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مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2007 المجلد: 38 العدد: 1

Article
ECONOMIC REFORM IN IRAQ AND THE BASIC CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL POLICIES -AN ANALYTIC STUDY-
الاصلاح الاقتصادي في العراق والشروط الاساسية لسياساته الناجحة – دراست تحليلية-

المؤلفون: A.D.K.AL-Hiyali علي درب كسار الحيالي
الصفحات: 1-14
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الخلاصة

The objective of this paper is to determine the basis for economic reform in Iraq and to put the conditions for successful policies. To achieve this goal, the reality of Iraq economy had been reviewed for the previous period. Most of these policies were inefficient which caused many crises, in addition wars had contributed in aggravation of these problems during the period 1980-2003, All these factors shared together in the disequilibrium of economic structures and creating many problems such as inflation and unemployment which reached to high rales. Many suggestions had been made especially those related with basic structure of economic reforms through the role of society represented by respecting human rights, law and order and creating the balance between social and private interests. In addition to that State must play an important role through directing economic resources, law legislations and facilitating economic life. Private sector also can play a role by improving the performance of economic firms and to satisfy- society needs through the supply of necessary capital for modern technology. This paper arrived to some conclusions including that some considerations had to be taken when certain economic policy is followed, some of these considerations are the characteristics of Iraq economy, the requirements and recommendations of international financial agencies, such as IMF and WB, these requirements and recommendations must be compatible with the Iraqi economic situation. Some recommendations were forwarded including that it is necessary that all new economic policies must be subjected to the conditions, rules and characteristics of Iraqi market. Private sector must play a role in principal sectors such as industry, agriculture and services. Long run investment must be present in all economic activities. Investment consequences must be reflected in the regions where it takes place. These investments could be domestic or foreign through encouraging foreign capital by different means

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
CONTAMINATION OF POULTRY FEED WITH AFLATOXIN Bl
تلوث علائق الدواجن بالافلاتوكسين B1

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الخلاصة

To evaluate the contamination of chickens ration and crops involved, with aflatoxin Bl.samples collected from feed stuff production factories as well as local markets. The results showed that 25% of ready ration samples of (7 Nissan and College of Agriculture) factories and 50% of (Sennak. Shuilla) were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 contamination with . 20,25.75.150ng/kg respectively while the contaminated samples of Baghdad Al-Jadeda market were 100%, in concentration between 30(.tg/kg. The results indicated that contamination of maize involved the ration with aflatoxin Bl in 100% of samples in (Shuilla. Baghdad AL-Jadeda) markets contaminated with 160 and 45^g/kg. and 25% in samples of the College of Agriculture factory by 30f.ig/kg. The results of animal protein analysis showed highest contamination with Aflatoxin B1 in (Sennak. Shulla) samples 50% with 110 - 200 fig/kg and lowest in (7 Nissan factory) samples (25%) with 85 |.ig/kg while other samples IPA factory. Al-Latefia factory and Agriculture college factory were found to be free from toxin. Also the results indicated that soabean contaminated with aflatoxin Bl 50% of samples of (Sennak, Agriculture College factory with 20 - 25 j.tg/kg. respectively, while other samples IPA factor)' ,7 Nissan and Al-Latefia factory were found to be free.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EVALUTION OF BENTONITE AND ACTIVITED CHARCOAL TO ADSORB T-2 TOXIN FROME ANIMAL DITE
تقييم معدن البنتونايت والفحم المنشط في ادمصاص السم T2 من العلائق

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الخلاصة

Different combinatis on of physical absorbents ,bcntonite and charcoal ,(4:l,3:2,2:3,andl:4) at 5%, to eliminate T2-toxin from liquid medium containing 500mg/l was evaluated. The effect of 3 levels of the combination, (3%Bcntonitc and 2% Charcoal), on body weight variation of mice feed on diet contaminated with 25mg/kg of T2-toxin was tested .Results showed that the 2% (Bentonitc + charcoal) was more efficacy with mean variation in body weight of O.lg after one month of feeding compared to -1.8 g for the control and -5.0 g for the diet containing toxin only .The biochemical characters of the blood of mice feed on physical adsorbent showed improvement. The count of red blood cells was 2.9 * 1012 I for both treatment 5%(Bcntonite+charcoal) +T2_toxin and 2%(Bentonitc+charcoaI) + T2-toxin compared to 2.3* 10,2 I for the toxin treatment only. Also the white blood cell were increased with adsorbent compared to the toxin treatment only, The count of cells were 24.8, 24.6, 25.0 and 24.1* 10* I for the 2%,3%.5% adsorbents and T2-toxin, rcspcctively.Thc hcamoglobin increased to 8.4 g100 ml for 2%(Bentonite + charcoal) +T2-toxin treatment com parted with 8.0g100ml for toxin treatment only.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
COMPATABILITY BETWEEN BIOCONTROL AGENTS AND FUNGICIDES TO CONTROL pythium aphanidermatum ON CUCUMBER SEEDLINGS
التوافق بين المقاومة الاحيائية والمبيدات الكيميائية في مقاومة مسبب مرض سقوط بادرات الخيار Pythium aphanidermatum

