Table of content

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences

مجلة ابحاث البصرة للعلوم الأنسانية

ISSN: 18172695
Publisher: Basrah University
Faculty: Education
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed and indexed Journal. A biannual from 1993-2010.Quarterly from 2011-until now.publised by the College of Education for Human Sciences ,University of Basra. Date of first issue 1993.

-The magazine has a coefficient of Arab influence (AIF) degree of influence (0.94).

-The magazine participated in (UDL EDGE) (Kuala Lumpur Malaysia).

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Contact info

-Phone Number= +964 07736024869
-Email:magazinbasrah@gmail.com

Table of content: 2010 volume:34 issue:1

Article
Continuity of the dialogue: psychosocial research Mistakes that usually English language students
استمرارية الحوار: بحث نفسي اجتماعي الأخطاء التي يرتكبها عادة طلاب اللغة الانكليزية

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Abstract

The present study attempts to investigate the mistakes which are committed by the Iraqi learners of English. A number of phonological variables have been chosen for this purpose. Furthermore, the gender of the student as well as the stage/ class have been taken into consideration. A number of first year students of the Department of English, College of Education Thi Qar were chosen as informants Relevant data has been elicited from them as they pass to the second and then to the third stage, This is to study the Progress in the informants’ linguistic behavior as they pass from a stage to the other. The percentage score has been adopted as a tool for calculating the obtained results. The manipulation of the data showed that the male students committed more mistakes than the female students. In addition. There was a gradual progress as the student passes from the first to the second and then the third stage. It is hoped that the findings of the study could be of value and assistance in teaching subjects such as Conversation, Phonetics & Phonology, and Comprehension تهدف الدراسة الحالية إلى دراسة الأخطاء المرتكبة من قبل المتعلمين العراقيين لدى استخدام اللغة الانكليزية. اختير عدد من المتغيرات الصوتية للدراسة إضافة إلى جنس الطالب ومرحلة الدراسة كمتغيرات اجتماعية. اختير عدد من طلبة قسم اللغة الانكليزية في كلية التربية في ذي قار للحصول على المعلومات المطلوبة. تم أخذ المعلومات منهم عندما كانوا في المرحلة الأولى ثم لدى نجاحهم إلى المرحلة الثانية ثم الثالثة. اعتمدت النسب المئوية كوسيلة لتبيان النتائج المتحقق. اظهر تحليل المعلومات ان الطلبة الذكور ارتكبوا أخطاء أكثر من الطلبة الاناث، اضافة إلى ذلك بينت الدراسة ان هناك تطوراً تدريجياً لدى الطلبة عند نجاحهم من المرحلة الأولى إلى الثانية ثم الثالثة. يؤمل أن تكون نتائج الدراسة ذات فائدة وعون في تدريس المواد الدراسية مثل المحادثة والصوتيات والنظام الصوتي والاستيعاب.


Article
Rhetorical efforts to Ali Issa Rummani (d. 386 AH) in his letter:Jokes in the trunks of the Koran
الجهود البلاغية لعلي بن عيسى الرماني (ت 386 ه) في رسالته:النكت في إعجاز القرآن

