Table of content

Basrah Journal of Surgery

مجلة البصرة الجراحية

ISSN: 16833589
Publisher: Basrah University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Basrah Journal of Surgery


Editor-in- chief

Prof. Thamer A. Hamdan, FRCS
Prof. Salam N. Asfar, MSc

Information Administrator

Dr. Jasim M. Salman, MB,ChB, DA, FICMS

Associate Editors

Dr. Hashim S. Khayat, FRCS

Prof. Mazin H. Al-Hawaz, CABS, FRCS

Prof. Zeki A. Al-Faddagh, CABS, FRCS

Prof. Issam Merdan CABS, FICMS

Assist. Prof. Ali A. Alshawi, FFDRCSI, FDSRCS

Assist. Prof. Mazin Abdulsattar, CABS

Dr. Zuhair Al-Barazanchi, MSc, PhD



National Advisory Board



Prof. Ahmad M Al-Abbasi, FRCS

Prof. Abdulla M. Jawad, PhD

Dr. Hasan K. Muhamed, FRCS

Assist. Prof. Tahir A Hawrami, DS, CABS

Assist. Prof. Farhad K. Sulayvani, CABS

Prof. Hassan J Hasony, MPhil, PhD

Prof. Nadhim K. Mahdi, PhD



International Advisory Board











Dr. Majeed H Alwan, FRCS, New Zealand

Dr. Luay P Susan, MD, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Prof. Stewart L Weinstein, MD, USA, Former president AAOS

Dr. Robert W Buchoiz, MD, USA, Former President AAOS

Dr. Cody Bünger, MD, USA, President SICOT

Dr. Scott A Hoffinger, MD, Oakland, CA, USA

Dr. Sebastian Gitter, Dr.med. Biberach, Germany

Dr. Alec Benjamin, FRCS, UK

Prof. W Al-Ma’ani, MD, Jordan

Prof. K Fathie, MD, FACS, USA

Prof. Hikmat Jamil, MD, PhD, USA

Prof. Wajdy L Haillo, MD, PhD, USA

Mr. David Gallaway, PhD, FRCS

Dr. Rick Wilkerson, MD, USA

Dr. Sabri Shukur, FDSRS, USA

Prof. Gary Selnow, USA

Dr. John Howe, USA

Dr. Karim A Shaikley, MD, USA

Dr. John Chalmers, FRCS, UK

Dr. J Frazer, MD, USA

Dr. M Zayer, MD, Sweden

Dr. S Al-Bodur, MD, Jordan




Administrative Secretary

Ms. Elham Altoma
Ms. Salima J Sa’ad
Instructions to Authors

Basrah Journal of Surgery publishes original articles, review articles, leading articles and case reports; all manuscripts are submitted to editorial review. Authors are requested to send two copies of their articles and other editorial material to:

The Editor
Basrah Journal of Surgery, Dept. of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Basrah. IRAQ.
salamasfar@yahoo.com
OR basjsurg95@yahoo.com
An article is reviewed for publication on the understanding that the work it reports has not been submitted simultaneously to another journal, has not been accepted for publication by another journal, has not been accepted for publication by another journal nor has it been already published. Any such attempt, when detected, will result in automatic rejection and may prejudice acceptance of future contributions. The articles and their illustrations become property of the journal. The editorial board does not necessarily agree with views expressed by the authors.
A covering letter must accompany all submissions and must be signed by all authors. The first named author is responsible for ensuring that all authors have seen and approved the manuscript and are fully conversant with its contents.
Authors should consult “uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals” produced by the international committee of medical Journal Editors and published in the British Medical Journal, 6 February 1988, 401-5. Only manuscripts, which comply with this, the Vancouver style, will be considered. The text of the articles is usually divided into sections with the headings, Summary (abstract), Introduc-tion, Methods, Results and Discussion. Long articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify its content. Two good quality plain paper copies of all written and tubular material should be submitted. The manuscript must be typed double-spaced with a minimum of 3cm margins on A4 paper (210 × 297 mm) in the following order:
1. Title page with name of the author(s). The appointment of each author at the time of performance of the work reported should be mentioned; if an author has since moved then his new address is to be added as footnote. Authors names should be mentioned up to six, if there are more authors then the first three are mentioned followed by “et al.”.
2. Summary should be concise, complete in itself and outline the aim, results and conclusions of the paper. Randomized controlled trials should be identified.
3. The text of all articles should be short and to the point.
4. References should be numbered according to their sequence in the text and not alphabetically. They should be written down in compliance with Vancouver style; i.e.
A) Journal: Ferguson AJ, Mazier WP, Ganchrow MI, Friend WG. The closed technique of haemorrhoidectomy. Surgery 1971; 70: 480.
B) Book: Golgberg SM, Nivato-vongs S, Rothenberger DA, Colon, Rectum and Anus. In: Schwartz SI, Shire GT, Spencer FC, eds. Principles of surgery. 4th ed. Singapore: MacGraw Hill; 1984.
5. Tables should be separately typed each on one sheet and must have a Roman identifying number and a short descriptive title.
6. Illustrations should be submitted in duplicate. Photographs must be of the highest professional quality. Original line drawings may be sent instead of photographs. Never write on the front or back of drawing or photographs.
7. Pagination, all pages should be numbered in the sequence, title page, summary, text, acknowledgment, references, tables and legends for illustrations.
8. Abbreviations should be limited in the text. Terms, which are mentioned frequently, may be abbreviated, and clearly defined on first use.
9. Statistical analysis should include a clear description of which methods were used for which analysis. Results of statistical tests should be reported by stating the value of the test statistic, the number of degrees of freedom and the P value. For example, t=1.34, 16 d.f., p=0.2. There should also be an indication whether the results were statistically significant or not.
10. It is preferable to provide the manuscript on a compact disc using MS Word 2003 version.




Checklist for authors
1-Covering letter.
2-Two copies of the article.
3-Writing style according to the Vancouver style.
4-Tables, graphs and legends for the photos each on separate sheet of paper.
5-A copy of the article on a compact disc.


Announcement
The editorial board would like to inform our readers that the journal has been included in the Index Medicus for the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR) starting from the March, 1999 issue (Vol.5, No.1). This issue as well as all forthcoming issues of the journal will appear in WHO/EMRO web site on the Internet at the address http://www.who.sci.eg The journal was also included in the collection of the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland starting from the same issue (i.e. Vol.5, No. 1) as we were informed by the National Institutions of Health in their letter dated February 2, 2000.

Website: http://basjsurge.com email: basjsurg95@yahoo.com

Mobile: 009647801061850 Editor 009647801018133 Information Administrator

مجلة البصرة الجراحية 2015

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Contact info

Website: http://sites.google.com/site/basjsurg email:basjsurg95@yahoo.com, elhamaltoma74@gmail.com
Mobile: 009647801061850 Editor 009647801002992 Editorial Consultant
009647801537124 Secretary

The Editor: Basrah Journal of Surgery, Dept. of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Basrah. IRAQ.
salamasfar@yahoo.com, OR basjsurg95@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2010 volume:16 issue:2

Article
"BY PROPER PATIENT SELECTION WE CAN AVOID SO MANY COMPLICATIONS"

Authors: Thamer A Hamdan
Pages: 1
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Abstract

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Article
SOME ETHICAL POINTS IN ORTHOPAEDIC PRACTICE (Part II)……………………….........