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of biocontrol agents and fungicides individually or in an integration as induced systemic resistance agents against the damping - off of cucumber seedlings incited by Pythium aphanidermatum. Under greenhouse condition, integration between Ridomil 2.5G or Beltanol with biocontrol agents Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum significantly reduced damping off and disease severity to 0 , 3.3% ; 3.3% , 6.6% ; 0 ,13.3% ; 10% and 10% respectively . Over that, these treatments caused significant increase in dry weight of shoots and roots. Results of field experiment were in agreement with greenhouse results. Integration between Ridomil 2.5G and P. fluorescens reduced percentage of damping off and disease severity to 0 and 2%, respectively as compared to control treatment in which damping off and disease severity were 57.7% and 75%, respectively. The results also revealed that integration between fungicides and biocontrol agents resulted in an increase in dry weight of shoots and roots.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF SOME ORGANIC PLANT RESIDUE AND THEIR QUEOUS EXTRACTS ON ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AND PH OF SOIL
تاثير اضافة درين بعض المخلفات العضوية النباتية ومستخلصاتها المائية في ملوحة التربة ودرجة تفاعلها

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الخلاصة

Three biological experiments were conducted in the lathing house belong to the Dept. of Soil and Water Science -Univ. of Baghdad - College of Agric.-Abu-Ghraib to study the effects of application of four organic plant residues peat and their aqueous extracts on electrical conductivity and pH of soil. These organic plant residues were: common liquorice, Eucalyptus bark,Corn cobs and Reed strow. The three biological experiments (according to the method of application) were implemented on the basis of Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates by using plastic pots which contain 4 kg of soil per pot. The pots were planted with corn cv. (Bohooth 106). The amount of 100 mg N. kg'1 soil as urea (46% N) and 20 mg P.kg'1 soil as super phosphate (20%P) and 48 mg.K kg'1 soil as potassium sulfate (42% K) were used as sources for NPK-fertilizers respectively. Results indicated that the addition of some organic plant residues in their solid phase didn't lead to any significant increasing in the potential of Hydrogen (pH) or in the electrical conductivity (Ec). While the addition of the aqueous extracts of common liquorice and Reed straw gave 48% and 29% significant increacing by irrigation and foliar application in (Ec) compared with control treatment respectively. As concerns the pH , the aqueous exctracts of Corn cobs and Eucalyptus bark gave 3.2 % and 2.2% significant increasing by irrigation and foliar application in pH compared with treatment respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
RESPONSE OF MAIZE TO BIO- AND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION 1- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRAIN YIELD AND NUTRIENTS IN LEAVES AND SOIL
استجابة الذرة الصفراء للتسميد العضوي والحيوي 1- العلاقة بين حاصل الحبوب و محتوى العناصر في الاوراق والتربة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted under central pivot irrigation system at KirkuU governorate sterilized seeds of {Zea mays L.) c.v. IPA 5012 were inoculated with Azosirillum brasilienses and Glomus mosseae in single and combined application under three levels of organic fertilizer. The results showed that grain yield significantly increased with increasing the levels of organic fertilizer and the highest grain yield was achieved at combined inoculation of A. brasilienses + G. mosseae. The highest yield was 5790 T/h as compared with control 2115 T/h. The incrementin grain yield could be attributed to the significant increase in the number of grain , kernel as well as to weight of 1000 grains. The nutrient content of N, P, K in leaves as well as the residual values of these nutrients in soil were markedly influenced by the level of organic fertilizer and the methods of inoculation . Iron , Zinc and Copper contents in leaves were significantly increased with combined inoculation of A. brasilienses and with highest levels of organic fertilizer.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE ON GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS
تاثير معدلات البذار في حاصل الحبوب ومكوناته لعشرة اصناف من الحنطة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the field of Crops Science Dept., Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad , during 2001-2003 seasons. The objective was to study the response of grain yield and yield components of bread wheat cultivars to different seeding rates. The experiment was carried out, using split-plot design with ten cultivars (Tamoz 2 , Tamoz 3, Abu-Ghraib 3 , IPA 95 , IPA 99, Sali, Al-Rashid, Al-Iraq, Fateh and Rabca) as main plots and four seeding rates (80 , 120,240 and 320 kg ha'1) as sub plots. The highest number of spikes /plant was produced, in the first season from the cv. Fateh and IPA 95. While, in the second season it was from the cv. Abu-Ghraib 3, with 320kg ha'1. The cultivars, IPA 99, Tamoz 2, Tamoz 3 and Fateh in the first season and Tamoz 3 in the second season showed higher number of grains/spike, using 80kg ha'1. Al-Iraq cv. produced higher 1000 grains weight (43.47 gm) in the first season. While, in the second season the cultivars, Al-Iraq .Sali, Al-Rashid and Rabea produced higher grain weight using 80kg ha'1 .The higher biomass (17108 and 17400) kg ha1 were, produced from the combination of Sali and Al-Rashid with 320 kg ha'1.The higher harvest index was found from the combination Al-raqX 80kg ha"1 in both seasons. The highest combination of grain yield (4894 and 4867) and (5306 and 5205)kg ha"1, were produced from cultivars Fateh and Al-Iraq , with 240kg/ha , in the first and second seasons, respectively . It was recommended cultivation of Fateh and Al-Iraq cultivars using 240 kg ha'1 seeding rates.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
HAYBRID VIGOR AND GENE ACTION OF INBRED LINES OF MAIZE
قوة الهجين والفعل الجيني لسلالات نقية من الذرة الصفراء