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Abstract

يعد الرماني عالماً موسوعياً، إذ عرف عنه تقدمه في علوم اللغة، والنحو، والأدب، وعلوم القرآن، والتفسير، وعلم الكلام، وعلم المنطق والفلسفة والنجوم، وقد أبدع في جميع هذه العلوم، وأثر في من جاء بعده من خلال ما توصل إليه في مؤلفاته في هذه الموضوعات، ومن جملة هذه العلوم التي أبدع فيها علم البلاغة بأقسامه الثلاث: المعاني، والبيان، والبديع. وقد بث الرماني أفكاره البلاغية في رسالته (النكت في إعجاز القرآن)، فهو من جملة المؤسسين لعلم البلاغة، إذ بدأت البلاغة في عصره تسير تدريجياً نحو تحديد المصطلح واستقرار المفاهيم، ومصدر هذا التأسيس ينبع من ثقافة عربية خالصة، ولا نبخس الرجل حقه فنقول إنه تأثر بالثقافة الأجنبية لأنه أمر إن وقع فبسبب ثقافة عصره التي امتزجت بالثقافات الأخرى لا عن قصد مباشر من الرماني نفسه، فما جاء في مؤلفاته يشهد له بالتقدم والرقي في ميدان العلم. لقد ابتعدنا في بحثنا هذا قدر الإمكان عن التعرض للبلاغة القرآنية ومفهومها الذي سعى إلى إثباته الرماني عند تفسيره قضية الإعجاز القرآني في رسالته، لأن الامتزاج بين البلاغة القرآنية والبلاغة العربية لم تكن أمراً عفوياً غير مدروس عند الرماني، وإنما كان مفهوم البلاغة القرآنية عنده مفهوماً متكاملاً سعى إلى إثباته وتطبيقه في رسالته، ولكنه إلى جانب ذلك تحدث عن البلاغة العربية التي اختص بها كلام العرب في محاولة منه للوقوف من خلالها على إعجاز القرآن، وسعى إلى وضع الخطوط العامة التي سارت عليها فيما بعد في اغلب ما ورد في رسالته من إشارات، لهذا السبب فقد اختصرنا هنا على إنجازات الرماني وجهوده البلاغية فيما يتعلق بعلم البلاغة العربية من خلال طرح الظواهر البلاغية أو تحليلها أو تقسيمها فيما يؤسس لمفهوم أو يطوره في علومها الثلاث، لأن الحديث عن البلاغة القرآنية ومفهومها أمر قد أشبعناه درساً فيما سبق. The Rummani world encyclopedic, as known for his lead in linguistics, grammar and literature, and Quranic sciences, interpretation, and theology, and logic and philosophy and the stars, has excelled in all these sciences, and the impact of who came after him through the findings in his books in these subjects, and among these sciences which excelled rhetoric three Boqsama: meanings, and the statement, and Budaiya. The broadcast Rummani his rhetorical in his letter (jokes in trunks of the Koran), is among the founders of the science of rhetoric, as begun rhetoric in his time going gradually towards defining the term and stable concepts, and the source of this foundation stems from the culture of a purely Arab, nor نبخس man right, we say that it affected foreign culture because it is signed Because of the culture of his time, which blended with other cultures do not intentionally direct same Rummani, what is mentioned in the writings see him progress and advancement in the field of science. We have moved away in our research as possible from exposure to the eloquence of the Qur'an and its concept which sought to prove Rummani when interpreted issue Quranic miracle in his letter, because mixing between rhetoric Quranic and Arabic rhetoric were not something spontaneous is thoughtful when Rummani, but the concept of rhetoric Quranic has understood integrated sought to prove and apply it in his letter, but along with that talked about the Arabic rhetoric that singled out the words of the Arabs in an attempt to find out from which the trunks of the Koran, and sought to develop guidelines that went out later in most stated in his letter of signals, for this reason has Achtsrna here on achievements Rummani and his rhetoric regarding the knowledge of Arabic rhetoric by asking rhetorical phenomena, analysis, or apportioned based concept or develops in the three sciences, because talking about Quranic rhetoric and its concept is have Ohbanah a lesson in the past.


Article
The image of Islam and Muslims in medieval literature With a focus on the story of a man elimination of the poet Geoffrey Jusr
صورة الاسلام والمسلمين في الكتابات القروسطية مع التركيز على حكاية رجل القضاء للشاعر جفري جوسر

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Abstract

This study deals with the image of Islam and Muslim that was distorted and misrepresented in Europe amidst Medieval antipathies and Crusades. The study focuses on the Medieval writer’ views on Islam as ‘heresy’, Muslims as ‘Infidels’, Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) as a renegade cleric’. It traces how Islam was standardized as a stereotyped repulsive enemy to the Christian Europe. Also, it reveals the roles of Medieval writings mainly delivered to spread lies against Islam, to arouse the Christian’ hatred against the new faith and to de-Islamize its message. Though the study focuses on Chaucer’s Man of Law’s, it handles a wide range of writings –including theological books. Religious speeches, literary works, alchemical recipes, annals, chronicle and geographical record.تناول هذا البحث، بالدراسة والتحليل، الصورة المشوهة للاسلام والمسلمين في النتاج الفكري القروسطي بمختلف ألوانه وامزجته وفروعه أبان حملات التشويه المشينة التي سبقت الحروب الصليبية والتي عاصرتها والتي استمرت بعدها... كما بين البحث الطرق التي انتهجها ذوو الشأن (كاستخدام أنواع مختلفة من أساليب الدعاية التي تسود خلال الحروب ومنازعات) في تكريس النتاج الديني (خط بابوات الفاتيكان ومواعظ القساوسة والتابعين) وكتب الجدل والفلسفة للآباء الأوائل والسجلات التاريخية والمدونات الجغرافية والوصفات الطبية والكيميائية والعلمية والأدبية والشعرية منها بخاصة، لغاية واحدة: الإساءة للاسلام وتقبيح شخصية الرسول (ص) وآله وتاليب النفوس وتأجيج مشاعر الكراهية إثارة نوازع الانتقام ضد ومن المسلمين، ولهذا قام البحث بدراسة تتبعية للتصوير السلمي للاسلام في مختلف أنواع الخطاب الآنف ذكره مع التركيز على ما ورد في هذا الشأن في المطولات الشعرية مثل "الكوميديا الالهية للشاعر دانتي، و(حياة رهينة العزلة)، لبترارك و"الملاحم الفرنسية" وقصائد الرومانس للشاعر الانكليزي مالوري المسماة "موت آرثر" و قصائد الشاعر لانكلاند وحكاية رجل القضاء للشاعر جفري جوسر والحكاية مستلّة من حكايات كانتربي المعروفة له. توصل البحث إلى نتائج مهمة.


