Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2012 volume:43 issue:6

Article
EFFICIENCY OF SELECTION CRITERIA TO IMPROVE MAIZE PERFORMANCE UNDER LOW AND HIGH NITROGEN.
كفاءة معايير انتخاب لتحسين أداء الذرة الصفراء تحت قلة ووفرة النايتروجين .1 – بعض الصفات الحقلية

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Abstract

بهدف دراسة تأثير الانتخاب في تحسين نمو وحاصل الذرة الصفراء( L. mays (Zea تم تقييم أربعة معايير انتخاب:هي عدد حبوب النبات (GN) والمدة بين التزهير الذكري والأنثوي(ASI ) وكفاءة الحاصل (YE)ومدة بقاء الأوراق خضراء((LAD تحت قلة ووفرة النايتروجين(200 و 400 كغمN/ه) . أُجريت تجربة حقلية في ستة مواسم(2009 -2011 ) في حقل قسم علوم المحاصيل الحقلية في كلية الزراعة – جامعة بغداد , أُستخدم فيها الصنف التركيبي بحوث 106. انتخبت النباتات المتفوقة مظهرياً بحسب المعيار ولُقحت ذاتياً لثلاث دورات , وخلطت بذور كل معيار ولكل مجتمع من مجتمعات التسميد . زرعت بذور المنتخبات في الموسم الرابع للتلقيح العشوائي . قسمت البذور الناتجة من التلقيح العشوائي إلى قسمين تمت زراعتها في تجارب مقارنة للموسمين الربيعي والخريفي وتحت المستوى الواطئ والعالي من النايتروجين من أجل تقويمها ومقارنتها مع الأصل بتصميم القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة بأربعة مكررات بترتيب الألواح المنشقة ؛ مثلت الكثافات النباتية 60و80 الف نبات /هكتار الألواح الرئيسة فيما كانت معايير الانتخاب مع الصنف الأصلي الالواح الثانوية لكلا التجربتين. أظهرت النتائج فعالية الانتخاب تحت المستوى الواطئ من النايتروجين بتقليل عدد الأيام من الزراعة إلى 75% تزهير أنثوي للمنتخبات ASIو GN بمعدل2 و4 أيام عن الصنف الأصلي في الموسم الخريفي وتقليل ارتفاع النبات لكل المعايير المنتخبة. ازداد عدد الأوراق الفعالة بنسبة 9 %و7 % و4% للموسم الربيعي و16% و23 % و17% للموسم الخريفي , بالتتابع للمعايير ASI و LADو YE وزادت مساحة الأوراق بنسبة 8 % و4 %للموسم الربيعي و26 % و 8 % للموسم الخريفي للمنتخبات ASI وLAD للموسمين , بالتتابع . كذلك أثرت دورات الانتخاب في المعايير الأربعة تحت المستوى العالي من النايتروجين وأبكرت بالتزهير الأنثوي عن الأصلي بمعدل 1.6 و4 و3.8 و1.8 يوم للمعايير GN وASI وYEو LAD للموسم الربيعي وبمعدل 4 و5.6 و3.6 يوم للموسم الخريفي للمعايير GN و ASI و YE, بالتتابع. كما قلل الانتخاب من ارتفاع النبات للمنتخبات تحت النايتروجين العالي. زادت مساحة الأوراق بنسبة 5% و 5 % و12% للموسم الربيعي و22% و4% و28% للموسم الخريفي للمنتخبات GN وASI و YEبالتتابع . أدت زيادة الكثافة النباتية من 60 إلى 80 ألف نبات / هكتار إلى تأخير التزهير الأنثوي وزيادة ارتفاع النبات وتقليل عدد الأوراق ومساحتها لكلا المستويين وبكلا الموسمين الربيعي والخريفي. أدى الانتخاب تحت التسميد العالي والواطئ على حد سواء إلى تحسين أداء النباتات الفردية لعدد من الصفات الحقلية وانعكس ذلك على زيادة كفاءة النباتات المنتخبة تحت قلة ووفرة النايتروجين, لذا نوصي باستخدام هذه المعايير بالانتخاب واستنباط سلالات متحملة للنايتروجين الواطئ والكثافات العالية.