المؤلفون: M. Sh. Hamdalla ماجد شايع حمد الله
الصفحات: 79-84
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الخلاصة

Diallel crossing was preformed among six maize inbred lines (Oh40. Zml9. CA17. CA21. CA12. and ZP607) on the farm of the Dept.of Field Crop ScL Coll. of Agric, Univ. of Baghdad, during spring and fall seasons of 2005. The objective was to evaluate several inbred lines and their hybrids, and estimating gene action in grain yield of maize according to griffing II method. In the spring season.a diallel crossing was conducted to produce 15 hybrids. Field trial was carried out(including. parents and them hybrids) using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Significant differences and heterosis were found among genotypes. The cross CA21 X Oh40 produced lower grain yicld(8.4t/ha.).whereas higher grain yield was produced by crosses ZP607 X Zml9 and ZP607 X CA12 (12.8 t/ha).The last crosses had a higher effect of specific combining ability (1.87).The higher hybrid vigor was found in the cross CA17 X CA12 (58%).Whereas the lower was -7% in the cross Oh40 X CA21. The degree of dominance, broad sense heritability. and narrow sense heritability were 2.9, 94% and 10% respectively. The grain yield was under incomplete dominance effect. The results of this experiment revealed thai ZP607 and CA12 inbreds could be used to develop single cross hybrids in central Iraq.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
SOME GROWTH PARAMETERS, SEED YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF RAPESEED (Brassica spp. L.) GENOTYPES SOWN AT DIFFERENT DATES
بعض معايير النمو وحاصل البذور ومكوناته لتراكيب وراثية من السلجم (Brassica spp.L.) بتاثير مواعيد الزراعة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, College of Agriculture during two winter seasons 2003-2005. The objective was to study the effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components of rapeseed genotypes. A split-plot design with three replications was used. Five sowing dates (28th of Sep.. 18"* of Oct., 7th of Nov.. 27* of Nov. and 17* Dec.) were assigned in main plots, whereas genotypes (Pactol, Sputnik, Srew, Pluto, Star, Topscore, Pioneer and Catolarcia) as sub-plots. The first date (28/9) gave the highest seed yield (3.3 and 2.1 t/lia) respectively, due to plants superiority of this date in number of leaves, branches and liight, besides increase in seed weight rate 3.41 mg for (2003-2004) season and number of siliques/plant 342 silique for (2004-2005). Two genotypes, Pioneer in (2003-2004) and Catolarcia in (2004-2005) were superior in seed yield (3.1 and 1.8 t/ha) respectively. The superiority of first genotype was due to extension of period from flowering to physiological maturity (84 d), hence increase of seed weight rate to 5.48 mg. Yield of second genotype was due to increased number of siliques/plant (494 silique). There was a significant interaction between sowing dates and genotypes in yield and yield components. Pioneer genotype yielded more seed yield (3.9 t/ha on 18 of Oct.) 2003-2004 and Srew genotype yielded more seed yield (3.5 t/ha on 28 of Sep.) 2004-2005. There was a positive significant correlation between yield and seed weight rate (r = 60) in 2003-2004, and between yield and number of siliques/plant (r = 45) in 2004-2005