Article
Transience and human concern trip and read in the office revealed disappearing Sami Mahdi
الزوال وقلق الإنسان رحلة وكشف قراءة في ديوان الزوال لسامي مهدي

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Abstract

Can say that the Office of disappearing like the experience of a single hair, which the poet began tracing the idea of ​​disappearing and Tmzaradtha in and around the human life of these assets. This was accompanied by emotional and psychological attitudes and intellectual also shed بضلالها on the rights and contributed to the nature of his dealings with the meridian and consciousness, and his search for a summary of it. Experience has formed Hzt through three stages: - Phase I: in which trace the manifestations of the meridian that governs his grip on the presence whole, has represented (poems disappearing, poems cities) and in those poems we find the poet convey suffering that shocked himself to cracking ties things together and break its relationship with a human being, including around him, he began a man disappearing in this poems weak forsaken not find him about the imminent extinction of fear and concern and the loss of his dreams and the departure of loved (and troubled psychological balance and seized by a feeling of tiredness and instability and alienation and Allatmonana). This is what he paid for the retrieval of the past decade and stand on what was enjoying humanitarian advances, it is reneging feeling dictated his psychological state that is in a time when human witness denied existential and lost and spiritually. Were poems (of Sumer panels) a witness to thatيمكن القول ان ديوان الزوال مثل تجربة شعرة واحدة، بدأ من خلالها الشاعر متتبعاً لفكرة الزوال وتمظهراتها في الإنسان وما حوله من موجودات هذه الحياة. وقد صاحب ذلك مواقف شعورية ونفسية وفكرية أيضاً ألقت بضلالها على ذلك الإنسان وأسهمت في طبيعة تعامله مع الزوال ووعيه به، وبحثه عن خلاصة منه. وقد تشكلت هذت التجربة من خلال مراحل ثلاث: - المرحلة الأولى: وفيها تتبع لمظاهر الزوال الذي يحكم قبضته على الوجود كله، وقد مثلتها (قصائد الزوال، وقصائد المدن) وفي تلك القصائد نجد الشاعر ينقل معاناته التي فجعت نفسه لتصدع علاقات الأشياء فيما بينها وتفتت علاقته كإنسان بما حوله، فبدأ انسان الزوال في هذه القصائد ضعيفاً مخذولاً لا يجد له إزاء الزوال المحدق به غير خوفه وقلقه وضياع أحلامه ورحيل أحبته (وذلك اضطرب توازنه النفسي واستولى عليه شعور بالتعب وعدم الاستقرار والغربة واللاطمأنينة). وهذا ما دفعه لاسترجاع الزمن الماضي والوقوف على ما كان ينعم به السلف الانساني، فهو نكوص شعوري أملته عليه حالته النفسية التي هو عليها في زمن يشهد الإنسان فيه نفياً وفقداً وجودياً وروحياً. فكانت قصائد (من ألواح سومر) شاهداً على ذلك.


Article
Problems facing the government secondary school administrations in the West Bank
المشكلات التي تواجه إدارات المدارس الثانوية الحكومية في الضفة الغربية