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Article
EFFICIENCY OF SELECTION CRITERIA TO IMPROVE MAIZE PERFORMANCE UNDER LOW AND HIGH NITROGEN. 2- Grain yield and components
كفاءة معايير انتخاب لتحسين أداء الذرة الصفراء تحت قلة ووفرة النايتروجين2 – حاصل الحبوب ومكوناته

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Four selection criteria ; grain /plant (GN) , anthesis-silking interval(ASI) ,yield efficiency (YE) and leaf area duration (LAD) ,were tested on selected plants of maize (Zea mays L.) cv.R-106. The experiment was applied for six consecutive seasons on the farm of the Dept.of Field Crops Sci./College of Agric./Univ.of Baghdad .Plants of high grain yield coincided with the desired criterion were taken , selfed, and harvested for three selection cycles under 200 and 400 kg N/ha . Seeds of third cycle of each selection criterion were planted for panmixia . The resulted seeds were grown in a yield trial for evaluation under 60 and 80 thousands plant/ha in spring and fall seasons .The results showed superiority of low nitrogen selected plants population that were selected for shorter ASI increased grain number/plant% 23.6 and% 34.4 , and ear number /plant by % 8.4 ,%19.4 over original population in spring and fall, respectively. Grain weight was increased by %10.8 ,%13 and,% 12.5 for GN,ASI and LAD in spring season. In fall season grain weight was increased by %9 and %17.6 for GN,ASI, respectively. This increase was reflected on grain yield increase for ASI over original population and all criteria, it gave 93.15 and 146.11 g/plant in spring and fall, respectively. Selection criteria under high N responded positively and gave grain yield higher than original population in both seasons. Selection under high and low of N levels led to improve individual plant performance for many genetic and phenotypic traits, and resulted in increasing the efficiency of plants that were selected under high and low levels of nitrogen. We recommend to using these criteria for selection and to develop inbreds tolerant to low nitrogen and high densities, particularly the selection for ASI, and evaluate their performance to be used in breeding programs for producing cultivars and hybrids suitable for environments of stress.

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Article
EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZATION AND ZINC FOLIAR APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF COTTON
تأثيـر التسميـد الفوسفاتـي والـرش بالزنـك في نمـو وحاصـل القطـن

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To investigate the response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Lashata) to three levels of phosphorus (50 , 75 , and 100) kg P.ha-1 and four zinc concentrations (0 , 40 , 80 and 120 mg Zn.l -1) . A field experiment was conducted on the Expermental Farm, Department of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad . A randomized complete block design with four replications was used . The results showed an increase in number of sympodia in both season 7.23 and 7.76, dry weight 105.5 and 107.9 g.plant-1, number of open bolls 8.55 and 9.28 per plant, boll weight 4.21 and 4.34g at application 100 kg P.h-1 that reflected increasing seed cotton yield 2179 and 2462 kg.ha-1 and lint cotton yield 816.5 and 908.8 kg.ha-1, increasing strength lint 9.78 and 19.36g.tex-1 respectively, while application of phosphorus non-significant effect in length and fineness. Foliar application of zinc concentration from 0 to 120 mg Zn. l -1 to increase number of sympodia in both season 7.15 and 7.65, dry matter weight 104.9 and 107.6 g.plant-1, number of open bolls 8.67 and 9.40, boll weight 4.26 and 4.41g that result increase seed cotton yield 2220 and 2497 kg.ha-1 and lint cotton yield 834.2 and 944.1 kg.ha-1 increasing strength lint 20.01 and 19.52g.tex-1 respectively, did not foliar application of zinc affeceted on length, fineness. Interaction between phosphorus and zinc was significant effect on number of sympodia 8.06 and 8.74, dry weight 109.8 and 111.6 g.plant-1, number of open bolls 9.24 and 9.97, boll weight 4.49 and 4.68, seed cotton yield 2475 and 2799 kg.ha-1, lint cotton yield 973.1 and 1071.2 kg.ha-1 was achieved at application 100 kg p.ha-1 with 120 mg Zn. l -1, interaction between phosphorus and zinc non-significant effect on length, fineness, strength lint during 2010 and 2011 season.Conclusion on this study foliar of zinc necessary at being problem in soil and interaction with phosphorus and that it may be recommended application 100kg P.ha-1 with 120 mg Zn. l -1 (192 g Zn.ha-1) of cotton.

