جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2006 المجلد: 37 العدد: 2

Article
INFLUENCE OF CORN COBS ON SOME FIELD CHARACTERTICS OF MAIZE(ZEA MAYSL.)
تـأثير قوالح الذرة الصفراء في بعض الصفات الحلقية للذرة الصفراء zea mays L.

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الخلاصة

Field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of ground corn cobs, gypsum, and chemical fertilizers on the growth and yield of corn. The treatments included the addition of the followings: , . Four rates of ground corn cobs (i.e. 0,20, 40, 80 ton/ha), four rates of gypsum (i.e. 0, 2,4, 8 ton / ha), triple super phosphate (46% P205) and potassium sulfate (45% K20) at a rate of 1.2 ton/ha each , and urea, the rate of which depended on the rates of ground corn cobs and its C/N ratio. The influence of different treatments on seedling emergence, root system length, leaf area and yield of corn were determined. Results exhibited the followings: Seedling emergence increased from 96, to 100% when 20 ton/ha ot corn cobs was added to the silt loam and clay loam soils 150 days after incorporation. As for the silty clay loam soil the emergence rate increased from 15.9% for the original soils to 39.8, 60.8, and 73.8 /« when 5,10, and 80 ton/ha were added, respectively 150 days after incorporation. Addition of corn cobs increased corn roots length and leaf area. Means of roots length per plant increased from 0.60, 0.62, and 0.26m/plant to 1.11, 1.21, and 0.77m/plant for the silt loam, clay loam, and silty clay loam soils, respectively. Means of leaf area were 0.78, 0.81, and 0.55 m2 per plant for the three soils, respectively when 80 ton/ha of cobs were added. Yield of corn increased with the increase in the rate of corn cobs and gypsum addition. Mean values of corn yield were increased from 11.75,11.92, and 1.41, to 19.0,20.0, and 5.74 ton.ha for the silt loam, clay loam, and silty clay loam soils, respectively, after 150 days ot incorporating 80,ton of cobs and 8 ton of gypsum/ha.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
FERTILIZATION EFFICIENCY OF FOLIAR FERTILIZATION WITH N AND P ON QUALITY AND YIELD OF COTTON
كفاءة التسميد الورقي بالنتروجين والفسفور في حاصل ونوعية القطن

المؤلفون: A. H. Faraj علي حسن فرج
الصفحات: 7-14
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الخلاصة

To study the best combination of foliar fertilizers application N and P on cotton yield and quality, the variety of the cotton used in this experiment was (cv, Coker 310) plants. Field experiment was carried out at the State Board for Agric. Res, Agric. Res. Station, Abu-Ghraib during 2000-2001 seasons. The design of the experiment was RCBD with 3 replications . There were 17 treatments, one of these was the check treatment where a combination of (200N + 50P + 125K) Kg.ha soil applied, and the other 16 treatments were applied as foliar treatments as well as 1/3 of the check treatment (soil application) N and P quantities with 125K Kg.ha". The foliar treatments in which there were four levels of N (0, 9,18, 27) Kg.ha" and P (0, 6,12.18)) Kg.ha . The results showed that the foliar treatments of the combination (27 Kg N + 18 Kg P). ha and (27KgN+12 Kg P) ha had the highest significant effects on seed cotton and lint yield as well as on fiber strength and fiber length lint, during 2000 and 2001 seasons, respectively compared with other foliar treatments. The soil application treatment had more effects in increasing all plant properties compared with the foliar treatments for both seasons. The study showed a clear response of cotton crop to foliar fertilization with N and P. It could reduce more than 106.4 Kg N ha of amounts N and 19.4 Kg P ha" when added directly to soil due to non significant differences in values between soil application and foliar application at treatments N3P3 and N3P2, levels.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS APPLIED FOLIARY AND MIXED IN SOIL ON THE AVAILABILITY AND UPTAKE OF P, Zn AND Cu BY MAIZE
تاثير اضافة الفسفور الى التربة والرش في نمو وجاهزرية وامتصاص الفسفور والزنك والنحاس للذرة الصفراء