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Abstract

No doubt that management is one of the means by which depends upon the success of any business person does, all well are doing things and tuned towards achieving the Millennium Foundation aspires to reach. The school administration and an important and significant to achieve a better life for individuals and groups, obviously Allen progress in developing countries can not be done only when the administration is able to put in place a foundation for building educational right, this sense came importance headmaster on the grounds that the school is the basic cell First in the educational system, and than the maximum, hence the modern education requires the presence of leaders of advanced educational represented in educational administration and at different levels, but this had to be the principal of the school that has a number of skills, so being able to perform his duties efficiently and effectively and meet the challenges and problems that it faces. This research aims to identify the problems facing departments high school government in the West Bank, to diagnose the strengths and weaknesses in the process of learning and teaching in educational work, in order to enhance strengths, and develop appropriate solutions to address the weaknesses, and the development of the educational process in general. The population of the search of all public secondary school principals in the West Bank's (241) principals. Was chosen as a sample of the research class consisted of (123) principals The researcher developed a tool consisting of (49) paragraph relating to problems of administrative faced by the school administration to varying degrees, have been applied to the sample after ensuring unity and stability, and to achieve Research objectives were to transmit responses among respondents, and discuss the problems that got the highest arithmetic mean, and most of these problems that have been reached: the problem of weakness in English and a lack of refrigeration and heating in classrooms, frequent paperwork required from the teacher, which is a burden great teacher. After discussing the results, the researcher recommended a number of points including: the number of students per class in proportion to the process of learning and teaching in primary schools, and mutual cooperation between the administration and the community, and provide devices to rule the computer and rehearsed, and sessions continued in order to achieve the educational goals required.لا شك في أن الإدارة هي إحدى الوسائل التي يعتمد عليها نجاح أي عمل يقوم به الإنسان، فبها يتم تسيير الأمور وضبطها نحو تحقيق الأهداف التي تطمح المؤسسة في الوصول اليها. وتعتبر الإدارة المدرسية وسيلة مهمة وهامة لتحقيق حياة أفضل للأفراد والجماعات، ومن الواضح الن التقدم في البلدان النامية لا يمكن أن يتم إلا عندما تكون الإدارة قادرة على أن تضع اساساً للبناء التربوي الصحيح، ومن هذا المنطلق جاءت أهمية مدير المدرسة على اعتبار ان المدرسة هي الخلية الأساسية الأولى في النظام التربوي، وغايته القصوى، ومن هنا فإن التعليم الحديث يتطلب وجود قيادات تربوية متطورة ممثلة في الإدارة التربوية وعلى مختلف المستويات، ولهذا كان لابد لمدير المدرسة أن يتمتع بعدد من المهارات بحيث تمكنه من القيام بواجباته بكفاءة واقتدار ومواجهة التحديات والمشكلات التي تواجهه. ولهذا هدف البحث إلى التعرف على المشكلات التي تواجهه إدارات المدارس الثانوية الحكومة في الضفة الغربية، لتشخيص جوانب القوة والضعف في عملية التعلم والتعليم في العمل التربوي، بهدف تعزيز جوانب القوة، ووضع الحلول المناسبة لمعالجة جوانب الضعف، وتطوير العملية التربوية بشكل عام. تكوّن مجتمع البحث من جميع مدراء المدارس الثانوية الحكومية في الضفة الغربية والبالغ عددهم (241) مديراً ومديرة. حيث تم اختيار عينة البحث بطريقة طبقية تكونت من (123) مديراً ومديرة وقد قام الباحث بتطوير أداة تكونت من (49) فقرة تتعلق بالمشكلات الإدارية التي تواجهها الإدارة المدرسية بدرجات متفاوتة، حيث تم تطبيقها على عينة البحث بعد التأكد من حدتها وثباتها، ومن أجل تحقيق أهداف البحث تم تحيل استجابات أفراد العينة، ومناقشة المشكلات والتي حصلت على أعلى المتوسطات الحسابية، ومن أبرز هذه المشكلات التي تم التوصل إليها: مشكلة الضعف في اللغة الإنجليزية وعدم وجود أجهزة التبريد والتدفئة في الغرف الصفية، وكثرة الأعمال الكتابية التي تطلب من المعلم مما يشكل عبئاً كبيراً على المعلم. وبعد مناقشة النتائج أوصى الباحث بعدد من النقاط منها: تحديد عدد طلبة الصف الواحد بما يتناسب وعملية التعلم والتعليم في المدارس الأساسية، والتعاون المتبادل بين الإدارة والمجتمع المحلي، وتوفر الأجهزة لمادة الحاسوب والتدرب عليها، وعقد الدورات المستمرة في ذلك لتحقيق الأهداف التربوية المطلوبة.