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Article
EFFECT OF SPRAYING WATER AND SHADING ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH CHARACTERS AND YIELD OF APRICOT
تأثير رش الماء والتظليل في صفات النمو الخضري والثمري للمشمش

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This experiment was conducted at a private apricot orchard located around Baghdad . during the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010 . The experiment included three factors ; shading (S) water spraing (I) and cultivars (C). The first factor was with three levels were used ,0 (S1) , 25% (S2) and 50% (S3) and three levels of sprinkler water , no water (I1) , once a day (I2) and twice a day (I3) and two cultivars , Labeeb 1 (C1) and Turkish cultivar Zenjeely (C2). The experimental results showed that shading at 50% and water spraying at twice a day and Turkish cultivar C2I3S3 significantly gave the highest leaf area of 30,563 and 31,333 cm2 and the highest average yearly growth of 44,817 and 45,210 cm and the highest chlorophyll index of 36,833 and 36,963 SPAD unit and the highest average fruit weight of 25,960 and 26,160 gm. and yield per tree of 34,447 and 35,230 kg for both seasons, respectively. The lowest value of these parameters were found in the C1I1S1 treatment, and the C2I1S1 treatment gave the highest in branches content of carbohydrates of 9,820 and 9,907 % in both seasons , respectively . it could be concluded of this experiment that the shading at level S3 and water spraying treatments at the level I3 improved vegetative and fruits characteristics in apricot trees for two cultivars and we recommended conducting these treatments annually and study the effect of shading and water spraying treatments in the other dates on the apricot cvs.

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Article
RESPONSE OF COWPEA TO APPLICATION METHODS AND COBALT CONCENTRATION
استجابة اللوبياء لطرائق اضافة وتراكيز الكوبلت

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An experiment was carried out at the vegetable fields of Hort. Dept., College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad to test two methods of cobalt application at five concentrations [0 (control) , 1 (Co1) , 2 (Co2) , 3 (Co3) and 4 (Co4 )mgCo.l-1) on growth and yield of cowpea Vigna unguculata L. All treatments were implemented twice (30 and 44 days after sowing) during the season. In addition recommended chemical fertilizer (60 kg urea. and 260 kg. triple superphosphate ha-1 was applied to all treatments at sowing , and 72 kg. urea ha-1 was applied one month after germination. A randomized complete block design was adopted with three replications . Foliar spray increased significantly the number and weight of the root nodules , improved vegetative growth traits, and increased yield .In addition,and regardless the method of Co application , Co3 treatments dominated in all tested characteristics. Except in the first season where Co4 was not significantly differed compared to Co3 in the number and fresh weight of root nodules . Spraying cobalt at 3 mg.l-1 dominated in number of root nodules (113.6 and 68.3 nodule plant-1), nodule fresh weight (1.27 and 0.64 g), plant length (125.7 and 96.3 cm) , number of leaves (80.4 and 72.6 leaf. Plant-1) , vegetative part dry weight (91.8 and 76.5 g. Plant-1) , number of pods (32.7 and 30.5 pod. Plant-1), average pod fresh weight (6.8 and 6.7) and highest pod yield (11.8 and 10.8 ton. ha-1) for the two seasons respectively . Accordingly spraying of cowpea plants with cobalt at 3 mg.l-1 twice during the season (30 and 44 days after sowing) was recommended.

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STUDYING CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SOME WELLS IN COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE – UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD AND ASSESS ITS SUITABILITY FOR AGRICULTURAL AND HUMAN PURPOSES
دراسة الخصائص الكيميائية لبعض مياه أبار كلية الزراعة - جامعة بغداد وتقييم صلاحيتها للاستخدامات الزراعية والمنزلية

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The experiment was carried out to determine ionic construction for preselected five wells, located in the College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad. Moreover, other principal aims were taken into consideration such examine its suitability for human and irrigation use according to world health organization, US salinity laboratory "Richards" (18) and food agriculture organization (FAO) for 1992 classification. Water samples were taking monthly on a regular intervals from the beginning of July in 2001 up to January 2012. Results observed that water content of ions for these wells varied based on its location, which directly related on each of electrical conductivity average, total dissolved salts, total hardness, potential salinity and other chemical characteristics. Therefore, all selected water wells is no longer suitable for human uses upon Iraqi standards for human uses. In agriculture term, water wells were classified for summer and winter season into C4¬S1 except well number (5) that belonged to C3¬S1 during only winter season basing on US salinity laboratory. It was also classified into moderate saline water with type primary drainage water and groundwater and increasing with problem to hard problem according to FAO 1992. On other hand, the experiment was noticed that concentrations of boron, NO3¬- and Pb+++ were low, high concentration of Zn++ which exceed the required range and demonstration ions Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+1, So4= and Cl-1 in the water wells. This study deems good indicator must be taken into account before using five selected water wells above for human and agriculture use.