Authors: Thamer A Hamdan
Pages: 3-7
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Abstract

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Article
A REVIEW OF THE USES OF LASER IN GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT

Authors: Ghassan A A Nasir
Pages: 12-15
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Abstract

LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation), is a mechanism of emitting electromagnetic radiation typically light as a process of stimulated emission. Common light sources(electric light bulb)��Emit photons in all directions, usually over a wide spectrum of wavelengths. Host light sources are incoherent LASER��Emit photons in a narrow, well defined beam of light. The light is often nearmonochromatic, consistency of single narrow wavelength. It is highly coherent and is often polarized. LASER was introduced to practice in 16 May 19601,2. Laser introduce into medicine at early 197011. LASER in Medicine: various types of laser are used in medicine for diagnosis, treatment and therapy. The medical areas that employ laser include: Angioplasty, Dentistry, Dermatology, Lithotripsy, Mammography, Ophthalmology, Surgery, Urology, Cancer laser (PDT: Photodynamic therapy)3.

Keywords

LASER


Article
THE LEARNING CURVE OF FIRST ONE HUNDRED LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

Authors: Jassim H Salim --- Hashim S AL-Khayat
Pages: 16-20
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Abstract

Laparoscopic cholecyctectomy became gold standard for treatment of symptomatic gall stone disease. Analysis of the first hundred patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy to study the learning curve and complications. The highest number of patients underwent completed laparoscopic cholecystectomy 54 (90%) and the lowest conversion rate 10% (6/60) with high percentage 22% of patients with complicated gall stone disease during year of 2004. Biliary injury 2%, occurred mainly in the early years. Total conversion rate was 21%. These results were improved with~1

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Article
DOES NON-PERFORATED APPENDICITIS NEED ANTIBIOTIC COVER IN CHILDREN?....

Authors: Khalaf L Hajem --- Adnan Y AL-Adhab
Pages: 21-25
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Abstract

This is a Prospective study to evaluate the effects of whether to use antibiotics or not in the treatment of non-perforated acute appendicitis in children. One hundred & two children with acute appendicitis were operated upon by emergency open appendicectomy in AL-Sadir Teaching Hospital, Basrah Child & Maternity hospital and AL-shefa'a General Hospital. In thirty six patients, the appendix was perforated or gangrenous and was excluded from the study. Regarding the remaining 66 patients, 50 patients received antibiotics whether pre-operatively or post-operatively and 16 patients did not receive antibiotics. Both groups were followed postoperatively for development of: fever, wound infection and intra-abdominal abscess for 3 weeks. Post operative fever was observed in 11(22%) of those who received antibiotics compared to only 3(18.75%) of those who did not receive antibiotics. One (2%) of those who received antibiotics compared to zero of those who did not receive antibiotics developed wound infection. None of either groups developed intra-abdominal abscess. Thirty four (68%) of those who received antibiotics and 12(75 %) of those who did not receive antibiotics went home within 3 days of admission. where is 16(32 %) of those who received antibiotics and 4(25 %) of those who did not receive antibiotics stayed in the hospital for a period of 4 days. In conclusion, No administration of antimicrobials to children with non-perforated acute appendicitis did not in anyway increases morbidity but in contrary it reduced hospital cost by way of less medication and shorter hospital stay. Add to this the less inconvenience to the family.


Article
SONOGRAPHY TO PREDICT CONVERSION IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