Article
Bodenhid Wilson Mark bleak
بودنهيد ولسن علامة كئيبة

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Abstract

Replete with novel Bowden Head Wilson to Mark Twain pessimism and despair, which makes it different from other novels filled with humor and humor that made ​​him a writer known for his sense of humor and humor. But the novel Bowden Head offers the flip side of Mark Twain and paint his seriousness in addressing certain social problems. Delivered and clearly all of the company's failure Webster Publishing and subsequent bankruptcy and Susie's death in 1896 and the final collapse of the Baaj in July 1893 and successive events a shadow over his life. Cox believes (255: 1966) that the novel Boden Head Wilson wrote excessive effort to accelerate the financial disaster that hit him. The acerbic humor made ​​Bowden Head work of fiction is different from the previous work, which she characterized cheerfully dry very bleak and desperate. Can be said that the tragedy of Bowden Head is the way Twain trying to understand the tragedy and sins and personal despair, it is in fact a tragedy or black. Abeer freedom innocent romance and humor in the early novels of Twain replaces atmosphere cynical expression and suspicion, deception and betrayal in Boden Head. Where she portrays us Twain position strictly respect the distinction between races. Twain and faces strictly the issue of slavery and justice and persecution against the slave as Replete with novel Bowden Head Wilson to Mark Twain pessimism and despair, which makes it different from other novels filled with humor and humor that made ​​him a writer known for his sense of humor and humor. But the novel Bowden Head offers the flip side of Mark Twain and paint his seriousness in addressing certain social problems. Delivered and clearly all of the company's failure Webster Publishing and subsequent bankruptcy and Susie's death in 1896 and the final collapse of the Baaj in July 1893 and successive events a shadow over his life. Cox believes (255: 1966) that the novel Boden Head Wilson wrote excessive effort to accelerate the financial disaster that hit him. The acerbic humor made ​​Bowden Head work of fiction is different from the previous work, which she characterized cheerfully dry very bleak and desperate. Can be said that the tragedy of Bowden Head is the way Twain trying to understand the tragedy and sins and personal despair, it is in fact a tragedy or black. Abeer freedom innocent romance and humor in the early novels of Twain replaces atmosphere cynical expression and suspicion, deception and betrayal in Boden Head. Where she portrays us Twain position strictly respect the distinction between races. Twain and faces strictly the issue of slavery and justice and persecution against the slave as


Article
Impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - definition - not an example) (Definition - for example) in the collection of technical institute students in mathematics
أثر استخدام الاستراتيجيتين التدريسيتين (مثال – تعريف – لا مثال) و(تعريف – مثال) في تحصيل طلبة المعهد التقني في مادة الرياضيات

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The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the fiThe research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test.rst phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. The research aims to find out the impact use strategies Altdrisatin (Example - you know - not an example) and (definition - for example - an example) in the collection of the first phase students at the Technical Institute - Basra in mathematics. Included sample (105) students divided between two experimental group included the first pilot (52) students and studied according to strategy (eg - definition - not an example) and included the second experimental group (53) students and studied according to strategy (definition - for example) and for one semester (three months). The study included sports themes (Vector, types of functions, derived algebraic functions, implicit derivation, engineering applications and derived Faxiaoah). To learn and measure student achievement of the planned academic material in the experiment. Been building a test depends paragraphs on (multiple-choice) component of (50) paragraph before every paragraph four answers and only one of them correctly and use the second test (T-test) for independent samples to identify significant differences between the mean scores personnel groups, results showed superiority first experimental group on the second experimental group in the achievement test. يهدف البحث إلى معرفة أثر استخدام الاستراتيجيتين التدريسيتين (مثال – تعرف – لا مثال) و(تعريف – مثال – لا مثال) في تحصيل طلبة المرحلة الاولى في المعهد التقني – البصرة في مادة الرياضيات. شملت عينة البحث (105) طالباً وطالبة موزعين بين مجموعتين تجريبيتينـ ضمت المجموعة التجريبية الأولى (52) طالباً وطالبة ودرست وفق استراتيجية (مثال – تعريف – لا مثال) وضمت المجموعة التجريبية الثانية (53) طالباً وطالبة ودرست وفق استراتيجية (تعريف – مثال) ولمدة فصل دراسي واحد (ثلاثة أشهر). شملت الدراسة الموضوعات الرياضية (المتجهات، أنواع الدوال، مشتقة الدوال الجبرية، الاشتقاق الضمني، تطبيقات هندسية وفيزياوية على المشتقة). ولمعرفة وقياس مدى تحصيل الطلبة للمادة الدراسية المقررة في التجربة. تم بناء اختبار تحصيلي تعتمد فقراته على (الاختيار من متعدد) مكون من (50) فقرة أمام كل فقرة أربعة إجابات واحدة منها فقط صحيحة واستخدم الاختبار الثاني (T-test) لعينتين مستقلتين للتعرف على دلالة الفروق بين متوسطي درجات أفراد المجموعتين، بينت النتائج تفوق المجموعة التجريبية الأولى على المجموعة التجريبية الثانية في الاختبار التحصيلي.


Article
Optimality of Diminutive Forms in Modern Standard Arabic
تفاضل أنماط التصغير في اللغة العربية الفصحى الحديثة

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Optimality is applied in this study to plan as well as diminutive forms of three-consonantal, four-consonantal and five-consonantal nouns in M. S. A. Among the finding of the present study is the frequent violation of the markedness constraints (Cod) which reflects the existence of closed syllables in Arabic diminutive form. Moreover, the markedness constraints (Ons) and (Nuc) and the faithfulness constraints (Fill Onc), (Fill Nuc) and (Parse) are neither violated by the plain forms not by the diminutive onse, which explains the absence of onset less syllables, syllables tacking nuclei, and deformed syllables that witness segmental deletion.تفاضل أنماط التصغير في اللغة العربية الفصحى الحديثة الخلاصة طبقت نظرية التفاضل اللغوية في هذه الدراسة على الأسماء ثلاثية الحروف الصحيحة ورباعيتها وخماسيتها، الصحيحة منها ومصغرة في اللغة العربية الفصحى الحديثة. ومن بين الاستنتاجات التي خرجت بها الدراسة الحالية تجاوز القانون اللغوي والذي بموجبه تكون المقاطع مفتوحة النهاية (أي تكون منتهية بحرف علة) وهذا ما يفسر وجود مقاطع مسدودة النهاية في اللغة (أي منتهية بحرف صحيح وليس بحرف علة) بالاضافة إلى ذلك بينت النتائج ان بعض قوانين التمييز وقوانين الولاء تطبق في اللغة بشكل دقيق مما يفسر عدم وجود مقاطع مبدوءة بحرف علة أو اخرى تخلوا من نواة مركزية ومقاطع مبتورة نتيجة لعمليات حذف.


Article
Type the text and the performance of students in the absorption
نوع النص وأداء الطلبة في الاستيعاب

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Abstract

The present study aims at investigating the relationship between text type and students’ comprehension performance. The researcher has used four text types (namely narrative, descriptive, expository, and argumentative) to check for the effect of text type on student’s performance in comprehension tests. The researcher found that the hypothesis that narrative text are the easiest to understand, the argumentative being the most difficult, and the other two types being of moderate difficulty, is a correct one. يتناول البحث تأثير نوع النص المستخدم في تدريس مادة استيعاب القراءة على أداء الطلبة في اختبارات الاستيعاب. استخدم الباحث أربعة أنواع من النصوص وهي النص السردي والوصفي والتقديمي والجدلي ليقيس مدى تأثر أداء الطلبة في اختبارات الاستيعاب بنوع النص المستخدم في الاختبار وقد وجد ان الفرضية التي بنى عليها البحث (وهي ان النص الجدلي هو أكثر الأنواع صعوبة وان النص السردي أسهلها خلافاً للنوعين الآخرين اللذين يتسمان بمستوى متوسط من الصعوبة) هي فرضية صحيحة.


Article
Learning styles to raise the level of academic achievement Among middle school students
في أساليب التعلم لرفع مستوى التحصيل الدراسي لدى طلبة المرحلة الاعدادية

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The study aims at knowing the influence of a training program on the way of an in-depth tackling of the subjects of the sixth secondary level student/ scientific section. The study seeks to ascertain the essential hypothesis of the research that “at the level (0.05), there is no difference of a statistical significance in the average of marks of the subsequent acquisition text between the experiential group on which the training program is applied and the regulating group”. After finishing the application of the training program of tackling academic information according to the in-depth tacking, the marks of the subsequent academic acquisition of the two groups were compared showing a statistically significant difference in favor of the experimental group. This points out that the training program has an evident influence on the member of the group learning the utilization of in-depth tacking way in academic information. At the end of the study, the researcher presented some suggestions and recommendations. استهدفت الدراسة معرفة اثر برنامج تدريبي في اسلوب المعالجة المعمقة للمواد الدراسية لطلبة السادس الاعداد ومن الفرع العلمي، اعتمدت الدراسة من التحقق من الفرضية الأساسية للبحث (ليس هناك فرق ذو دلالة احصائية عند مستوى دلالة (0.05) بين المجموعة التجريبية التي يطبق عليها البرنامج التدريبي والمجموعة الضابطة في متوسط الدرجات في الاختبار التحصيلي البعدي. بعد الانتهاء من تطبيق البرنامج التدريبي في معالجة المعلومات الدراسية وفق المعالجة المعمقة، تمت مقارنة الدرجات للتحصيل الدراسي في الاختبار التحصيلي البعدي للمجموعتين، حيث أظهر التحليل الاحصائي بين درجات المجموعتين وجود فرق دال احصائياً بينهما ولصالح المجموعة التجريبية وهذا يدل على ان للبرنامج التدريبي تأثيراً واضحاً في تعلم استخدام اسلوب المعالجة المعمقة للمعلومات الدراسية من قبل أفراد العينة. وفي نهاية البحث قدم الباحث عدداً من التوصيات والمقترحات.


Article
An Investigation Prospective Teacher’s Attitudes to Using Literature in the EFL Classroom
استقصاء وجهة نظر المدرسي حول تدريس الأدب في صفوف اللغة الانكليزية كلغة أجنبية

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The present study has a twofold goal. On the one hand it examines the pores and cons of using literature in the ESL/EFL classroom. On the other it investigates the feeling and thought of prospective teachers on English as a foreign language concerning the inclusion of literature in the EFL classroom. In order to concertize the views of prospective English language teachers on the inclusion of literature in the EFL classroom an opinion survey of questioners was applied to 50 prospective teachersان للدراسة الحالية هدف ذو جنبتين، فمن جهة تتفحص آراء المناصرين والمعارضين لاستخدام الأدب في فصول اللغة الانجليزية كلغة أجنبية أو كلغة ثانية. ومن جهة ثانية فهي تحقق في مشاعر وأفكار مدرسي اللغة الانجليزية المستقبليين (المطبقين) فيما يتعلق بإدخال الأدب في فصول اللغة الانجليزية كلغة أجنبية. ومن أجل وضع وجهات نظر مدرسي اللغة الانجليزية المستقبليين في واقع ملموس فقد طبق اسلوب استبياني على 50 مدرس مستقبلي للغة الانجليزية لاستعراض وجهات نظرهم فيما يتعلق بإدخال الأدب في فصول اللغة الانجليزية كلغة أجنبية.


Article
Alsqalbh Study in their general conditions in Andalusia
الصقالبة دراسة في أحوالهم العامة في الأندلس

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Abstract

Alsqalbh are Europeans who were working in Andalusia Islamic, and Tnsabhm Islamic sources to Japheth, son of Noah peace be upon him, and pray for Andalusia in multiple ways, including captivity or they come voluntarily for the purpose of service or bring by traders for this service, and it was mostly brings from Eastern Europe young and quickly Recognize and speak Arabic, and I respect them Arabs even received high positions and possessed vast territory and increased in number in the era of Nasser al-Din Allah (from 300 to 350 e) a significant increase, and have interfered in political matters of the state after years (366 e) due to the weak succession even managed Ibn Abi Amer break the thorn, and after the split of the state and the emergence of communities returned Activity Alsqalbh to board the eastern regions of Andalusia and rule, such as the city of Valencia, Almeria and Dania.الصقالبة هم الأوربيون الذين كانوا يعملون في بلاد الأندلس الاسلامية، وتنسبهم المصادر الاسلامية إلى يافث بن نوح عليه السلام، وصلوا لبلاد الأندلس بطرق متعددة منها السبي او مجيئهم طواعية لغرض الخدمة أو يُجلبون من قبل التجار لهذه الخدمة، وكان معظمهم يَجلِب من شرق أوربا شباباً وسرعان ما يسلمون ويتحدثون اللغة العربية، ولقد احترمهم العرب حتى تسلموا مناصب عالية وامتلكوا أراضي شاسعة وازداد عددهم في عهد الناصر لدين الله (300 – 350 ه) زيادة كبيرة، ولقد تدخلوا في الأمور السياسية للدولة بعد سنة (366 ه) نتيجة ضعف الخلافة حتى استطاع أبن أبي عامر كسر شوكتهم، وبعد انقسام الدولة وظهور دول الطوائف عاد نشاط الصقالبة ليستقلوا بالمناطق الشرقية للأندلس ويحكموا فيها مثل مدينة بلنسية والمرية ودانية.


Article
Islam before the Prophet's noble mission in the Holy Quran story of the Cave Model (search III
الإسلام قبل البعثة النبوية الشريفة في القرآن الكريم قصة أصحاب الكهف إنموذجا (البحث الثالث

