Table of content

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine

مجلة كلية الطب

ISSN: 00419419
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine – University of Baghdad

A peer- reviewed journal published Quarterly by the college of medicine –Baghdad University

ISSN: 0041-9419

E-ISSN 2410-8057

The Journal interested in publication of clinical and basic medical research.


The first issue of this Journal was published under the name of (Journal of the Royal Iraqi Medical College) in April /1936, approved by the council of the College as a general journal dealing with the news of the college and few scientific articles to encourage the teaching staff for research publication. The journal was published randomly and ceased during World War II due to financial difficulties.
In 1946 Prof. Dr. Hashim Al Witri, the college dean, assigned republication of the journal and urged the teaching staff to participate and publish their research in the journal. Despite his effort the journal remained irregular in publication. In 1959 Prof. Dr. Faisal Al-Sabih became the Editor in Chief of the journal when he returned from the United Kingdom and appointed on the teaching staff, restructured the journal and changed its name to (The Journal of the Faculty of Medicine) and used new scientific system for publication of articles.
The first issue of the new series started in June 1959. The journal continued to be published on a regular basis since then without interruption in (four issues during the year). The journal became registered the international number (ISSN) in 2000 and entered in many important international indexes.
After 2003 the journal continued despite the difficulties involved in every aspect of the country and by the beginning of 2004 the journal progressed through a series of changes to reach a level that can be recognized internationally.
After 2010 the journal became published electronically of the same edited issues.
Recently the journal became recognized by the (Index Copernicus) and publicised internationaly.

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Contact info

e-mail:iqjmc@comed.uobaghdad.edu.iq
mobile:+96407709826825

Table of content: 2011 volume:53 issue:1

Article
Clinical types and possible etiologies of neonatal seizures:A hospital based study

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Background: Seizures in the neonatal period are common. They can present asfocal clonic, focal tonic, myoclonic, generalized tonic and subtle seizures.They can be caused by a variety of conditions, ranging from benign self-limited illnesses to severe life-threatening disorders.Patients and methods: A prospective study included 75 neonates with seizures in the first 28 days of life were admitted to neonatal care unit in Children Welfare Teaching Hospital from January 15th 2009 to August 15th 2009.A Full history was obtained and patients were examined by a specialist in the neonatal care unit and the researcher. Laboratory investigations and neuroimaging studies were done for all patients.Results:Out of 75 neonates,(55%) were males and (45%) were females with a male: female ratio of 1.2:1, (76%) of them was delivered at term. The onset of seizures was reported in the first 72 hours of life in(42.6%) of neonates. The most common type of seizure was tonic type (48%) followed by subtle type (24%), focal clonic 16% and multifocal clonic(12%).Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was the commonest etiology (25.34%) then sepsis (24%), hypocalcaemia (14.67%), pyogenic meningitis (13.33%), hypoglycemia (9.33%),Kernicetrus(8%), IVH 4%and TORCH (1.33%).The consanguinity was detected in (26.7%) of patients. A response to Phenobarbitone alone was found in (42.1%) and to a combination of bothphenobarbitone and phenytoin in(19.1%).The case fatality was (8%), (50%)of themwere due to IVH.Conclusions: Neonatal seizures occurred mainly in full term neonates with male sex preponderance with the majority reported in their first 72 hours of life and the tonic seizures were the commonest pattern. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the main etiologic factor of neonatal seizures followed by sepsis. Intraventricular hemorrhage occurs mainly in preterm infants and it was a major cause of death. Keywords: Neonatal seizures, etiology, clinical types.


Article
Cholestatic jaundice in a sample of Iraqi Infants(A hospital based study)

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Background: Cholestatic Jaundice is a dilemma facing not only the primary care provider but also the specialist pediatricians in our country. Subjects & methods: Analysis of 50 cases of cholestatic jaundice aged 3 weeks- 18 months were carried out over 18 months in the Gastroenterology & Hepatology unit in the Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Medical City, and Baghdad. Clinical, biochemical, radiological and histopathological results were recorded. Results: Fifty patients with Cholestatic Jaundice, 28 males &22 females, were evaluated. The main causes of Cholestatic Jaundice were Biliary Atresia in 22 cases (44%)(the mean age of presentation was 4.1 months ), and Neonatal Hepatitis Syndrome of different etiology in 17 cases (34%) (The mean age of presentation was 5.9 months).Galactosemia was the most common cause of metabolic liver disease and CMV was the commonest of the intrauterine viral infections. Two cases of choledocal cyst (4%) and no definite cause was found in 9 cases (18%)
Conclusion: Biliary atresia was the most common cause of cholestasis in this study of extra-hepatic type. Different stages of cirrhosis were found in almost all cases of biliary Atresia because of delayed presentation. Clay color stool, hepatomegaly, high alkaline phosphatase & high cholesterol level favor atresia cases. Ultrasonography & liver biopsy prove to be very valuable tools in the differentiation between Biliary Atresia & Neonatal Hepatitis Syndrome. Key Words: Cholestatic Jaundice, Infants, Biliary Atresia.


