Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2012 volume:43 issue:special issue -1

Article
LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE EFFECT OF "NEONICOTINOID" INSECTICIDES AND THE HYPOTHESIS "HORMOLIGOSIS" ON THE BIOLOGY OF TWO SPOTTED SPIDER MITES
دراسات مختبرية حول العلاقة بين تاثير مبيدات "Neonicotinoids" الحشرية وفرضية التحفيز الهرموني في حياتية الحلم ذي البقعتين

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Abstract

Two methods were used to treat female of two spotted spider mite with neonicotinoid insecticides.First of them are direct spraying on females by using three concentration of each insecticide( recommended concentration,half and quarter of recommended concentration) Imidacloprid had caused an increase the number of eggs laid by the female to means of 8.30, 7.54, 9.37 eggs/day with the respective dosges used. Thiamethoxam treatments showed a means of 7.64, 7.12, 7.75 with respective to the used concentration. However, the means for the control treatment was 3.81, 4.70, 5.45 eggs/ day. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the treatments. Similarly Imidacloprid treatment had an obvious effect on the longevity 11.3 days followed by Thiamethoxam with longevity 9.70 days, while the longevity in the control was 8.00 days. The differences between the treatments were highly significant. The second method that was used to treat the mite female was by dipping discs of cotton leaf in solutions containing different concentration of the used insecticides. The results showed that Imidacloprid treatments had the highest effect on the fecundity with means of 8.90, 7.05, 9.15 with respective to the different concentrations followed by Thiamethoxam treatments with means of 6.84, 6.57, 7.14 while the control treatment showed a mean of 4.60, 4.58, 5.31. statistical analysis showed significant differences between the treatments. In regard to the effect of dipping method on female longevity, the results showed that Imidacloprid treatment had elongate the female life span to 11.00 days compared to that found with Thiamethoxam treatment 9.33 and 7.66 recorded for Thiamethoxam and control treatment.In conclusion, the increased effects that accured when nicotinoid insecticides were used can be explained by the hypothesis of "Hormoligosis".

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Article
LABORATORY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF OF INSECT GROWTH REGULA TORS ALSYSTIN AND DIMILIN ON THE TERMITE WORKERS USING DIRECT SPRAY TECHNIQUE
التقييم المختبري لكفاءة منظمات النمو الحشرية Alsystin و Dimilin على شغالات الأرضة باستعمال تقنية الرش المباشر

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of direct spraying technique for different concentrations of insect growth regulators to cause the death for termite workers in laboratory conditions and the incubator conditions at a temperature of 30 ± 5and the relative humidity of 80 ± 10% in 2011-2012. The study results showed high effectiveness for all tested Insect growth regulators Alsystin (Triflumuron) and Dimilin (Diflubenzuron) in causing mortality to termite workers at various concentrations and for booth study conditions, all concentrations characterized to cause gradual mortality at the beginning of treatment and increased with an increase in exposure time. The rate of mortality reached 100% after 3 weeks at all concentrations of the first exposition under the laboratory and incubator conditions. The effectiveness of Alsystin increased by the increasing of the concentrations , but the increasing of the Dimilin concentrations did not effect in increasing the proportion of mortality during infections, The results of the study showed that the efficiency of the of Alsystin and Dimilin in the causing of mortality less over the time, but their efficiency is more and faster in causing of mortality when the temperature is relatively stable in the incubator conditions compared to fluctuations in temperature at laboratory conditions during successive exposition, Also the duration of the growth regulators effective in causing death lasted 180 - 200 days in laboratory conditions and were220 days in the incubator conditions.