المؤلفون: H. Y. Al-Dilaimi حسن يوسف الدليمي
الصفحات: 15-22
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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in fall season of 2000 at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, to study the effect of levels and methods of phosphorus fertilizer application on availability and absorption of phosphorus, zinc and copper by corn (Zea mays L). Results showed that there was a significant increase in the dry matter, P, Zn, Cu uptake and concentration by soil or foliar application over control except Cu with soil application. In the case of soil application phosphorus absorption efficiency was (%57) while in the foliar application phosphorus absorption efficiency was (%97). The correlation between phosphorus absorption and Zn or Cu uptake was r = 0.94 for Zn and r = 0.99 for Cu and in the case of foliar application r = 0.80 for Zn and r = 0.74 for Cu. In general, the absorption and concentration of P, Zn and Cu in plant was superior with foliar than in soil phosphorus application.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION WATER SALINITY ON SOMEPHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEEDLING LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS SPP. CV. ZITOWNI
تاثير ملوحة ماء الري على بعض الصفات الكيميائية والفيزيائية لاوراق شتلات السدر البذرية المطعمة بالصنف الزيتوني

المؤلفون: A. H. Abdul Wahid عقيل هادي عبد الواحد
الصفحات: 23-32
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الخلاصة

The irrigation water salinity was examined for seedlings of Ziziphus spp. The seedling ware treated by four salinity concentrations (0, 4, 8, 12) dS/m. The results showed a decrease in the soluble carbohydrate and protein content with increasing salinity of water. Amino acid (proline) was increased with salinity, but there was no significant effect on chlorophyll and water content. The Na and CI increased with increased salinity of irrigation water, but P and K decreased, while N concentration was not influenced by water salinity levels.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
INFLUENCE OF CURING ON THE STARCH AND TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT OF POTATO TUBERS
تأثير العلاج الوقائي في كل من النشأ والمواد الصلبة الذائبة الكلية لدرنات البطاطا

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الخلاصة

Mature and immature potato tubers of Diamont and Desiree cvs. were used during the spring and autumn seasons of 1999. Four curing temperatures regimes were used 5 (control), 10,20 and an ambient temperature (28-35) and (10-15)C for both seasons, respectively . Duration period was 10,15 and 20 days for every curing temperature. After curing treatments, all tubers then stored at a cold store at 5+1C and 80-85%. R. H. Tor three months, after that tubers were reconditioned at 20-25 C for one week. Results indicated that mature and immature potato tuber for Diamont cv. showed a highest starch percentage during curing period and throughout storage and reconditioning periods. Total Soluble Solids Content (TSS) was higher in Desiree tubers during curing period as compared with Diamont cv. but that was only in the first season. However, TSS remains high in Diamont tubers till the end of both storage and reconditioning periods. Starch and TSS were high in the tubers cured in the first season, while the reverse was occurred in the second season. Curing period for 15 days significantly increased starch content during curing period in the first season. However, the reverse was happened during the second season.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PLANTING DATE AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF CAULIFLOWER CURDS
تاثير مواعيد الزراعة ومستويات التسميد الكيميائي في حاصل ونوعية رؤوس القرنابيط

المؤلفون: R. H. Al-Shook رائد حكمت الشوك
الصفحات: 33-38
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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted during 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 growing seasons at Vegetable Crops Experimental Station, Abu-Ghraib to study the effect of planting date and fertilizer levels on cauliflower (cv. White Cloud). The experiment consisted of nine treatments resulted from the interaction between three planting dates 1/9, 15/9 and 1/10 and three levels of compound fertilizers NPK (27:27:0) which were 90,120 and 150 Kg/donum. The results showed that there was significant interactive effect between planting dates and fertilizer levels on average curd and total yield. Seedlings planted on 15/9 and received 150kg./donum. fertilizer gave the highest curd weight and total yield which was 2.15 kg., and 8.75 ton/donum, and 1.98kg., and 7.77 ton/donum, respectively. While seedlings on 1/9 and received 90 kg/Donum fertilizer gave the lowest curd weight and total yield which was 1.41 kg. and 6.20 ton/donum, and 1.38 kg., and 5.80 ton/donum for the two growing seasons 2001/2002, 2002/2003 , respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
INFLUENCE OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS IN REDUCING SPOILAGE OF STORED POTATOES
تاثير مستخلصات بعض النباتات في تقليل تلف درنات البطاطا المخزنة