Article
H-reflex excitability in children with spastic cerebral palsy

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Background: Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement and posture resulting from permanent, non-progressive defect or lesion of the immature brain. Spastic cerebral palsy is a common clinical type which is difficult to diagnose clinically in the early years of life. This study was conducted to identify the changes in the H-reflex excitability in children with spastic cerebral palsy as compared to normal children. Methods: The excitability of the monosynaptic H-reflex pathway was tested in 36 children with spastic cerebral palsy during waking by calculation of the H-reflex wave amplitude with the ratio of maximal H /maximal M response amplitudes and compared with 32 normal children of the matching age. The Hoffman’s reflex was evoked in the soleus muscle after stimulation of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa.
Results: The mean H-reflex wave amplitude (Ha) values are found to have statistical significant difference between both groups (P <0.05) while the mean maximum M-response amplitude (Ma) showed no statistical differences between both groups (P>0.05). However, the ratio of mean amplitude of the maximum H-wave to that of the maximum M-response (Ha/Ma) was significantly higher in the spastic children group than in controls (P <0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that the Ha/Ma ratio does provide a helpful electrophysiological tool that can be correlated with the other clinical signs in the diagnosis of cerebral palsy by identifying motor neuron hyperexcitability. Key words: The H-reflex, Spastic children, Cerebral palsy.


Article
Evaluating coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus and Other Risk Factors by angiographic study

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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic and vascular illness associated with two to four times coronary artery disease (CAD) events and mortality which correlate well with fasting, postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c level. Other factors such as aging, gender, smoking, dyslipidaemia and hypertension also play an important role in diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications. Type 2 DM is reported now to be CAD equivalent. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study of 118 patients including 90 males and 28 females being 63 diabetics and 55 non-diabetics over the period from March-November 2007 in Iraqi center for cardiac diseases who were underwent coronary angiographic study. Results: By angiographic study CAD was present in 92.1% of diabetic versus 89.1% in non diabetic patients. Single, double and triple vessels diseases were found in 15.9%, 22.2%, and42.9% of diabetics versus 16.4%, 21.8%, 34.5% in non diabetics respectively. DM and dyslipidaemias were proved to be independent risk factors for left circumflex artery (LCX) disease predilection (p value <0.05). Conclusion: Type 2 DM and female gender were reported to be independent risk factors for LCX and left main stem coronary arteries respectively while age, smoking, and dyslipidaemia were independent risk factors for coronary atherosclerotic . Hypertension and family history were proven to be dependent atherosclerotic risk factors and this may suggest that risk factors for the presence of CAD may differ from those affecting angiographic extent and severity. CAD was more extensive and severe in post menopausal women in this study. Keywords: Coronary artery disease, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, risk factors, angiographic study.


Article
The effect of fasting in Ramadan on patients with heart disease

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Background: Knowledge about the clinical problems during the fast of Ramadan is important in order to opens the way to further research aimed at discovering the significance of Ramadan fasting in patients with heart disease. Patients and Methods: Eighty-six outpatients with heart disease with intention to fast were studied in the month of Ramadan 2010 (1430 H) at the Ibn Al-bitar Hospital. Detailed clinical and biochemical assessments were performed within 3 days before the start of Ramadan and then on the last day of Ramadan. Results: There were 54 (62.8%) males and 32 (37.2%) females with a mean age of 56.3 years (range, 17-84 ). Forty-six patients (53%) had coronary artery disease, 23 patients (27%) had valvular heart disease, 13 patients (15%) had congestive heart failure and 4 patients (5%) were treated for arrhythmia. Sixty-two patients (72%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class I, 18 patients (21%) in Class II, and 6 patients (7%) were in Class III. Seventy-four patients (86%) managed to fast during the entire Ramadan, 9 patients (10.4%) missed the fasting for up to 7 days, and 3 patients (3.5%) could not fast. There were no significant changes in the NYHA Class (p=0.12). No significant changes occurred in any of the hematological or biochemical parameters during the fasting of Ramadan. Conclusion: The effects of fasting during Ramadan on stable patients with cardiac disease are minimal. The majority of patients with stable cardiac disease can fast during Ramadan without significant detrimental effects. Key words: Ramadan, fasting, cardiac disease, biochemical effects


Article
Descriptive study of Extragastrointestinal Manifestations of Ulcerative Colitis and their relation to disease activity in 100 Iraqi patients