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Article
ISOLATION OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM SOIL AND IDENTIFYING PRODUCED ORGANIC ACIDS
عزل البكتريا المذيبة للفوسفات من التربة وتعيين الحوامض العضوية المنتجة منها

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Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were isolated from agricultural soil samples using pikovskayas medium. The Isolates were purified and identified based on morphology and biochemicals tests. Results showed two isolates namely , Pseudomonas spp. (P) and Bacillus spp. (B) reported as phosphate solubilizing bacteria . Their activity to solubilize tricalcium phosphate in broth cultures was examind.P-solubilizing action of these PSB was associated with the released organic acids and drop in pH of the cultures.Spectrophotometer was used to quantify phosphate solubilization in broth cultures at 430 nm.The isolate P3 was superior in solubilized phosphate (317.5 mgl-1) whereas lowest amount of solubilized phosphate (30.9 mgl-1)coincided with decreased pH of mediums of difference isolates. P3 isolate produced many organic acids ,therfore pH was decreased to 4.80 compared with 6.80 in control and B1 6.60.The results showed a negative relationship between pH and P-solubilized .High performance liquid chromatography analysis detected five different kinds organic acids namely : citric acid , gluconic acid , lactic acid , propionic acid and succinic acid in the cultures. It was concluded that bacteria was involved in arange of processes that affect the transformation of soil P .Phosphate solubilizing bacteria has attracted the attention of agriculturists as soil inoculums to improve the plant growth and yield,by solubilizing soil phosphate.

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AMOUNT OF WATER CONSUMPTION FOR EVAPORATIVE COOLING PADS
ترشيد الاستهلاك المائي لحشوات التبريد التبخيري

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Evaporative cooling systems is widely used in poultry barn . In this experiment the cellulose evaporative cooling pads with 10 cm thickness is most commonly used in Iraq were tested in the workshop of the College of Agriculture during summer / 2011 .Using a new methodology in a wind tunnel to determine the water flow on the pad and air flow through it, as well as the water consumption and saturation efficiency of the pad three water disturbed represent main plot 6,8 and 10 l/min and subplot the air speed 1.4,1.6,1.8 and 2 m/s .The result showed that when water flow increased from 6 to 8 to 10 l/min the temperature among the pads was increased too . When the air speed increased from 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2 m/s, the temperature among the pads was decreased. The result showed when water flow increased from 6 to 8 to 10 l/min, the saturation efficiency increased too. When the air speed increased from 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2 m/sec, saturation efficiency decreased. When water flow increased from 6 to 8 to 10 l/min the water consumption increased too. When the air speed increased from 1.4,1.6,1.8 and 2 m/sec evaporative water increased from 19.0 , 22.6, 24.1 and 24.9 l/h too .We concluded that the best speed gives the best indicators of air through the pad was 1.4 m / s and the best discharge of 10 l/min which gave the highest cooling efficiency and the highest reduction in temperature in front of cushions and less amount of water steamed.

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Article
EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF BUHLER AG 200 TON MILL AND THE EFFECT OF SOME MECHANICAL CHANGES TO INCREASE IT’S CAPACITY *
تقييم اداء المطحنة Buhler ag 200 ton وتأثير بعض التغييرات الالية في زيادة طاقتها الانتاجية *