Authors: Gazwan M Khadim --- Zaki A Al-Faddagh
Pages: 26-37
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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Several preoperative variables have been identified as risk factors that are helpful in predicting the probability of conversion to laparotomy for safe and successful removal of the gallbladder. This study aimed to look for the various sonographic findings and to make a predictive index for patients who are candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, operative difficulties and conversion to open cholecystectomy. This is a prospective study conducted in the Department of Surgery of Al-Mawani General Hospital, Al-Mousawi Private Hospital in Basrah, Iraq, between May 2005 and October 2008. Abdominal Sonography performed in 105 consecutive patients before laparoscopic cholecystectomy (the sonographic signs are: gallbladder wall thickness, pericholecystic fluid, sonographic Murphy's sign, shrunken gallbladder, number and size of gallstones). Patients excluded are those with history of jaundice, abnormal liver function test, upper abdominal surgery, co-morbid illnesses, extreme obesity, dilated intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary ducts or those with CBD stones. The surgeon re-evaluates the results of ultrasound with the results obtained during surgery. One hundred and five patients included in the study, 103 patients with gallstones, the other 2 patients having polyps. Ultrasound was accurate 100% in detecting gallstones and polyps, 99 patients (94.3%) have their cholecystectomies via the laparoscope, 75 patient (75.8%) from them show easy procedure, while 24 patients (24.2%) suffered from difficulties. Six patients (5.7%) needed conversion to open cholecystectomy to complete the operation safely. In conclusion, there are many sonographic signs that we can be depend on them to give us an idea about the possibility of conversion to open cholecystectomy, the most specific one is pericholecystic fluid. Secondly gallbladder wall thickness more than 3mm, thirdly, sonographic Murphy's sign, fourthly, shrunken gallbladder, fifthly single gall stone. The other signs are of less specificity like size and multiplicity of gall stones.


Article
COMPARISON OF TWO SURGICAL APPROACHES IN CLUBFOOT: SINGLE POSTEROMEDIAL RELEASE VERSUS COMBINED POSTEROMEDIAL AND LATERAL RELEASES

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This comparative prospective study was conducted to assess surgical outcome and postoperative complications in 70 children with 115 idiopathic clubfeet treated at Basrah General Hospital. Children up to age of 5 years were included. There were 49 males and 21 females. Male to female ratio was 2.3:1. The deformity was bilateral in 61.4% and unilateral in 38.6% of cases. The indications for surgery were failure of early conservative treatment and late patient presentation beyond 6 months of age. Patients were placed into two groups; group A in whom a standard posteromedial soft tissue release through single incision including 58 feet (19 moderate, 28 severe, and 11 very severe), whereas in group B, combined posteromedial and lateral releases through two separate incisions in 57 feet (19 moderate, 28 severe, and 10 very severe). Analysis of data reveals that combined release is superior to single release in the rates of operative wound breakdown and more important in term of correction of initial preoperative clubfoot deformity for which the surgery was performed. Postoperative skin necrosis occurred in 8.8% of combined release feet compared to 17.2% in single posteromedial release feet. With combined release 87.7% of feet obtained satisfactory deformity correction outcome in contrast to only 63.8% in single release feet. The most common single residual deformity reported in this study following surgical correction whether by single posteromedial release (13.8%) or by combined release (12.3%) was forefoot adduction. The risk of wound infection was approximately the same for both procedures 8.6% in single release, and 8.8% in combined release. The study showed that the proportion of satisfactory deformity correction results decreases as the patient age at operation increases, particularly if single posteromedial release alone was performed. With single release a 100% satisfactory deformity correction outcome will be obtained only if surgery was performed during the first 6 months of life, beyond which this rate had dropped to 63.6% when operation was delayed to the age of 7-12 months, and to 25% at 1-3 years of age. After 3 years of age single posteromedial release alone did not yield any satisfactory results. On the other hand a100% satisfactory results were obtained in all feet treated with combined release during the whole period of the first 3 years of life, after which the rate of satisfactory results decreased to 50%. The study highly recommends the use of combined posteromedial and lateral release through two separate incisions when operating on clubfeet above the age of 6 months. This is a very valuable procedure with high success rate both in correcting the initial deformity and minimizing the rates of surgical wound breakdown.