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted on potato tubers Solatium tuberosum L. Desiree cv. produced from the spring growing season of 2004 at the field of Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture. Curing was done after harvest at 15±lC°and 80-85 RH. for 15 days. The tubers were dipped with the following extracts Fenugreek, caraway, okra, ber, and Vapor Gurd wax (V.G) in addition to the control treatment in which tubers were dipped in distilled water. Three concentrations of each extract 25, 50 and 100% were used. Tubers were dipped for 10 or 20 minuets for all treatments then stored in the cold store (4±1C° and 80-85% relative humidity) for three months. After then, they were transferred for reconditioning on 26-31C° and 45-50% relative humidity which represent the marketing stage. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Results indicated that the interaction of okra extract at concentrations, 25, 50 and 100% for 20 minuets, beside caraway extract treatment of 8g/l for 20 minuets and wax treatment were all actively prevented tuber decay. Vapor Gurd (V.G.) treatment significantly decreased tuber decay to 0.34% after 90 days of storage and to 0.52% after the reconditioning period.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
DIALLEL CROSSING AMONG BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS FOR GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS
التضريبات التبادلية بين اصناف الحنطة لصفات الحاصل ومكوناته

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الخلاصة

Diallel crossing was performed among six wheat {Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes (Fateh, A3103, M2, IPA 99, A4.10 and Abu-Ghraib 3) at the Experimental Farm of Field Crops Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during 2001-2003 seasons. The objective was to cross wheat cultivars to estimate gene action and several genetic parameters for grain yield and yield components. In the first season, a set of 15 hybrids were made. Hybrid yield trials were conducted during second season using a randomized complete block design with three replications of 21 entries. Significant differences were found among genotypes, general and specific combining ability and heterosis in all the studied characters. The cross (A4.10xFateh) produced higher number of spikes/plant (20.86spikes), which did not differed from the crosses (A4.10xAbu-Ghraib 3) and (A3101xM.2). The higher number of grains/spike (86.10 grains) was produced form the cross (A3103xA4.10), which did not differe significantly from the crosses (M.2xA4.10) and (fateh x IPA99). The cross (IPA99xAbu-Ghraib 3) was superior in 500 grains weight (56.70g). The higher grain yield (23.93 gm/plant) was produced from the cross (A3101xM.2), which did not differe from the crosses (Fateh x M.2) and (A3103 x EPA 99). The broad sense and narrow sense heritabilities differed as to different characters. The highest degree of dominance was found in the number of grains/spike. The results of this experiment revealed that superior crosses could be used to develop new promising pure lines of cultivars via selection schemes on segregants.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GENETIC-PHYSIOLOGIC AND GENETIC-MORPHOLOGIC COMPONENTS IN SOYBEAN
المكونات الوراثية – الفسلجية والوراثية – المظهرية لفول الصويا

المؤلفون: M. M. Elsahookie مدحت الساهوكي
الصفحات: 63-68
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الخلاصة

To determine the genetic-physiologic and genetic-morphologic components in soybean, live genotypes were grown in a randomized complete block design of four replicates. Data were recorded on plants grown in a one square meter of each experimental unit. The genetic-physiologic components of the five genotypes of soybeans ranged between 3.8 and 8.1 g/m/d of growth rate, 95 and 137 d of growing season, 360 and 1110 g/m2 TDM, and 28.1% and 40.4% of harvest index. Meanwhile, the genetic -morphologic components ranged between 765 and 1310 pod/m , 1.4 and 2.1 seed/pod, and 95 and 177 mg/seed which gave 145 and 393 g/plant of seeds. Results obtained showed that plant growth rate was the most effective variable to obtain high TDM/plant, then days of growing season. The best cultivar to give higher TDM and seed yield should has longer period from planting to blooming, along with higher growth rate and moderate harvest index. However, the most important genetic-morphologic component was number of pods/plant, then seed weight. So, to develop a high yielding cultivar of soybean we need to select plants of higher growth rate, higher number of pods/plant, longer period from planting to blooming and moderate harvest index.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ON THE THEORIES OF HYBRID VIGOUR Review Article
حول نظريات قوة الهجين دراسة مرجعية

المؤلفون: M. M. Elsahookie مدحت الساهوكي
الصفحات: 69-74
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الخلاصة