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ABSTRACT A factorial experiment was conducted in 2011 to evaluate the performance of mill Buhler ag 200 ton ; and the effect of some mechanical changes on its capacity . The mill belongs to Ministry of Trade general company of grain processing , it is running by computer and considers as a developing mill with capacity 200 tonhour . The mill used to offer the need of the flour in a Alanbar province as a ration card . This mill is consist of three parts , the first is cleaning and dumping , second part is milling and the third is packing . The milling part is the most important because it is responsible of changing the wheat into flour and bran with an ability of increase or decrease the extraction rate , and deliver it to special silos . Milling section has 11 roll mill cylinders , 2 plan sifter , 3 bran finishers , and 5 detachers in addition to high presser fan system used to transfer the wheat components from the lower floor to the upper floor and distribute it on all parts of the milling machine . In this experiment was used mixed wheat , 50% local wheat , 30% American wheat and 20% Australian wheat , and the moisture content of wheat grain when reached the milling department was 16% . It was studied some technical performance that could be an indicators of the mill performance , and they are the mill capacity , mill extraction rate and also tow of the important specification of flour , and they are flour degree of granulation and final moisture content of flour . The experiment was done under the complete randomize design with three replication . The research studied two factors , first is clearance of first brake rolls with three levels 0.5 , 0.6 , 0.7 mm , and second is flour sieves diameter with two levels 132 , 280 micron . The 0.5 mm first brake rolls clearance and 280 micron flour sieves diameter was superior in getting high capacity(8.816) , high mill extraction rate (%81.09) and high moisture content of flour (%14.02) while the 0.5 mm first brake rolls clearance and 132 micron flour sieves diameter was superior in getting a high flour degree of granulation (%0.60) . We recommend to work at 0.5 mm clearance of first brake rolls and 280 micron flour sieves diameter to get high mill capacity , high mill extraction rate and high moisture content of flour .

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ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME INULINASES PRODUCING MOLDS
عزل وتشخيص بعض الأعفان المنتجة للأنيولينيزات

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Sixty nine of inulinase producer molds isolates were isolated from soil and some spoiled crops, fourty seven isolates were obtained at 45°C and twenty two isolates were obtained at 30°C by cultivating them on Czapek-Dox medium with standard inulin only as a carbon source for growth surety .The isolates were screened qualitatively by using media with inulin for the best enzyme activity and quantitatively by cultivating them on media containing inulin and artichock extract to select the best isolate in inulinase production by select the isolate with high specific activity by achievement quantitatively screening in two steps ,and the isolate 49 was the highest inulinase producer at 45°C in inulinase production, in first step the activity of this isolate was 0.479u/ml and specific activity was 20.826u/mg, in second step the activity of this isolate was 0.138u/ml and specific activity was 4.451u/mg. The isolate was identified by cultivate it on special media and found that it was Aspergillus oryzae (A.oryzae) which the diameter of colony on Czapek-Dox Agar was 5-6cm at 24-26 °C with regular circular shape and yellowish green colour, it was kind of Aspergillus flavus but it is distinguish than the latest that it is non toxic and moreover it is very important in fermented foods .it is concluded that we can use solid state fermentation for inulinases production from molds instead of submerged culture for its advantages . The isolate 49 was thermophilic for growing at 45°C and it was Aspergillus oryzae (A.oryzae).We recommended to purify these enzymes and utilize them in food processing because they are thermophilic.

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THE KNOWLEDGE OF DATE- PALM FARMERS WITH THE DUBAS BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT IN KERBELA GOVERNORATE AND ITS INTERRELATED VARIABLES
معرفة أصحاب بساتين النخيل في محافظة كربلاء المقدسة بمكافحة حشرة دوباس النخيل باستخدام العدو الحيوي أسد المن وعلاقتها ببعض العوامل.

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هدف البحث تحديد مستوى معرفة زراع النخيل في محافظة كربلاء المقدسة بمكافحة حشرة دوباس النخيل بأستخدام العدو الحيوي أسد المن و تحديد مستوى معرفتهم بمجالات المعرفة الآتية : وصف الحشرة و أضرارها وأعراض الإصابة بها والمعرفة بحياتية العدو الحيوي أسد المن والمعرفة بأهمية خدمة النخلة ، فضلا عن التعرف على علاقة المستوى المعرفي لزراع النخيل بكل من المتغيرات المستقلة التالية : العمر والتحصيل الدراسي و مساحة البستان و عدد النخيل و الدخل و مصدر المعلومات و النشاطات الإرشادية. تحقيقا لأهداف البحث وفي ضوء البحوث العلمية والنشرات المتعلقة بالمكافحة الحيوية للحشرات بصورة عامة وحشرة الدوباس بصورة خاصة ، تم بناء المقياس المعرفي و تضمن 24 فقرة موزعة على المجالات المعرفية المذكورة آنفا . حددت درجتان لكل فقرة وبذلك أصبحت درجات المقياس تتراوح ما بين 48-0 درجة . شمل البحث جميع الزراع الذين تعرضوا للتقانة موضوع البحث البالغ عددهم 9623 زارعا ، وبأخذ عينة عشوائية منهم حجمها 96 مبحوثا (بنسبة 1% ). جمعت البيانات بوساطة استبانة أعدت لهذا الغرض في شهري تشرين الثاني وكانون الأول لعام 2011. أظهرت نتائج البحث ان 71.9 من المبحوثين هم ضمن الفئة المتوسطة . كما أظهرت النتائج عدم وجود علاقة بين مستوى معرفة الزراع والعمر ومساحة البستان وعدد النخيل . في حين وجدت علاقة معنوية موجبة بين التحصيل الدراسي ومصدر المعلومات والنشاطات الإرشادية وكانت قيمها *2.610 ، *2.201، . *2.040توصي الباحثة بضرورة تكثيف النشاطات الإرشادية بالتنسيق بين الدوائر الزراعية في المحافظات ومنطقة البحث (كربلاء) والعاصمة بغداد فضلا عن دور وزارة الزراعة بتقديم الدعم لهذه النشاطات وصولا الى تدريب واسع النطاق لزراع النخيل لتبني افضل لهذه التقانة المهمة والتي أحدثت تغيرا كبيرا في الحد من تلوث البيئة وتحقيق جودة إنتاج التمور لبلدنا العزيز.