Article
A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON MASTALGIA IN SULAIMANIA, IRAQ

Authors: Nizar MT Hamawandi
Pages: 46-54
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Mastalgia is one of the most common breast symptoms. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, pathological, ultrasonographic and mammographic features of this common symptom in Sulaimania, Iraq. A prospective study done over a period of 1 year, between 1st Sept 2007 and 30th Aug 2008, during that period, 132 cases of mastalgia were seen in a private general surgical office in Sulaimania. Data were collected about history, physical examination, ultrasonographic, mammographic, fine needle aspiration cytology and open surgical biopsy findings. Mastalgia was divided into cyclical mastalgia and non cyclical mastalgia and their underlying causes and their response to different lines of treatment were recorded. Out of 132 patients, 58 patients (43.94%) had cyclical mastalgia, and 74 patients (56.06%) had noncyclical mastalgia. Their age ranged 17-67 years. Duration of pain was from 7 days - 2 years. Fear of breast cancer was present in 34.09% of the patients. Normal findings were found in 58.33% of ultrasonographies and negative findings in 78.57 % of mammographies done. In the majority of patients with mastalgia (58.33%) no cause could be found and the most common finding was fibrocystic changes (19.69%). The incidence of breast cancer in our patients was low (0.75%). Most patients with mastalgia (84.69%) improved with reassurance. Conclusion: Most of the patients with mastalgia were young and middle aged, housewives, married, multiparous and practiced breast feeding. The incidence of breast cancer was low. In the majority of them no cause could be found. Most patients improved with reassurance.


Article
SUBCUTICULAR WITH INTERRUPTED SUTURING; TECHNIQUE FOR ABDOMINAL WOUND CLOSURE

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Closure of the wound after surgery is a routine procedure and one of the first things that a surgeon in training should learn. A surgeon will successfully closes a thousand of wounds during his career, but the problem of wound infection remains challenging. This study was conducted to compare between two methods of skin closure which are subcuticular alone and combined subcuticular with interrupted suturing regarding; wound infection, cosmesis &speed of wound closure. Between December 2006 and October 2009, two hundred and two patients were admitted in Basrah General Hospital, department of surgery. They underwent elective abdominal operation and were randomized into two groups, group A (abdominal skin closure by subcuticular suturing only) and group B (combined subcuticular with interrupted suturing). There were 102 cases in the subcuticular group, 50 cases of them were males and 52 cases were females, while in group B there were 100 cases,42 cases of them were males and 58 cases were females. Mean age was 38.9 (range 4-66) for group A and 41.6 (range 8-67) for group B. The mean BMI was 25.2 (range 17.4-34.8) for group A and 26.4 (range 18.7-39) for group B. Results: Wound infection: The total number of early wound infection for the six �weeks follow � up period was 12 cases (11.7%) for the subcuticular (group A),and 4 cases (4%) for the combined (group B)_(P=0.036). Cosmoses: There was no significant difference in cosmetic result in both groups. Speed of wound closure: Combined (group B) closure was accomplished at significantly faster rate (mean 35.6 sec/cm) than subcuticular (group A) closure (mean 46.8sec/cm) (p=0.001). Conclusion: From this study we conclude that the choice of technique for wound closure did not affect the final cosmetic outcome of the wound but the incidence of postoperative wound infection significantly reduced by combined subcuticular and interrupted suturing. The closure of wound is rapid in combined group than in subcuticular group alone.


Article
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATE BURN COMPLICATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF 100 CASES

Authors: Jabir R Hameed
Pages: 62-67
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Deep partial or full thickness burn if untreated, neglected, infected or managed conservatively can develop sever deformity & scar contracture in the joint with significant reduction in patient activities. In this study, the patients who underwent excision and grafting had significantly shorter hospital stay, lower hospital charges and fewer infectious complications. One hundred cases of burn injury admitted to the department of Plastic Surgery in Al-Sadder teaching hospital for the period between January 2009 to January 2010. They were referred because of late complications of burn injury. They were 60 males and 40 females. Patients burned with dry heat are most likely to get complication according to this series, 67% of the patients with complication are injured by dry heat, far less are scalding which forms 18%. The types of reconstructive operations depend on severity of the deformity, site of the deformity and patient preference. About 35% of the patients needed excision and grafting, but also some needed surgical interference ranging from simple grafting to more lengthy procedure as tissue expander. First degree burn can be treated conservatively, 2nd&3rd degree are treated by early surgical excision & grafting within 24 hours when the general condition is stable. This will decrease the duration of wound healing, decrease time of patient morbidity & hospitalization, early return to their jobs.