Several theories and results of many researchers worked on hybrid vigour in crop plants were reviewed and discussed .It was concluded that hybrid vigour is a quantitative complex syndrome resulting via different gene action of many gene pairs. It was also concluded that hybrid vigour is seldom to be due to one case of gene action. So, it is most likely to come out by three cases of gene actions act together at the same time: 1. Codominance effects of some major favourable allelic genes (on some chromosomes) cause genes to complement each other (intra- genie interaction) to show the vigour of traits in the hybrid. 2. Coepistasis and semiepistasis effects of some major favourable nonallelic genes (on same or another chromosome) cause genes to complement each other (inter- genie interaction) to show the vigour of traits in the hybrid. 1. 3. Partial dominance and dominance effects of many genes act to cover the negative effects of deleterious genes. Additive gene action might be involved too. Masking the effects of deleterious genes is most likely to take place in each hybrid resulting from crossing inbreds. However, this case is seldom to be as the major reason of hybrid vigour.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
RESPONSE OF SOME GENOTYPES OF MAIZE TO NITROGEN LEVELS AND PLANTING DATES
استجابة بعض التراكيب الوراثية من الذرة الصفراء للتسميد النتروجيني ومواعيد الزراعة

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الخلاصة

A field trial was conducted at the Field Crop Station of IPA Center in Abu-Ghraib during the spring and fall seasons of 2001. The objective was to know the response of some genotypes of maize to nitrogen levels and planting dates in yield and yield components. A split-split plot arrangement in RCBD with three replications was used. Planting dates were (Is, 19* March and 9th April) for spring season and (1st, 15th July and 1st August) for fall season, were the main plots, nitrogen levels (220,320 and 420 kg N/ha) were sub plots, and genotypes (IPA3001, IPA3003, IPA5012 and Buhooth 106) as sub-sub plots. The results showed that sowing at spring season in Is' March increased number of kernel per ear (74%) and grain yield (76%) as compared with sowing in 9th April .Sowing in the fall season (15 July) increased number of kernel per ear (28%), grain yield (26%) as compared with sowing in Ist July . Increasing nitrogen levels from 220 to 420 kg N/ha gave the highest mean of number of kernel per ear (18% and 13%), grain yield (25% and 16%) in both seasons, respectively. Genotypes IPA3001 and IPA3003 gave the highest means of number of grains per ear (11% and 4%) and grain yield (8.6% and 8%) for spring and fall seasons as compared with synthetic cultivars IPA5012 and Buhooth 106. Results indicated that maximum grain yield could be achieved by sowing IPA3003 during early March and mid July with 420 kg N/ha. which gave 12.6 and 13.7 t/ha for spring and fall seasons, respectively

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA ASSOCIATED WITH RICE SEEDS ON SEED GERMINATION
تأثير الفطر ALternaria alternate المرافق لبذور الرز في انبات الذور

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted at the College of Agriculture , Univ. of Baghdad to determine the effect of Alternaria alternata on rice seed germination. The results showed that isolate W3 which isolated from cultivar Amber Baghdad seeds had a significant reduction in percentage of seed germination compared with other three isolates. Filtrate of this isolate significantly reduced percentage of seed germination , Length of radical and shoot. The reduction was reduced when distilled water was used as a culture with filter paper. All isolates failed to infect 10 days old seedlings when inoculated with spore suspension. The infection with A.alternata affected significantly the grain quality characters (milling %) as compared with healthy samples of the two cultivars, Amber Baghdad and IPA 1. Milling pencentages were 69.09% and 67.87% for the infected seeds and 76.82 % and 75.21% for the healthy seeds, respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
BIOLOGY OF BACTERIA RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM IN PLANT RESIDUE AND SOIL UNDER LABORATORY AND FIELD CONDITIONS
حياتية بكتريا Ralstonia solanacearumm في مخلفات العائل والتربة تحت الظروف المختبرية والحقلية

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الخلاصة

Survival of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of southern bacterial wilt on tomato, in protected cultivation with the absence of tomato crop was determined. The number of bacteria cells was observed, in the debris and soil on TZC medium. The results showed that isolates Rgl, Rg2 and Rg3 of the bacteria were able to survive in plant debris for 9 months under natural conditions. In the laboratory, R solanacearum could be survived for 6 months in the soil under artificial contamination, while it survived for only 3 weeks under field condition. These results indicate that the most important source of inoculum of R. solanacearum for the following season was in plant debris. The debris may protect the bacteria from severe summer conditions.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EVALUATION OF SOME CHEMICAL METHODS AND PLANT EXTRACTS FOR CONTROLLING ORIENTAL YELLOW SCALE-AONIDIELLA ORIENTALIS (NEW ST.) (HOMOPTERA: DIASPIDIDAE)
تقويم بعض الطرائق الكيميائية والمستخلصات النباتية في مكافحة الحشرة القشرية الشرقية الصفراء (Homoptera: Diaspididae) (Newst.) Aonidiella orientalis