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THE IMPACT OF PARTITIONING FARM SIZE ON COSTS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT (BAGHDAD PROVINCE AS A CASE STUDY)
أثر تجزئة الحيازة المزرعية في تكاليف و إنتاجية محصول القمح (محافظة بغداد – أنموذج تطبيقي)

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Abstract

Inspite of achieved big objectives of agrarian reform laws but these laws contain something negatives. The problem of the study is devoted to the consequences of agrarian reform laws which confiscated land from feudal lord and redistributed it to the peasants who were working on these land as sharecroppers . The process of land redistribution resulted in large numbers of landholders who did not have the necessary capital for land improvement and cultivation and they lost the benefit of economies of scale . This was reflected in the form of low quality and quantity of production . These small landownership were partitioned into tiny farms , between heirs, which were not viable economically . Data were collected by a questionnaire through stratified random sample for wheat in Baghdad province for the season 2009-2010 . The cultivated area were divided into six groups according to size and the sample size was 500 farmers . The objective of the study is to determine the least economic size of ownership and the relationship between productivity and farm size in the study sample .The study had arrived at some results the most important of which were that the least economic size was the one with the range of 7.75-12.5 ha. The optimum production in long run was about 39 tons and the optimum area was 8.5 acres which was supported by L.S.D. and DMRT tests . This means that there was proportional relationship between farm size and productivity for the farms with 12.5 ha area or less than that and there was inverse relationship for farms with size more than 12.5 ha. The study recommended the need to put some constraints that force the wheat farmers in central Iraq , the indivisibility of property owned or contracted for the size of 7.5 ha and that may cause partitioning of those properties to reduce the economic efficiency of these farms .

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Article
GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG IRAQI BARLEY CULTIVARS USING RAPD – PCR TECHNIQUE
التنوع و العلاقات الوراثية لأصناف الشعير المزروعة في العراق باستخدام تقنية RAPD – PCR

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Abstract

This experiment is aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among nine local barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) by using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. To achieve this, the seeds were sown in a germination cabinet under controlled environment at 20°C and a 16/8 hrs. light/darkness photoperiod. Total genomic DNA of barley plant was extracted from two different sources, from 2-3 g of fresh leaves by using CTAB method, The average yields of DNA were in the range of 1090-8550 μg /g of leaf tissue with purity of 1.5-1.9 , and also from dry seeds by using commercial kit, the DNA yield was 865-1035 μg/ mg of dry seed powder and a purity ranging 1.4-1.6. Eighteen random primers used in this study produced 177 bands across nine varieties. Of these bands, 106 bands or 60% were polymorphic. The size of the amplified bands ranged 358-4818 bp. The genetic polymorphism value of each primer was determined and ranged 25-100%. It was also possible to find the DNA fingerprint of all studied barley varieties through the appearance of a number of bands that were unique to each variety that may be used in the future as cultivar specific marker. the most characteristic banding pattern was for each varieties with primer GB7. Genetic distances ranged from 0.13424 to 0.43789 among barley varieties. Cluster analyses were performed to construct a dendrogram among studied barley varieties. cluster analysis grouped the nine varieties into three main clusters depending on their ancestor and their morphological traits. The information generated from this study can be used in the future for barley breeding and improvement programs.

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