Article
EVALUATION OF PATIENT'S OUTCOME AFTER ENDOSCOPIC SINUS SURGERY

Authors: Hiwa A Abdulkareem
Pages: 68-77
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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common problem worldwide that results in significant impairment of quality of life. Endoscopic surgery aims at maintaining physiological function and anatomical structure. This study aimed to assess the outcome after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps using symptom scoring and endoscopic assessment. Thirty patients having chronic rhinosinusitis CRS with or without nasal polyps underwent endoscopic sinus surgery in Otolaryngology dept. / Sulaimaniya Teaching Hospital from May 2008 to April 2009 after failure of medical treatment to resolve the condition for more than 12 weeks. Preoperative symptoms and radiologic findings were scored as well as the extent of surgery. Post operative endoscopic findings and symptoms outcome were evaluated. The common presenting symptoms in order of frequency were nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, purulent nasal or post nasal secretions, headache, hyposmia, Fatigue, cough, and halitosis. All symptom's scores significantly reduced (t-test P value < 0.000), with exception of cough (t- test P value = 0.023). Halitosis showed no significant change (t-test P value = 0.103). Patients who had the lowest radiological scores underwent the least extensive surgery. In conclusion, most CRS symptoms can be expected to improve significantly after ESS and correlates with postoperative endoscopic examination of the nasal cavities. Lund-Mackay radiologic scoring can be used as a predictor of symptom outcome although it correlates weakly with the severity of symptoms preoperatively.


Article
THE VALUE OF CORONAL IMAGE IN DETECTING EXTRA SPINAL LESION IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE SPINE

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This study aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of coronal image of the spine at initial presentation for magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Images were evaluated by two experienced radiologists, the added value of the additional sequence was assessed. Correlation was made with surgery or clinical followup at 3 months. We concluded that the coronal image of the spine is of great value in detecting extraspinal lesion in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine.

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Article
HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS, THE ROLE OF NEUTROPHIL TO LYMPHOCYTE RATIO IN ITS DIAGNOSIS

Authors: Hewa B Muhamad --- Kamal A Saeed --- Besaran K Fatah
Pages: 84-88
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Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies. The diagnosis is still doubtful in a number of cases. Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N/L R) is a simple, applicable hematological test which carried out to find if there is any relationship between this ratio and acute appendicitis and to see could the ratio be used as a diagnostic tool rather than white blood cell count (WBC) alone. This study was carried out on 70 patients aged (9-45) years who was admitted to hospital with suspicion of acute appendicitis, latter on, they underwent appendectomy. Preoperative blood sample was collected from each patient for WBC and differentials leukocyte count. Postoperatively appendectomy specimens were taken to histopathological examination, which shows 52 cases of inflamed appendix and 18 normal appendices. When the (N/L R) and (WBC) were correlated with results of histopathology, it was found that there is a relationship between acute appendicitis and (N/L R), especially if we use the ratio at cut off point which was>2.6(p value<0.05=0.0001), The sensitivity was 80.76% while the specificity was 72.22% and accuracy was 78.57%, while the results showed that the (WBC) alone had a limited role in diagnosis of acute appendicitis (p value >0.05=0.219). In conclusion, there is a strong relationship between (N/L R) and acute appendicitis.