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted at a local plant nursery in Baghdad city, during March and August 2002. Mineral oil in different concentrations was evaluated to controlling oriental scale-Aonidiella orientolis (Newst.) on sour orange scalings Citrus aurantiumL. The results showed that different concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 ml/litter of mineral oil was caused high reduction in population density of A.orientalis after 4,7 and 15 days. Also the study showed that the effectiveness of mineral oil was continued after 30 day at 20 and 40ml /litter. Although concentration 40 ml/1 caused slight defoliation. Furthermore, the study showed that crude water extracts of Schanginia aegyptiaca Artemisia compestris Achillea fragrantissima, phragmites communis as well as Al-Zahi formulation of different concentrations at the rate 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/litter had no effect in reducing the population density of the pest.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ISOLATION, PURIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LYSOZYME FROM CALOTROPIS PROCERA
فصل وتنقية وتوصيف جزئي للايسيوزايم من عصارة نبات الديباج

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الخلاصة

Lysozyme of Calotropis procera latex was isolated and purified by using ion exchange chromatography on the cation exchange column Duolite-C464, followed by gel fdtration on Sephadex G-75 column. Purification folds and the enzyme yield were 4.054 and 38.89% , respectively. Purity of obtained enzyme was tested by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and indicated that it has been purified to homogensity by giving a single band. The results of enzyme characterization showed that the molecular weights were 23000, 26302 dalton as determined by gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS filtration . The optimum pH for the enzyme activity was 4.5 and it was most stable at pH values ranged between 3.5 and 5.5. The enzyme exhibited the maximum activity at 50 °C. . The study of heat stability pointed out that the enzyme retained its entire activity over 15 min incubation at 25-35 °C, and it remained active even when incubated at 20-80 °C.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
SOME PROPERTIES OF A PURIFIED LYSOZYME FROM THE LATEX OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA
بعض خواص اللايسوزايم المنقى من عصارة نبات الديباج Calotropisprocera

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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to investigate some properties of a lysozyme purified from the latex of Calotropis procera. The results of amino acids analyses of the enzyme showed that the percentage of non-polar amino acids reached 39.1%, while the percentage of acidic and basic amino acids were 18 and 15%, respectively. The enzyme contained only 184 amino acids. The isoelectric point (pi) of the enzyme was 9. The percentage of carbohydrates found to be 13.575%. The maximum activity for the enzyme was at an ionic strength at 0.03 molary. The enzyme activity was reduced due to the addition of CuCl2, MnCl2 and HgCl2 to the reaction medium, and the enzyme activity was completely inhibited when HgCl2 added to the enzyme solution, while addition of NaCl enhanced the enzyme activity. On the other hand, each of histamine, histidin and N-acetyl glucosamine act as inhibitory againist the enzyme. No inhibition was noticed on the enzyme activity when EDTA or Cysteine were added to reaction mixture. While the non-ionic detergents (SDS) caused a great inhibition in the activity of the enzyme.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF UROPYGIALECTOMY OR REMOVAL OF UROPYGIAL GLAND PAPILLA ON BROILER BREEDER MALES PERFORMANCE
تاثير عملية ازالة الحلمة الزمكية وعملية استئصال الغدة الزمكية في الاداء الانتاجي لذكور امهات فروج اللحم

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted at the Native Chickens Breeding Station / IPA Agricultural Research Center, from 19th Dec. 2001 to 29th Jan. 2002. A total of 660 male broiler breeder (line CD) chicks, one day old were randomly allocated into 11 groups of three replicates per group. Chicks in the first 10 treatment groups were subjected to either surgical removal of uropygial gland (UG) or removal of UG papilla at different ages (3,10,17, 24 and 31 days) while the chicks in the 11* treatment group were used as control. The results indicated that the surgical removal of UG at 17 days old significantly improved the final body weight (at 6 weeks old). The final body weights for birds in this group were 1565.8 g. While the final body weight for control birds was 1418 g. It was concluded from this study that the surgical removal of UG of birds at 17 days old were realized the best results in final body weight, feed consumption and cumulative body weight gain. Uropygialctomy seemed to be better than the removal of UG papilla in most of characteristics included in the current experiment.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF UROPYGIALECTOMY ON PRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF JAPANESE QUAIL
تاثير عملية استئصال الغدة الزمكية في الصفات الانتاجية لطيور السلوى الياباني