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GROWTH DURATIONS AND SOME GROWTH TRAITS OF RAPESEED AS AFFECTED BY PLANTING DATE
مدد نمو وبعض الصفات النباتية للسلجم بتاثير موعد الزراعة

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الخلاصة

A field study was conducted at the experimental farm of the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu-Ghraib, during three winter seasons (2002/2005). This was to study the effect of sowing dates on crop growth cycle and some growth traits of rapesecd (Brassica napus L). A split-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Sowing dates were assigned in the main plots, and genotypes in the sub-plots. Delay of sowing dates led to extended some growth stages and shortened others. The period from sowing to emergence and from emergence to rosette was extended whereas period from sowing to flowering (90.5,85.7 and 90.8 days) for three seasons respectively, from flowering to physiological maturity (55.1 and 46.4 days) and from sowing to physiological maturity (141.6 and 137.0 days) for the last two seasons respectively were shortened. The adverse conditions which prevailed at later sowing date (17/12) had a great impact on the life cycle of the crop. The higher temperature and longer photopcriod had hastened the physiological processes of most of the development stages and consequently the optimum period of the life cycle of the crop was shortened and therefore leaves plant'1 (10.8,11.9 and 9.2 leaves), leaf area index (1.8,2.2 and 2.4), dry matter production (6.8,8.8 and 5.21 ha"1), crop growth rate (7.5, 10.1 and 5.7 g m2 d'1), thermal (555,564 and 566) and photothcrmal units (5759, 5979 and 6073) were reduced for three seasons respectively. There were significant differences among genotypes in seed emergence and flowering time. Seed emergence of Topscore, Pluto and Star was delayed in all seasons. Pioneer had an early flowering for the same three seasons which resulted in a fewer number of leaves (8,8 and 9 leaves), least leaf area (247.9,323.6 and 364.9 cm2 plant'1) and leaf area index (1.5,2.0 and 2.3) and accordingly produced least dry' matter (6.3,5.7 and 6.11 ha"1) for three seasons respectively, a positive significant relationship was found between dry matter production at flowering stage and number of leaves, leaf area and leaf area index. A positive correlation was also found between these traits and the periods from elongation to flowering buds, flowering buds to flowering and from sowing to flowering. However, negative correlation between time from sowing to emergence, flowering buds to flowering and sowing to flowering were obtained, which significantly and negatively correlated with flowering to physiological maturity.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF XENIA ON TRAITS OF KERNEL AND EAR OF MAIZE SUB - SPECIES CROSSES
تاثير الزينية في صفات الحبة والعرنوص في تضريبات تحت النوع للذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