Article
SERUM CALCIUM, INORGANIC PHOSPHATE, URIC ACID, COPPER, ZINC AND MAGNESIUM IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS

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This study aimed to know the effect of serum calcium(Ca), inorganic phosphate(P), uric acid (UA), copper(Cu), zinc(Zn) and magnesium(Mg) on osteoarthritic (OA) patients who are having pure OA of knee & those having diffuse OA (knee and spine), and to clarify the relationship of those parameters with severity of symptoms and radiological findings. This is a prospective case control study conducted at Basrah province through of a period of 9 months from October 2001 to June 2002, during which 100 patients with different types of OA were admitted to the Orthopedics Clinic of Basrah General Hospital. Their age ranged from 40 to 68 years olds (24 males and 76 females), were allocated into 3 groups (mild, moderate and sever OA) according to their symptoms and radiological findings. On the other hand 80 apparently heath subjects (23 males and 57 females). Their ages ranged from 40-70 years old were participated as a control group. Venous blood samples were collected from each subjects and patients participated in this study for measurements Ca, P, UA ,Cu, Zn and Mg by using standard methods. Among two age groups and in female patients serum Ca level was highly significantly lowered (p > 0.01) in patients with moderate OA of knee as compared with mild OA patients. Serum uric acid was significantly increased(p> 0.05) in patients having mild OA of knee as compared with mild OA of (knee and spine) at age group . 55 years, the same results was observed in male patients as compared to the females group. Serum Cu and P levels were nonsignificantly altered (p< 0.05) in two types of OA among different age and sex groups. Serum Zn levels was significantly lowered (P<0.05) in patients with moderate and mild OA of knee and in sever and moderate OA of knee and combined for serum Mg levels among different age and sex groups. On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that incidence of moderate OA were high and represent 58% of total numbers of patient studied who were at higher risk of significantly decrease in the concentration of calcium, zinc and magnesium.

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Article
COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ORCHIDECTOMY ALONE AND ORCHIDECTOMY WITH HORMONAL THERAPY (COMBINED ANDROGEN BLOCKADE) FOR PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CARCINOMA OF THE PROSTATE

Authors: Firas Shakir Attar
Pages: 95-101
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Worldwide, prostate cancer incidence and mortality vary significantly between countries and regions and are highest in African American men. In the USA, prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignant neoplasm in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Bilateral orchidectomy with or without hormonal therapy are the main treatment options for patients with advanced prostate carcinoma. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of orchidectomy alone and orchidectomy plus flutamide in treating patients with advanced carcinoma of prostate. The study was conducted from June 2006 to March 2010. Thirty six patients were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were histologically documented carcinoma prostate along with distant metastasis (stage D2). Following orchidectomy, the patients were stratified into two groups. Group I had patients treated with orchidectomy alone (17 patients) and Group II those treated with orchidectomy plus flutamide therapy (19 patients). Follow up of patients was done for the next two years following initiation of therapy. The maximum percentage change in PSA was found in the first three months after orchidectomy. The mean percentage change at two years, in the two groups was 65% and 62% respectively. Based on the evaluation of response, there was no significant difference in response rate between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, addition of antiandrogen like flutamide to orchidectomy has not given any significant benefit to effect the PSA changes as well the survival in advanced carcinoma of prostate. Hence, routine use of additional antiandrogen to orchidectomy is not advisable.

Keywords

ORCHIDECTOMY


Article
THE DISTRIBUTION OF ABO BLOOD GROUPS AMONG BASRAH GOVERNORATE POPULATION

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ABO blood grouping is currently considered as one of the essential immunological tests done before many clinical interventions; on the top of them are clinical blood transfusion procedures. In a period of 14 months, 620 blood samples were collected from normal individuals including 294 males & 326 females after demographic study of each one. Samples were tested for ABO grouping using the standardized methods. Results were analyzed statistically using the SPSS analytical system. Results showed that blood group O was the most prevalent type among the whole Basrah Governorate, in all its districts & among both sexes, while the blood groups B & A came next, where as B group was a little bit higher in the whole sample of the Governorate & among females while the A was a little bit higher among males. The AB blood group was the least of the four among all. There was little variation in the distribution of the four blood groups among the different regions of Basrah Governorate but with conservation of the above mentioned graduation. Those results were comparable to the results registered in some neighboring countries, but differ more or less from other far countries.