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الخلاصة

Two experiments were conducted at the Poultry Farm of the Animal Resources Department, Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission from June 2002 to January 2003 to determine the influence of uropygialectomy on productive characteristics of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). In experiment 1, a total of 90 females (28 day old) were used. The birds were distributed randomly into 2 groups (45 females for each group) with 3 replicates (15 females each). The first group of females was uropygialectomized, while the second group of females was used as control group. The mean egg production , mean egg weight, egg output (g/hen/d), feed conversion to egg weight and mean feed intake were studied during a period from 7 to 26 weeks of age. In experiment 2 , a total of 144 females and 48 males (28 day old) were used and divided into 4 groups (36 females and 12 males per group with 3 replicates), (12 females and 4 males each). The uropygialectomy was performed on females and males in group 1 (Tl), males alone in group 2 (T2), females alone in group 3 (T3), whereas group 4 (T4) remained as control . Fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs and embryonic mortality for each group were recorded during a period from 10 to 26 weeks of birds age. The results of experiment 1 revealed the superiority of uropygialectomaized hens regarding the mean egg production , mean egg output and feed convertion to egg as compared to control. There were no significant differences between treated groups and control in relation to mean feed intake and mean egg weight. The results of experiment 2 showed that there were significant increases in the fertility rate and hatchability of fertile eggs in Tl and T2 in comparison with T3 and control (T4) , There were no significant differences in the hatching rate from total eggs and the embryonic mortality rate among groups . On the other hand, there were no significant differences between Tl and T2, and between T3 and control (T4) in all traits studied.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE EFFECT OF UROPYGIALE CTOMY ON CARCASS CUTS PERCENTAGE AND SOME PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BROILER MEAT
تأثير استئصال الغدة الزمكية في نسب القطيعات وبعض الصفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية والتقييم الحسي للحوم ذبائح فروج اللحم

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted at Poultry Farm, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, from 10 April to 28 May 2002. A total of 150 one-day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into two treatment groups. Chicks in each treatment were subdivided into three replicates (25 chicks/replicate). Chicks in the first treatment group were uroygicalectomized at 14 days old, while chicks in the second group were used as control. All chicks were fed on a commercial broiler ration throughout the experimental period which was lasted for 7 weeks. At the end of the experiment, a total of 18 birds from each group were slaughtered and carcasses were separated into ordinary cuts. The percentage of each carcass cuts and the percentage of lean, meat, bone and skin for primary cuts (breast, thigh and drumstick) were calculated. Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation for broiler thigh and breast meat were also studied. Results showed that uropgialectomy treatment resulted in a significant increase in breast, thigh and drumstick percentages and decreased the back, neck and wings. The relative weights of lean meat were significantly increased while the relative weights of bones were significantly decreased in the breast and thigh cuts of broilers carcasses. Uropygialectomy seemed to have a significant effects on chemical and sensory properties of broiler meat.

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Article
EFFECT OF REPLACEMENT THE LOCALLY PLANT PROTEIN CONCENTRATE FOR IMPORTED ANIMAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS
تاثير احلال مركز البروتين النباتي المحضر محلياً محل مركز البروتين الحيواني المستورد في الاداء الانتاجي لفروج اللحم

المؤلفون: M. H. Abdul-Abass محمد حسن عبد العباس
الصفحات: 137-146
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الخلاصة