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Background: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); its extragastrointestinal manifestations vary from one country to another. This study identifies the prevalence of the extragastrointestinal manifestations in a sample of Iraqi patients with ulcerative colitis and their relation to disease activity. Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 100 patients with established diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, who attended Baghdad Teaching hospital and Gastroenterology center in Baghdad during the period from May 2009 to January 2010. A direct interview and thorough clinical examination were done to determine the history of the disease, its severity and the presence or absence of the extraintestinal manifestations. Result: The Extragastrointestinal manifestations were observed in 17 patients (17%). The most common EGlMs were the peripheral arthritis and mouth ulcer. The EGlMs were more common in patients with severe disease. Conclusion: The EGlMs of ulcerative are less common in Iraqi patients than in patients from western countries, but their relation with disease activity was relatively similar. Keywords: ulcerative colitis. extragastrointestinal manifestatio


Article
H. Pylori Infection in Iraqi patients with ischemic heart diseases

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Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most common cause of death in Developed countries. In addition to traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, nowadays, accumulating evidence indicates that a variety of infectious agents may contribute to pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease. Patients and methods: 125 patients (25 females and 100 males) attending the department of cardiology, Baghdad, teaching hospital over the period December 2008- June 2009were enrolled. Their age range between (39-75 years) compared with 50 healthy individuation (Age & sex matched). The sera were tested for H. pylori antibodies using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: 80% of patients showed the anti-H. Pylori IgGs (P < 0.05). But there were no significant association between risk factors & H. pylori infection (P > 0.05).Conclusions: These findings raise the possibility that exposure to H. pylori may lead to increased risk of coronary artery disease independent of other risk factors. Keywords: coronary artery disease, Helicobacter pylori, RAO


Article
Prevalence of substance use disorders among prisoners in Al-Diwania governorate, Iraq

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Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the common psychiatric disorders and constitute a major public health concern. Iraqi’s were exposed to widespread violence and wars in the last decades. High prevalence of alcohol and substance use was reported recently in Baghdad. Research literature documented the association of SUDs with exposure to trauma events e.g. wars, terrorist attacks and natural disaster. Published articles on SUDs among prisoners in Iraq are scarce. Therefore, this work was carried out to report on SUDs among prisoners in Al-Diwania governorate and its relation to antisocial activity. Methods: A total of 1200 prisoners in Al-Diwania civilian prison were included in the study during the period from 2nd January to 2nd May 2010. A questionnaire using ICD 10 characteristics of SUDs was used. The requested data in addition to characteristics of SUDs were demographic data and type of crime. In order to study the association of SUDs with criminal act, a control group (150 prisoners out of 1050) was selected randomly from the prisoners without SUDs. Results: The study revealed a rate of (12.5%) of SUDs The peak age of abuse was at age 31 – 35 years. More than half of the sample which was composed of male prisoners was in age 25 to 35 years. Fifty three (35.3%) of the abusers were illiterate, and 70 (46.7%) finished the primary school. Only 2 of the abusers (1.3%) had higher education. Thirty (20%) of the abusers were unemployed, 100 (66.67%) were self-employed and only 18 (12%) were employed. Criminal act was significantly associated with SUDs. Conclusion: High rate of SUDs was revealed among prisoners. SUDs were significantly associated with criminal behavior. Keywords: substance abuse, criminal act, prisoners, Al-Diwania, Iraq


Article
Management of Esophageal Foreign Bodies, retrospective study.

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Background: Foreign body impaction in the esophagus is a common problem. Our Objective is to draw conclusions from a retrospective over viewing a number of cases to assess current methods of management and to come out with recommendation from collected experience. Patient and method: A retrospective study of (62) patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery at Medical City Teaching Hospital from January 2002 to December 2004 with history of foreign body swallowing and impaction. Six patients excluded from the (62) patients after having negative esophgoscpic findings. On presentation, history about type and time of ingestion, associated signs and symptoms were recorded, x- ray was taken. Rigid esophagoscopy or direct laryngoscopy and Magill forceps has been used. After the procedure completion, type and site of the foreign body and state of esophageal mucosa at the site of impaction were recorded. Chest X-ray done postoperatively in certain patients when we had peroperative findings of bleeding, suspicion of perforation. All patients except 2 were discharged within 24 hours after the procedure. Results: The results showed that the commonest age group was among children between 1-10 years (27) patients, and 77% of the patients presented with dysphagia as the most common presenting symptom, site of impaction mostly in upper third of esophagus 68%, and 68% of the FB were radiopaque. Types of the FB were versatile but 50% of them were metalic objects. Conclusion: Esophageal FB is a common problem especially among children; it requires urgent intervention because of its deleterious complications if left untreated.Suspecion is enough indication especially in children. Management requires good experience in using the appropriate tools like Magill forceps, which is safe and quick in good hands. Keywords: Foreign body, esophagus

Keywords

Foreign body --- esophagus


Article

Article
Toward Objective Teaching Teaching Clinical Skills.

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Article
Determination of the layers of temporal fascia.

Authors: Nawfal K.Yas نوفل ياس
Pages: 101-104
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Table of content: volume:53 issue:1