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Using academic and scientific communities, and private universities Iraqi term before Islam to denote the period leading up to the mission the Prophet Muhammad, and this common errors that occurred where historians Modern, led by Dr. Jawad Ali, the owner encyclopedia huge named (detailed in the history of the Arabs before Islam). This contrasts with the verse that religion with Allah is Islam and those who received the Scripture differed only after knowledge came to them prostitute themselves and disbelieve the revelations of Allah, Allah is swift at reckoning] Al-Imran: 19. This we do not know on what was based owners label before Islam, and Ojasoha, as it was Tabari and Ibn al Ibn Kathir, acknowledge the existence of Islam before the coming of the Prophet as well as commentators mostly if not all, led by Mujahid, Abdul Razzaq and others, and to correct the term scholar series of researches, four were completed and you will see the light soon, took the title of Islam before the mission in the Holy Quran. The researcher adopted the words Quran because the book is not done wrong in his hands, or his successor, and any text contrary to the provisions of the Koran hits its width of the wall, and thus should be noted that the researcher oldest on this work despite the opposition, many specialists do not evidence but stubborn of them to oppose the idea, and the name before Islam was not used exclusively for historians but Sirte provisions of the writers, so they start to call poetry before Islam, women in hair before Islam, and many of the names that are not based on the assets of the search, so we tried to prove the existence of Islam , and God is the source of strength.تستخدم الأوساط الأكاديمية والعلمية، وخاصة الجامعات العراقية مصطلح قبل الاسلام للدلالة على المدة التي سبقت البعثة النبوية الشريفة، وهذه من الأخطاء الشائعة التي وقع فيها المؤرخون المحدثون وعلى رأسهم الدكتور جواد علي صاحب الموسوعة الضخمة المسماة (المفصل في تاريخ العرب قبل الاسلام). وهذا يتناقض مع قوله تعالى [ان الدين عند الله الاسلام وما اختلف الذين أوتوا الكتاب إلا من بعد ما جاءهم العلم بغياً بينهم ومن يكفر بآيات الله فإن الله سريع الحساب] آل عمران :19. هذا ولا نعرف على ماذا استند أصحاب تسمية قبل الإسلام، وأجازوها، إذ كان الطبري وابن الجوزي ابن كثير، يقرون وجود الاسلام قبل مبعث النبي وكذلك المفسرون جلهم إن لم نقل كلهم وعلى رأسهم مجاهد وعبد الرزاق وغيرهم، ولتصحيح المصطلح كتب الباحث سلسلة أبحاث، أربع تم الانتهاء منها وسترى النور قريباً، أخذت عنوان الاسلام قبل البعثة في القرآن الكريم. وقد اعتمد الباحث على ألفاظ القرآن الكريم لأنه الكتاب الذي لا يأتيه الباطل من بين يديه، ولا من خلفه، وأية نص يتعارض وأحكام القرآن يضرب به عرض الجدار، ومما تجدر الإشارة اليه ان الباحث أقدم على هذا العمل على الرغم من معارضة، كثير من المختصين لا على دليل وإنما عناداً منهم لمعارضة الفكرة، وتسمية قبل الإسلام لم يقتصر استخدامها على المؤرخين بل سرت أحكامها على الادباء، فراحوا يسمون الشعر العربي قبل الاسلام، والمرأة في الشعر قبل الإسلام، والكثير من المسميات التي لا تستند على أصول البحث، لذلك حاولنا إثبات وجود الإسلام، والله ولي التوفيق.


Article
Geographical analysis of the future dimensions of the functions of city Hartha
تحليل جغرافي للأبعاد المستقبلية لوظائف مدينة الهارثة

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Abstract

Alhartha, on of the cities of Basra Governorate, has several natural and human characteristics that can be utilized for the advanced of its people and the inhabitants of neighboring regions. The city’s distinguished location at the confluence of Euphrates and Tigris is one reverie characteristic; whereas its being a junction for the surrounding villages and the neighboring regions connecting all of them with Basra district and the center of Basra Governorate is a terrestrial characteristic. The research aims at analyzing the peculiar function of the city in connection to its special characteristics. It also suggest developing Alhartha into a tourist center, thus utilizing is characteristics will be based on scientifically. The researcher concludes that the existence of natural and human constituents is not sufficient to fulfill the suggested function these constituents. تمثل مدينة الهارثة إحدى مدن من محافظة البصرة التي تمتلك عدد من الخصائص الطبيعية والبشرية التي يمكن أن تستثمر لتأدية عدد من الوظائف خدمة لسكانها سكان الأقاليم المجاورة من أهم هذه الخصائص موقعها المتميز سواء منه النهري باعتبارها واقعة عند تلاقي نهري (دجلة والفرات) أو باعتبارها عقدة للمواصلات التي تربط القرى المحيطة بها وبالأقاليم المجاورة من الشمال مع قضاء البصرة ومن ثم مركز محافظة البصرة. لذا جاء البحث ليحقق جملة من الاهداف منها تحليل الوظائف التي يمكن أن تنفرد بها المدينة بالارتباط مع خصائصها المكانية. وبذلك تأتي أهمية البحث في فكرة اقتراح تحويل مدينة الهارثة لأن تكون مركزاً لتأدية وظائف سياحية وبذلك يكون استثمار خصائصها قائماً على قواعد علمية وخلص البحث إلى ان وجود المقومات الطبيعية والبشرية لا يكفي لتأدية مثل الوظيفة المقترحة ما لم يتم تحريك هذه المقومات باتجاه تمكين نجاح الوظيفة السياحية من خلال إجراءات ادارية عملية أهمها اقامة أوسع الخدمات التي تبني شبكة لقاعدة من ركائز البنية التحتية في المدينة لتسهيل أداء الوظيفة المقترحة وهو ما عكسته المقترحات التي طرحها البحث.

Table of content: volume:34 issue:1