This experiment aimed to study the effects of partial and complete replacement of animal protein concentrate by locally produced plant protein concentrate (sunflower meal supplemented with amino acids, vitamines and minerals) on the performance traits of Fawbro (CD) broiler chickens. Five treatments were used included, 1-control (T0)=100% animal protein concentrate + 0.0% plant protein concentrate, 2-T1- 75% animal protein concentrate + 25% plant protein concentrate, 3-T2 = 50% animal protein concentrat+50% plant protein concentrate, 4-T3= 25% animal protein concentrate + 75% plant protein concentrate and 5-T4= 0.0 % animal protein concentrate+100% plant protein concentrate with similar levels of total protein and energy in all treatments. Data were collected for live body weight, weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency from 2-8 weeks of age, and for slaughter weight, dressing percentage, main carcass cuts and the total count of intestinal bacterial content at 8 weeks. Results indicated that no significant differences between treatments in live body weight and weight gain during the first 2-6 weeks of age. However the differences became significant for the live weight at 8 weeks of age and for the weight gain during the period 6-8 weeks, as well as for the accumulative period 2-8 weeks for the above mentioned traits. T4 gave the highest live body weight (2362.6 g/bird)at 8weeks of age.

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Article
EFFECT OF PARTIAL AND TOTAL SUBSTITUTION OF THE SESAME MEAL INSTEAD OF PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON BROILER PERFORMANCE
تأثير الأحلال الجزئي والكلي لكسبة السمسم محل المركز البروتيني في الأداء الإنتاجي لطيور فروج اللحم

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of partial and total substitution of the sesame seed meal instead of protein concentrate in broiler ration, on broiler (Ross strain) performance. Three rations were used to substitute sesame seed meal instead of protein concentrate, Treatment 1 was the control group which contain 100% animal protein concentrate, with out sesame meal, treatment 2 contain 80% animal protein concentrate and 20% sesame meal, while the third treatment contained no animal protein concentrate, 100% sesame seed meal, The total protein and energy contents were same in all rations. Live body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion coefficient were calculated, for periods 4 and 8 weeks of age. Live body weight at 4 and 8 weeks were (846.25, 850.00, 835.06 and 2614.06, 2585.00,2620.31 g. , respectively). Results showed that no significant differences were obtained in body weight, weight gain during 4 and 8 weeks of age for all treatments compared with that of control group (846.25, 850.00, 835.06 and 2614.06, 2585.00,2620.31 g., respectively), for body weight and (28.60, 28.78 , 28.22 and 63.13 , 62.00 , 63.75 g., respectively) for weight gain , for birds in treatment 1 (control), 2 and 3 , for both periods . Carcass weight and dressing percentage at 8 weeks of age were also determined .The results indicated a significant difference in feed intake at 28day of age, and there was an increasing feed intake with increasing substitution percentage in the third treatment. There was a decrease in feed intake during the period of 1 - 56 days. The total amount of feed intake during 56 days the second treatment and the control was 4678.7 and 4692.9 g. for the second treatment .The results indicated no significant difference in feed efficiency and dressing percentage for all treatments at 56 days. From this study it could be concluded that using sesame meal had no harmful effect on broiler performance.

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Article
IMPROVEMENT OF MEAT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF AGED AWASSI EWES BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION
تحسين الصفات النوعية للحوم ذبائح النعاج العواسية المسنة بأستخدام التحفير الكهربائي

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الخلاصة

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) at low voltage (80v) and high voltage (200v) on meat quality characteristics of aged ewes. Seven local Awassi ewes aged between 5 to 6 years old were slaughtered , dressed and divided into two parts . Each part of carcasses were randomly divided into 3 groups : A control group (7 sides), electrical stimulation (80 volts , 25 Hz for 2 min) (3 sides) and electrical stimulation (200 volts , 25 Hz for 2 min) (4 sides) .Both ES treatments recorded rapid drop in pH to the value of 6 which reached at shorter period as compared to control. There was no significant difference among treatments for temperature decline , drip loss, thaw loss and cooking loss . Higher values of myofibrillar fragmentation index were observed in ES (200 volts), while the lowest values were in control group. Data from the present study suggested that the ES can be used to enhance the degradation and proteolysis myofibrillar cytoskeletal proteins and that may contribute to an improve in flavor and tenderness of aged ewe meat.The obtained results also revealed that both ES treatments had greatly accelerated postmortem glycolysis as reflected by increased both R-248 and R-250 and redusced R-258 values when compared to control. The organoleptic tasts for ES treated samples showed an improvment in meat quality as assessed for flavour, tenderness, juicieness and overall acceptance. The chemical composition of treated samples had not been changed as compared with control. It can be concluded from this experiment that electrical stimulation at high voltage (200v) or low voltage (80v) improved meat quality characteristics of aged ewes.