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Article
REPELLENT ACTIVITY AND MORTALITY OF TWO COMMERICAL FUNGAL FORMULATIONS AGAINST TERMITE WORKERS
فعالية طرد وقتل مستحضرين تجاريين فطريين ضد شـــغالات الأرضـــــــة

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Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercial formulation (Malizian and Indian) of pathogenic fungus M.anisopliae in behavior and mortality of termite workers in laboratory conditions during 2011. The results of study showed that the fungus in all formulations caused repllent effect against termite workers in the beginning of treatment due to the variation in concentrations in which increasing spores concentration causing avoidance of workers to treated termite media so that the workers behavior distinction with rotation around the margin of petri dish containing treated media and move to untreated media during the first time of treatment which reached 7-10 days, as a result of this avoidance. The mortality percentage was very low in all concentration while the high concentration caused repellents. The mortality percentage in the first week reached 21.16, 8.81, 12.59 % in the concentration 2, 4, 6 gliter and 9.11, 14.56, 3.23 % in the concentration 2, 4, 6 ml liter for Malizian and Indian formulation respectively. The workers gathered in the connection between treated and untreated petri dish whole in the time of treatment progress the repellents of concentration was decreased in the mortality percentage 100 % achieved after 7, 6, 8 weeks in concentration 2, 4, 6 gL of Malizian formulation and after 9, 8, 8 weeks in concentration 2, 4, 6 mlL of Indian formulation respectively. The results showed that Malizian formulation caused more repellent compared with Indian formulation, but there was no significant effect between the two formulations in the study.

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Article
THE RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF TWO METHODS FOR SAMPLING INSECT POPULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SORGHUM HEADS
تقدير الكثافة السكانية للحشرات المرتبطة بالنورات الزهرية لبعض أصناف الذرة البيضاء باستخدام طريقتي العد المباشر وتغليف النورات الزهرية

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Abstract

Field experiment was conducted to assess the population density of insect species associated with sorghum panicle in Abu- Ghraib, during fall season 2008. Results showed that no differences in species collected by the two methods, So direct method may be used in sampling program, because it is easy and gives fast results. Data indicate the presence of 9 Insect species associated with sorghum panicle, which belong to different orders. These species included: two species of thrips which considered to be new record on sorghum in Iraq: Haplothrips Salloumensis Prisner and Chirothrips molestus Prisner, In addition to Buds and flower bug, Crenotiades pallidus (Rambur), the seed bug, Campylomma impicata Wagner, the Anthocorid bug, Orius albidipennis (Reuter) and corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch. Infestation by thrips occurred after seedling emergence, and then increased gradually to reach a peak of 20, 25/individual/panicle on cultivars Rabih and Inkad respectively. Numbers of seed bug began to increase gradually and reached its highest peak in October, amounting to 4 and 5 insect/panicle on cultivars Rabih and Kafir respectively. Results indicated a mora differences between the numbers of bud and flower bug, of various head cultivars, the highest numbers of 4.5 bug were on Kafir and the least numbers recorded on money maker (0.92). Sorghum cultivars showed a significant difference in the numbers of the leaf corn aphid, the highest numbers of 50.33 for cultivars Inkhad, and the lowest were on hybrid money maker 11.54. Numbers of Orius albidipennis begins to increased gradually after flowering to reach its peak during October on all cultivars, the highest numbers were 6.92 on Rabih which significantly differ from 1.46 observed on money maker. The role of these results in the sampling program for sorghum insects also discussed.

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Article
EFFICIENCY OF SOME INSECTICIDES TO PROTECT POTATO TUBERS FROM ATTACK BY SOME SOIL INSECTS*
تقييم كفاءة بعض مبيدات التربة الحشرية في وقاية درنات البطاطا من الاصابة ببعض حشرات التربة*

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Abstract

Soil insect (wireworms Agriotes spp. and Black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon and molecricket Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa are a serious pest problem on potato (Solanum tuberosum) in middle of Iraq. They injure the crop by feeding on seed pieces soonafter planting and burrowing into tubers and reduced market quality and crop prodection. They are among the most difficult and destructive pest to control. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of some soil insecticides (Force 15 and 20 kg ha, Confidor 20 kgha and Furdan 20 kgha) to protect potato tubers from infected by these three pests in autumn and spring season 2005-2006 in the field of College of Agriculture University of Baghdad. The results showed that the Force and Confidor reducing the percentage of infected tubers by the three insects in the two sessons. The percentage of infect tubers were 3.45, 3.73, 6.99, 3.49 % respectively in autumn season compared with control treatment which amounted to 10.34 %, and in spring season was 4.48, 4.87, 6.38, 5.42 % respectively compared with control treatment which amounted 12.49%. The results showed that the divided tubers that used as seed in spring season more susceptible to wireworm infected than the not divided tubers. The results showed that the mole cricket was much serious pest than wireworm and black cutworm and injure tubers in the two seasons. The wireworm and black cutworm larvae were most apparent on or near potato tubers in first of April to middle of June in spring season, and from first of September to end June in autumn season.

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Article
NEW RECORD OF SPECIES Frankliniella cephalica( Crawford)(Thysanoptera: Thripidae) IN BAGHDAD
تسجيل جديد للنوع Frankliniella cephalica( Crawford) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) في بغداد

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Abstract

A new record species of thrips Frankliniella cephalica ( Crawford)belong to order Thysanoptera and family Thripidae on Chrysanthemum indicum L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ranat. (Compositae) flower from Baghdad Provence, Iraq in a divergent times in which the species is at very low incidents. The species can be distinguished by the pair of setae on second antennal segment and the comb on posterior margin of eighth abdominal segment with short setae. It is classified as a group Cephalica which was content all species that is similar with nearest species and different by secondary morphological characters as the colored and long of setae, It is known that this species is a widely distributed in Neotropic region, Palaearctic region, Australian region and Oriental region, and a good transmission agent to transfer for plants. The morphological characters of different body parts were studied and compared with the other specimen using the taxonomic keys, approximant with a picture and draw of a body parts by camera Lucida.

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Article
دراسات مختبرية حول تاثير عزلتين محلية للفطرBEAUVERIA BASSIANA في ذبابة البصل الصغيرة
LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF TWO LOCAL ISOLATES OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI, BEAUVERIA BASSIANA, ON THE ONION MAGGOT, DELIA ALLIARIA

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Abstract

Laboratory studies have been conducted at the college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to evaluate the pathogenicity of two local isolates of Beauveria loassiana on different stages of the onion maggot, Delia alliria Fonseca. Results indicated a significant and high mortality rates on different stages of the maggot from egg to adult, especially during the first days of treatment. Mortalities on eggs reached 100% and 98% after 5 days of treatment for the two isolates BSA3 and BSAI respectively, the symptoms begin to appear on the 1st and 2nd larval instars after 24 hours of treatment, and then increased its influence progressively to 100% for both isolates after 14 days of the treatment. Results indicated a gradual reduction of the impact of fungus isolates in larval ages, the average Mortality of the isolates decreased to 74% for the third larval instars after two weeks. The results indicated significant differences in the percentage of adults emerges from treated pupae with the two isolates, BSA3 treatment reduced the rate of emergence , by (6.00 , 11.67 , 6.67 )% after 5,7 and 15 days of treatment, compared with (11.33 , 21.67 and 20)% for the isolate of BSA1. Results showed that the fungus isolates had a significant impact on the adult insect , and that effect was greater for males than females as the death rate of 85% for males and 75% for females. The possible use of these isolates and the timing of B.bassiana application to conceded with onion maggot oviposition and first larval stages in the IPM program for the Onion maggot, also discussed.

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Article
NEW RECORD OF THE PARASITOID, CRYPTUS INCULCATOR (L.), ON LARVAE AND PUPAE OF GREATER WAX MOTH IN IRAQ
تسجيل جديد للمتطفل Cryptus inculcator (L.)على يرقات وعذارى دودة الشمع الكبرى في العراق

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Abstract

The parasitoid Cryptus inculcator (L.) is a new record in Iraq on larvae and pupae of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (L.) in Abu-Graib apiary in west Baghdad. The parasitoid is belong to order Hymenoptera, family Ichneumonidae, sub family Cryptinae and tribe Cryptini. The parasitoid is a wide spread species in the world which parasite on larvae and pupae of lepidopterous insects. The adult was characterized by black head and thorax, dark orang abdomen, black longest antenna with 17-21 segments, yellow ivory frons, legs dark orange or coppery, typical segment of abdomen with dark color and contain oval spiracles in propodeal, in addition to smallest pits covered all parts of body. The parasitoid adults were appeared in the field in beginning of April with low densities and reached its peak at the beginning of May which decreased gradually and disappeared in the beginning of June with high temperature, the activities of adult was occurred in the early morning and disappeared on the infected combs wax after ten after ten am.

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Article
COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND LECANICILLIUM MUSCARIUM TO CONTROL THE COTTON WHITEFLY AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE PARASITOID ERETMOCERUS MUNDUS *
التوافق بين الفطرين Beauveria bassiana و Lecanicillium muscarium في مقاومة ذبابة القطن البيضاء وتأثيرهما في المتطفل Eretmocerus mundus*

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Abstract

Data in terms of the efficacy of the local isolate of the fungus B. bassiana (9.6 x 107 conidia/ ml. conc.), fungal formulation of Lecanicillium muscarium (1 gm/ L conc.) and their mixture which were sprayed on eggplant (Iraq Wonder variety) to control cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci, indicated that after one week of application, the mixture of the two fungi caused 94.35% mortality in nymfal stages of cotton whitefly. This result was statistically superior in comparison to mortality rates obtained from amounted to 86.85 and 86.75% respectively. As regard to the interaction among the three treatments with weeks results showed superior of the mixing of B. bassiana with the preparation of the fungus L. muscarium at the second week (with 99% mortality) on the treatment of the fungus and the preparation alone at the first week (with 79.3 and 75.7% mortality respectively). Results revealed that the local isolate of the fungus B. bassiana is relatively more dangerous on the parasitoid, Eretmocerus mundus, than fungal formulation of L. muscarium. Results also showed that the direct spraying or exposure of this parasitiod adults to the fungus L. muscarium were non-significantly effected on mortality rates which reached to 30.14 and 25.78% respectively.

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Article
MODEL DESIGN TO ESTIMATE THE ECONOMIC THRESHOLD LEVEL OF LESSER DATE MOTH BATRACHEDRA AMYDRAULA Meyrick IN CENTRAL IRAQ
تصميم انموذج لتقدير الحد الحرج الاقتصادي لحشرة حميرة النخيل BATRACHEDRA AMYDRAULA MEYRICK في وسط العراق*

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The study was conducted in date palm orchards in Tarmiia, provenance of Baghdad during the 2003 growing season in order to estimate the Economic level (ETL) for lesser date moth B. amydraula on two cultivar of date palm Phoenix dectylifera L. Zahdi and Khastawe. The damage yield function and the relationship between the number of fallen fruits as well as infested fruits and the number of larvae were calculated. The model which designed was based on two criteria, first: the number of larvae/100 fallen fruits and second: a percent of fruit infested in fallen fruits .It was found that the fallen fruits contains a number of larva with different stages and there was a positive relationship between the number of larvae and the percent of fruits infestation. The high number of larvae in Zahdi cultivar was 12.76 larvae100 infested fallen fruits when the percent of infestation was 45.60% in the second half of June, while in Khastawe cultivar was 32.02 larvae100 infested fallen fruits when the percent of infestation was 94.20% in the first week of July. The data showed that each larva in the fallen fruit equel to 4.18,3.08 infested fallen fruits in Zahdi and Khastawe respectively. The Economic Threshold level was found to be 3, 1 larvae/100 fallen fruits or when a percent of infestation was 14.05%, 5.42% in Khastawe and Zahdi respectively. The damage yield function was (Y = - 0.2768 X+146.4513) in Zahdi and(Y = - 1.70914 +127.58) in Khastawe.

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Article
EFFECT OF THE FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA(Bals.)Vuill.AND BIO-FORMULATION ON DIFFERENT STAGE OF CITRUS MEALYBUG
تأثير الفطرBEAUVERIA BASSIANA (Bals.) Vuill. والمستحضر الاحيائي على الأدوار المختلفة لبق الحمضيات الدقيقي

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The laboratory study of the effects of two fungal preparations of Beauveria bassiana (local isolate) and Mycotal formulation on different stages of mealybug P.citri showed the following results. The highest percentage of unhatched eggs reached to 78.5% after one week of Beauveria bassiana (local isolate) treatment, while it was 90.6% when the bio–formulation Mycotal was used. The highest conc. (1 x 106 spore/ml) of B.bassiana formulation showed a sub-lethal toxicity after one month of treatment in that the developmental period of nymph stage took longer time. The percentage of mortalities of the 2nd nymphal instar treated with Mycotal or B.bassiana were very low in comparison with eggs and adult treatment. This may be due to the ecdysis of old cuticle of nymphal instar. The highest mortality percente (72.0%) was found when the conc .(5.5 gm/liter) of Mycotal applied to the adults, while it was the lowest mortality (45.5%) when the conc. (1.7 x 106 spore/ml) of B.bassiana was used. It seems the infection of adults was very noticeable from ventral side of abdomen since it is not covered with wax.

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Article
EFFICACY OF SOME INTEGRATED ELEMENTS FOR CONTROL OF ONION MAGGOT
تقويم بعض عناصر المكافحة المتكاملة لذبابة البصل الصغيرة

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Abstract

Onion maggot, Delia alliria Fonseca is considered to be a new species recently recorded in Iraq on onion, and there are no studies about it in Iraq. Experiments was carried out in the field of the College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib to evaluate the integration of the bio-pesticide (spinosad) and 3 types of sticky traps in addition to Tephri traps supplied with food lure. Results showed a significant reduction in the infestation rate by the maggot when any type of these traps were used after spraying onion plants with spinosad compared with spinosad spray alone, or the control treatment. Results also indicated the superiority of treatments of spinosad with Tephri traps and spinosad plus white sticky traps which significantly reduced the infestation rate after 5 week from treatment to 11.11% and 13.33% respectively, while it was ranged from (17.78 – 25.22 )% for the other treatment compared with 37% in the control treatment. A significant reduction in the onion maggot infestation by 70 % and 60%, and increased in plant yield by 31% and 29% for the treatments of Spionsad with Tephri traps or white sticky traps respectively. However, all treatments significantly increased the percentage of the first class bulbs (Grade 1) ranged from 82.20% for Spionsad with Tephri traps to 69.60% for the treatment of Spionsad alone. The role of the integration of the bio-pesticide (Spionsad) with traps tested in the integrated control for the onion maggot, was also discussed.

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Article
EFFECTS OF LEVELS OF CHEMICAL FERTELIZERS ON INFESTATION OF CITRUS NURSERIES WITH CITRUS LEAFMINER PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON
تأثير مستويات من الاسمدة الكيميائية في اصابة شتلات الحمضيات بحشرة حفار اوراق الحمضيات

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The study was conducted in one of citrus nurseries in Baghdad during fall and spring seasons of 2005-2006. The study of host preference of citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella stainton showed that the sour orange Citrus aurantium was the most preferred to the insect with infestation percentages reached to 49.97% and with an average of a living larvae number reached to 4.68 larva/new branch, while the mandrine citrus reticulate was much less preferred with infestation percentage reached to 28.8% and less number of living larvae which reached to the average of 2.31 larva / new branch. The results also illustrated that the treatment of citrus nurseries with different levels of chemical fertilizers of (NPK+K), (NPK+N) and (NPK) had a great effect on both the infestation percentage and the number of living larvae. It was found that the treatment, in which the nitrogen was increased, had a greater effect and caused a highest percentage of infestation in comparison with the treatment of potassium increase. The infertation percentages were 6.20%, 13.21% and 9.7% and the number of living larvae were 0.33, 2.11 and 0.55 larvae/new branch when the citrus nurseries were treated with (NPK+K), (NPK+N) and (NPK) fertilizers in full season of 2005 respectively, while in spring season of 2006, the infestation percentages of new branches reached to 3.53%, 9.93% and 8.30%, respectively. These results could indicate an integration between host and leaf of fertilizers to control the population of this pest.

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