To investigate the effect of xcnia in maize kernels and ears, five genotypes were intercrossed. One genotype of each of (Z mays L.) sub-species (everta. indurata, saccharata. indentata. and the white endosperm Denprofski were intercrossed. Fl and F2 kernels and Fl ears were investigated . The results showed that hybrid vigor or dominance were controlling kernel traits. The gene (Y) of yellow kernel was dominant over white (y) with a possibility of a modifying gene sharing action on this trail. Reciprocals proved the full control of female nuclei on kernel color. The ratio in F2 kernels was 3 yellow: 1 white. while its reciprocal gave 1:3 ratio. That was a clear cut of dominance and not xenia. However, other traits of kernel and ear were controlled by female nuclei indicating the effect of two nuclei of female genes on one nucleus of male pollen. Kernel weight showed hybrid vigor in Fl kernels (64%), and that kernel weight could be increased in Fl kernels and again in F2 kernels (on Fl plants) via hybrid vigor. Shape of dent was also controlled by female nuclei. and dent shape was dominant over flint when dent was female, and vice versa. Saccharata kernels gave dented kernels when used as female while it gave flint shape or mid - parent when used as male. Kernel shape was controlled by female nuclei. and sweet kernels had triangular shape recessive to round kernels. Long ear was dominant over short or gives mid - parent, and male effect was more important than female. Ears/plant and rows/ear were recessive traits, concluding that these two traits were of poly-minor genes. It was recommended that to produce an elite hybrid. we should cross long ear inbred (male) and heavier kernel weight (female) . Whereas, to produce prolific hybrids we should cross prolific x prolific inbrcds, for this trait was recessive, However, xcnia per se was not exist, but it was dominance or hybrid vigor controlling kernel and ear traits in maize.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
A NEW APPROACH TO PREDICT THE POSSIBLE NUMBER OF D.C HYBRIDS VIA MULTI-FULL DIALLEL CROSSING
افق جديد للتنبؤ بعدد الهجن الزوجية من تضريب سلالات باحتمالات متعددة

المؤلفون: Medhat M. Elsahookie مدحت مجيد الساهوكي
الصفحات: 125-127
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الخلاصة

It is common among plant breeders to use the formulae; n(n-l)/2 , n(n-l)(n-2)/2 , and n(n-l)(n-2)(n-3)/8 to predict the number of double cross (D.C) hybrids that could be obtained by crossing any number of inbreds (n). In this article , the probability of changing the inbred parent in all possible reciprocal crosses led to a new approach to predict the possible number of D.C by crossing several inbreds. It was found that to predict the possible number of D.C hybrids resulting from crossing 4 inbreds, the formula for that is 24 * 5,5 inbreds is: 24 x 52,6 inbreds is 24 * 53, 7 inbreds is 24 x 54, 8 inbreds is 24 x 55, 9 inbreds is 24 * 56, and 10 inbreds is 24 * 57. Accordingly, the number will be 1,875,000 , while by using the above mentioned formula , the number will be 630 D.C only. This will open a new scientific and practical horizon to have much more D.C hybrids than were possible by considering the conventional formula.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DIMENTIONS OF SCC THEORY IN A MAIZE HYBRID-INBRED COMPARISON
مقارنة ابعاد نظرية SCC لهجين وسلالتيه من الذرة الصفراء

المؤلفون: Medhat M. Elsahookie مدحت مجيد الساهوكي
الصفحات: 128-137
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الخلاصة

Two inbreds (CA,2 & B73) of 2 ears/plant of maize were planted and crossed in spring season of 2006. This was to compare some growth parameters thought to be related to SCC (system capacity constant). Data were recorded on some growth parameters, genetic-morphologic and genetic-physiologic components. The results obtained revealed that hybrid vigor had increased SCC of the hybrid via gene action influenced some plant traits. The most prominent parameters found to affect SCC was crop growth rate (CGR). It was 5.5 and 3.9 g/plant Id for hybrid and inbred, respectively. This caused hybrid plants to reach silking faster than its faster parent (58 & 66d). This was reflected on the earliness of metabolites transported from source to sink in the hybrid. Beside that, the period between silking of the two ears of the hybrid was 1-3 d , while in the inbred it was 5-9 d . That was the cause to produce two similar ears in weight of the hybrid, whereas, they were greatly different in the inbreds. Plants of the hybrid produced 923 kernels while of the inbreds, the average was 634 only. High CGR in the hybrid plant had the major effect in increasing the source (TDM). The plant TDM was 654 g in the hybrid and 469 g in the inbred. However, hybrid vigor did not reveal any remarkable increase in neither ears /plant nor rows/ear. It was 1.4 & 1.3 ear/plant and 15.8 & 15.5 row/ear to the hybrid and inbred, respectively. There were four clear dimensions for SCC; I-CGR, 2- TDM 3- Earliness of silking which lengthened seed filling duration, then increased seed weight (0.33 g & 0.27 g/k for hybrid & inbred), 4- High% of metabolites transported to sink to increase number of kernel/ear, and then harvest index (46% & 37% for hybrid & inbred). Accordingly, it was expected that selection for these parameters to breed inbreds will help to develop elite hybrids of higher productivity than hybrids grown to day.

الكلمات الدلالية

جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: