltered. During this period there is a drastic decrease in ventricular pressure without a change in ventricular volume but prior to mitral valve opening. IVRT can be estimated by M-Mode echocardiography with simultaneous phonocardiography or simply by determining the time interval between the maximal systolic excursion of the left ventricular posterior wall to the onset of mitral valve opening. More recently, Doppler technique has been used to assess not only IVRT but also MPI “Myocardial Performing Index”; comparisons of Doppler IVRT with catheterization measurement of this time period have shown reasonable correlations. Objective: To compare M-Mode derived IVRT with Doppler derived IVRT. Method: The study was performed on healthy individuals of age of 20-55y. Echo-Doppler Siemens V.Plus equipment with phased array 2.5MHz probe and PW or CW facilities was used. A good M-mode image of mitral valve excursion and left ventricular posterior wall systolic excursion was first obtained and the time between the mitral valve opening and the maximal systolic excursion of LV posterior wall was then calculated. Doppler IVRT was obtained by directing the Pulsed or continuous wave beam from apical 5 chamber view across the region between the aortic out flow tract and the mitral inflow tract. The spectral wave form obtained in this position should include aortic valve flow with valve closure and the onset of mitral inflow with E/A configuration. In this spectrum the aortic closure- mitral opening interval can be determined. Results & conclusion: There was no significant difference between M-mode derived IVRT and Doppler derived IVRT. Since the later has been validated on the ground of correlation with catheterization, thus it seems feasible to use either techniques to assess LV diastolic function.

Keywords


Article
Hypothyroidism in Adults Early Clinical Presentation in Relation to Age

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Background: Hypothyroidism in adults is not a rare disease but has non –specific clinical presentation which may delay its diagnosis. Objective: the aim of the study is to identify the presenting symptoms of hypothyroidism, their frequency & their relation to age. Patients & Method : All adult patients > over 18 years of age who attended the consultation clinic, in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital / Karbala, from January 2002 to December 2007 showing clinical features suggestive of hypothyroidism were sent for T3, T4 & TSH. Results: Sixty eight patients were found to have hypothyroidism, 52 females & 16 males (F/M ratio 4.7:1). Seventy percent of the group are less than 55 yr of age, their mean age is 42.3 yr. Malaise & arthralgia were the main complaints especially in those aged 55year & over (69% & 25%) respectively while skin changes were the main early physical signs in those less than 55yr of age (26%). Discussion: Hypothyroidism is a disease which may present in a nonspecific clinical picture such as malaise or fatigability especially in elderly or skin changes in young age group or as menstrual irregularities in young females. Conclusion: High index of suspicion is the main initial tool for diagnosis of hypothyroidism & should be considered in any elderly patient with unexplained malaise or fatigability or in young females with unexplained menstrual irregularities. To look for other physical symptoms & signs in those patients which may mandate sending them for thyroid function test or at least only TSH level.


Article
Wilms' Tumor Complicating Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney (MCDK)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

a 3-year old girl was diagnosed to have bilateral vesicoureteric reflux since the age of 1 year, proved to have Wilms' tumor complicating multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK).

Keywords


Article
Isolated Unilocular Renal Hydatid Cyst

Authors: Fuad F. Alzubaidy
Pages: 361-365
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Hydatid disease is endemic in many parts of the world. The location of the cyst is mostly hepatic (75 %) and pulmonary (15 %), and only 10 % of the cysts occur in the rest of the body. Although hydatidosis can be present in all parts of the body, urinary tract involvement develops in only 2-4 % of all cases, and isolated renal cysts are extremely rare. There are no specific clinical symptoms or signs that will reliably confirm the diagnosis of renal echinococcosis. In addition, there is no laboratory finding that is pathognomonic for hydatid disease except for hydatiduria. Routine blood tests are generally normal except for eosinophilia which is found in only 50 % of the cases. Radiological studies have a more important place in the preoperative diagnosis of renal hydatid disease. We present herein a patient with isolated renal hydatid disease presented as left upper quadrant mass treated successfully with complete excision of the cyst and preservation of the kidney.

Keywords


Article
Effect of Caffeine in Genetic and Cancer (review article)

Authors: Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL-Janabi
Pages: 366-369
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

affeine is one of purine compounds which occur naturally in different species of plants such as: tea, coffee and cacao plants. DNA synthesis and replication are affected by caffeine through different methods and these will lead to exhibition of more than one effect in cell division. Caffeine has not proved to have a mutagenic effect, but it prevents the action of mutagenic compounds. Harmful activity of UV is blocked by caffeine when it is added to the treated cells with UV light. Furthermore, caffeine is not found to have a chief role in the conversion normal cells to cancer state, but, in fact, it has a reflexive action when it prevents the carcinogenic compounds to effect on cell division.

Keywords


Article
journal harvest

Pages: 370-370
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Keywords


Article
news

Pages: 371-371
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Keywords


Article
بمذيب الكحول الأثيلي Elettaria Cardamomum دراسة تأثير مستخلص الهيل في الزجاج Hep- على خطوط الخلايا السرطانية 2

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

الخلاصة بعدد من المذيبات العضوية، ودراسة Elettaria Cardamomum تم استخلاص المكونات النباتية الفعالة لثمارنبات الهيل .HEp- تأثير تلك المستخلصات في خطوط الخلايا السرطانية نوع - 2 استخلصت من ثمار نبات الهيل مجموعة من المستخلصات استعمل منها مذيب الكحول الأثيلي المطلق 95 %، بلغت نسبة الاستخلاص 10 % للمستخلص. تم الكشف عن المرآبات الفعالة لمستخلص الكحول الأثيلي، عن طريق استعمال الكواشف التمهيدية. و اظهر مستخلص الكحول الأثيلي آفاءة عالية في نسبة وجود المرآبات الفعالة مثل القلويدات و الفينولات. ودرست على ذآور الفئران المختبرية البيض، و آانت النتيجة 5.07 غم / آغم من ،( LD- قدرت الجرعة الوسطية المميتة ( 50 5 غم / آغم من وزن الجسم. . وزن الجسم و 37 و إآثارها بطريقة الزراعة النسيجية في ظروف مختبرية معقمة. HEp- و تم تنمية خطوط الخلايا السرطانية نوع - 2 بعد معاملتها بثلاثة مدة 24 ساعة HEp- درست الفعالية المثبطة لنمو الخلايا السرطانية لسرطان الحنجرة البشري 2 لمستخلص الكحول الاثيلي بتخافيف عشرية ابتداءً بترآيز 0.001 ملغم / مل و انتهاءً بترآيز 100 ملغم/ مل و تم قراءة الكثافة بوصفه مقياساً لنمو الخلايا nm الضوئية لخطوط الخلايا السرطانية المصبوغة بالصبغة الحمراء المتعادلة بطول موجي 492 الحية. آانت النتيجة تثبيطا عالي المعنوية بمستوى 0.05 لمستخلص الكحول الأثيلي و للتراآيز 100,10,1 ملغم لكل مل و 100,10 ملغم لكل مل على التوالي، مقارنة بالسيطرة ويزداد بزيادة مدة الحضن. استعملت بعض التراآيز المحضرة بطريقة 1,0.5 ) ملغم / مل و آان أدنى , 0.25, التخافيف الثنائية لمعرفة أدنى ترآيز يمكنه تثبيط نمو الخلايا السرطانية و هي ( 0.12 ترآيز يمكنه تثبيط نمو الخلايا السرطانية هو ( 0.5 ) ملغم/ مل ل مستخلص الكحول الأثيلي. اختبر المستخلص عند الخزن .stability بدرجة- 20 مْ لمدة ثلاثة اشهر و قد اتصف بالثبوتية

Keywords


Article
free corner

Authors: د. حسن علي نصر الله
Pages: 381-381
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Keywords

Table of content: volume:2 no.4, 5 issue:3