Article
DIAGNOSTIC VALUES OF COPPER, ZINC AND COPPER/ZINC RATIO COMPARED TO HISTOPATHO-LOGICAL EXAMINATION IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST TUMORS

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Trace elements copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) have a role in many biochemical reaction as micro source, their metabolism are profoundly altered in neoplastic diseases and since breast cancer rank the first of female cancers, this study aims to evaluate the diagnostic significance of copper/zinc ratio in 70 patients with breast tumor and compared to the grade and histopathological examination. result had been shown that there is significant difference in level of zinc and copper and copper/ zinc ratio between benign and malignant tumor and this difference persist to be present between different grade of malignant breast tumor and it had been found that copper/zinc ratio have diagnostic significance of 78.5% in discriminating between benign and malignant tissue and this had been increased to about 95.1 % in differentiating between grade of malignant breast neoplasm. So we conclude that copper/zinc ratio is higher in malignant breast tissue and could be a better indicator of grade of cancer.


Article
DAY CASE SURGERY FOR SACROCOCCYGEAL PILONIDAL SINUS USING EXCISION AND PRIMARY MIDLINE CLOSURE

Authors: Nizar Hamawandi
Pages: 111-117
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Abstract

Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus (PNS) is a common disease. There are different lines of treatment but the best surgical technique is still controversial. The aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of treatment of sacrococcygeal PNS with excision and primary midline closure as day case surgery. This is the first study on sacrococcygeal PNS to be done in Sulaymania governorate, Iraq. A prospective study was done over a period of 3 years, between 1st Jan 2003 and 31st Dec 2005 in a private general surgical office, in Sulaymania city, Iraq, where 78 cases of chronic symptomatic, uncomplicated, nonrecurrent sacrococcygeal PNS were seen. From these 78 patients 6 patients refused operation and they were excluded from the study. Data collected from the remaining 72 patients were age, gender, presenting complaint and its duration, operative findings, duration of the operation, time of wound healing, any hospitalization if required, time to return to work, postoperative complications, postoperative pain, wound hematoma, wound infection, wound disruption, recurrence of the sinus, cost of the operation, patient satisfaction about the treatment and follow up compliance of the patients. They were treated with excision and primary midline closure technique. From the total no of 72 patients, 7 patients were unable to complete the follow up period and they were excluded from the study, and we continued the study of the outcome data of the remaining 65 patients. Of those 65 patients treated excision and primary midline closure, 1 patient (1.53%) developed wound disruption, 4 patients (6.14%) developed surgical site infection (SSI) and only 3 patients (4.61%) had reccurence of the sinus. It is concluded that excision and primary midline closure technique is simple, convenient, economic and successful treatment as day case surgery for chronic, sympotomatic, uncomplicated and non recurrent sacrococcygeal PNS.K

Keywords

SACROCOCCYGEAL --- PILONIDAL --- SINUS


Article
SPLENIC TORSION, AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF ACUTE ABDOMEN

Authors: Hashim S Alkhayat --- Jasim D Saud
Pages: 118-121
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Abstract

Wandering spleen is a clinical rarity, torsion of a wandering spleen is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. The etiology of wandering spleen is not precisely understood and this clinical condition presents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Available treatment options include splenectomy. This is the first reported cases of such an anomaly in our hospital.

Keywords

SPLENIC --- TORSION


Article
THE IMPACT OF POSTOPERATIVE DELIRIUM

Authors: Majeed H Alwan
Pages: 122-126
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Abstract

Delirium is a common complication after surgery, especially among critically ill patients. The etiology is multifactorial and the condition is frequently identified after major complicated surgery. It is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. This paper present a complex case which required intensive treatment and support as a result of several complications including delirium. The case also serves a good example in discussing the different aspects of the condition.

Keywords

DELIRIUM


Article
OBITUARY : DR. KHALID AL-CHALABI

Authors: H S K
Pages: 133-133
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Abstract

Keywords

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