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Article
ESTIMATION OF GENETIC VALUES OF HOLSTEIN BULLS ACCORDING TO SOME GROWTH TRAITS
تقدير القدرات الوراثية لثيران الهولشتاين اعتمادا على بعض صفات النمو

المؤلفون: S. F. AI-Amiri سعد فيصل العامري
الصفحات: 161-167
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الخلاصة

A total of 1010 records of growth traits from progenies of 16 Holstein sires, at al-Naser dairy station, United Livestock Co. Ltd. in Al-Soweira (50 km south of Baghdad) were genetically analyzed. The study was conducted to estimate Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) of sires for birth and weaning weights and gain from birth to birth. Genetic parameters (heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations between above traits) were also estimated. General Linear Model (GLM) within the SAS program was used to study the effect of fixed factors (parity, sex, type of birth, season and year of parturition) on growth traits. Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) was conducted to estimate variance of components of random effects assuming mixed model. Harvey program was used to estimate BLUP. Results indicated that heritability of birth and weaning weight and gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.28 and 0.41, respectively. The highest genetic and phenotypic correlations (0.86 and 0.91) were between weaning weight and weight gain, while the lowest correlations (0.63 and 0.55) were between birth and weaning , respectively. The highest BLUP was 4.12 kg, while the lowest was-5.15 kg of birth weight. The highest BLUP was 9.08 kg, while the lowest was -8.31 kg of weaning weight. However, the highest BLUP was 2.71 kg, while the lowest was -2.51 kg of weight gain, respectively. It was suggested that 4 sires can be selected to be parents of next generation.

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Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR EFFECTIVE FACTORS IN EGGPLANT PRODUCTION IN ALRASHIDIAH SUB - DISTRICT
تحليل اقتصادي للعوامل المؤثرة في انتاج محصول الباذنجان في قضاء الراشدية

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الخلاصة

Eggplant considered as one of the most important summer crops in Iraq, but the average production of this crop is still very low if it is compared with world production. Therefore, this research was aimed to study the effect of economical resources in productive quantities of aubergin. The estimated results indicated that the main factors affecting crop production were seeds of crop , chemical fertilizer, number of irrigation water , hours of mechanical labour and hours of human labour. These variables explained 91% of the total variation in eggplant production. Moreover, use of these factors were in the second stage of production. When economical efficiency was estimated it indicated that all factors (subject of study) did not confirm economical efficiency , while the quantity of maximum profits from seeds and fertilizers reached 30 kg. , 2.85 ton respectively .These quantities achieved profits more than profits achieved by means of these factors.

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Article
EFFECT OF DILUENT SUPPLEMENTATION WITH OLIVE OIL ON SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LIPID PEROXIDATION DURING LIQUID STORAGE OF AGED ROOSTERS' SEMEN
تاثير اضافة زيت الزيتون الى المخففات في حساسية السائل المنوي للديكة المتقدمة بالعمر لتاكسد الدهن اثناء خزنه بدرجات حرارة منخفضة

المؤلفون: Hazim J. AI - Daraji حازم جبار الدراجي
الصفحات: 177-187
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الخلاصة

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of supplementing the diluent of aged roosters' semen with different levels of olive oil on motility, viability, morphology and acrosome integrity of roosters spermatozoa after in vitro storage for up to 72 h. Semen was collected from 60 White Layer males (62 wk of age) kept in separated floor pens and randomly divided into six treatment groups (10 males in each group). Experimental groups were as follows: Tl :fresh semen, T2 : semen extended 1:1 with Al -Daraji 2 diluent (AD2D) alone, T3 - T6 :semen samples extended 1:1 with AD2D supplemented with 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml or 8 ml of olive oil / 100 ml of diluent, respectively. Semen samples were then stored at 5 °C for 24 h, 48 h or 72 h. There was a clear influence of diluent supplementation with olive oil on the spermatozoa motility profile; olive oil groups (T3, T4, T5 and T6) recorded the highest scores of mass activity and individual motility during all storage periods compared to Tl and T2 groups. In addition, the inclusion of olive oil into semen diluent (T3, T4, T5 and T6) gave significantly higher percentages of viable spermatozoa, normal morphologically spermatozoa and intact acrosomes irrespective of storage period. These results clearly show that supplementation the diluent of aged roosters' semen with olive oil can improve semen quality when semen samples in vitro stored at 5 °C for up to 72 h.

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