Table of content

Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences

مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية

ISSN: 20779798
Publisher: University of Kufa
Faculty: Veterinary Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Kufa j. vet. Sci. is a scientific and refereed journal published by the college of veterinary medicine , University of Kufa , Kufa ,Iraq. It publishes in English original and distinguished research papers , communications , research notes , case reports and reviews in all aspects of veterinary sciences .
Manuscript shall be considered for publication only with the understanding that they are neither under concurrent consideration by any journal nor have been published else where . Manuscript are subjected to peer review for their scientific merit .accepted manuscript will become the property of Kufa j . vet. Sci . the journal is published two times a year.

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البريد الإلكتروني لرئيس التحرير
vetmed@uokufa.edu.iq
أو البريد الإلكتروني للمجلة
kj.vs@uokufa.edu.iq
أو للإستفسار الإتصال بمسؤول المجلة على الرقم 07810115211

Table of content: 2012 volume:3 issue:1

Article
Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from gallbladder of sheep and cattle in slaughterhouse of Najaf
Listeria monocytogenes الكشف الجزئي للأنماط المصلية لبكتريا المعزولة من كيس الصفراء للأبقار والأغنام

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Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is the etiologic agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne disease. The presence of L. monocytogenes in gallbladder explained that ability of the organism to survive and resistance the bile salt effect. The aim of this study was undertaken to explore the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in gallbladder of cattle and sheep. Three hundred gallbladder samples were collected randomly from sheep and cattle and screened for the presence of L. monocytogenes by using International Dairy Federation (IDF) protocol. The isolates were confirmed by API- Listeria system and the presence of haemolysin (hly) gene. A total of 8 (2.7%) Listeria spp were recovered in 6 (4.0%) samples of sheep and 2 (1.3%) samples of cattle. The isolates were identified to the level of species and it was found that all isolates belonged to L. monocytogenes. The isolates were obtained separately during the study period, the frequency of L. monocytogenes positive gallbladder samples tend to occur during cold months of the year. All isolates gave positive results with Hly specific primers. The present study concluded that the gallbladders of cattle and sheep may play a role in meat contamination and establishment of human infections.

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Article
Isolation of Candida sp. from sub-clinical mastitic she-camels
عزل فطر Candida sp. من حليب النوق المصابة بالتهاب الضرع تحت السريري

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Abstract: The prescent study was aimed to detect the fungal sub-clinical mastitic she-camels & determined the factors that influenced on it, (7.3)% was the percent of Candida sp. Infection & these was restricted on the age (11-15) years, which increased significantly (P<0.01) when compared with (5-7) years, Also the results was showed significant increase (P<0.05) of infection during the period of lactation (0-4) months comparable with (>4-8) & same as during (>4-8) & (>8-12) months while the different was,nt significant (P>0.05) between (0-4) & (>8-12) months.


Article
Effects of Achillea Millifolium extract consumption by pregnant mice on pregnancy outcome and reproductive system of their female off spring
تأثير استهلاك مستخلص القيصوم من قبل الفئران الحوامل على نتائج الحمل والجهاز التكاثري للمواليد من الاناث

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Abstract: Background: Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) is medicinal plant that is traditionally used against inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal compliant. Objective: To study the effect of the consumption of Achillea extract by pregnant mice on pregnancy out come and on the reproductive system of the female off spring. Materials & Methods: 70 adult pregnant female mice at age of 40-45 days were used in this study. These 70 mice were divided equally into two groups: experimental group (G1) and control group (G2). The experimental group was given 1mg/kg body weight/1ml of D.W of Achillea millefolium extract orally during 3 weeks of pregnancy, while the control group was given 1ml of D.W orally alone and for the same period. After delivery the number and weight of the litters were recorded. 40 days after delivery, the weight of the female reproductive system was estimated, histological sections were done for the ovaries and oviducts, their diameters were measured, in addition serum was taken from these mice and measurement of FSH, LH and E2 was done for both groups. Results: The results of the experimental group showed highly significant decrease in litter size and significant decrease their weight. In addition young females born from treated mothers showed significant decrease in the weight of reproductive system, diameter of ovaries and diameter of oviducts. Also, significant decrease was noticed in the level of FSH, LH and Estradiol level in the experimental group. Conclusion: Consuming of Achillea millifolium extract during pregnancy will produce bad effect on the pregnancy out come in addition to bad effect on the reproductive system of the female offspring.


Article
Effect of sodium nitrate on sexual behavior of adult male rats
تأثير نترات الصوديوم على السلوك الجنسي في ذكور الجرذان البالغة

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Abstract: Study examined the impact of treatment adult male rats with sodium nitrate orally ,two doses( 100 and 200 mg/kg of the body weight ) and two short-term (one and two days) as well as long-term ( 30 days ) on sexual behavior of rats which include (the mounting, intermission and ejaculation) and three periods before the treatment (the first period zero).and the second period (days) and the third period (two days) and the fourth period(30 days)after treatment with nitrates .The results indicate that the treatment with sodium nitrate (100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight ) lead to significant improvement (P≤0.05)of each of the mounting , intermission and ejaculation .after the second and third period of treatment when compared with the control group ,while the treatment with sodium nitrate for along time (the fourth period 30 days)lead to significant decreases (P≤0.05) in the characteristic of sexual behavior of mounting ,intermission and ejaculation compared with the control group. The conclusion of this study indicate that the dose of sodium nitrate (200 mg/kg of the body weight) have higher influence on asexual behavior of the dose (100 mg/kg of the body weight) after short- term treatment .

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Article
Macroscopic and Morphometric Studies of the Extrapulmonary Primary Bronchi and Lungs of the indigenous adult Male Pigeon (Columba domestica)
دراسات عيانيه وقياسات شكلية للقصبات الأولية خارج الرئة ولرئتي الحمام البالغ المربى محليا (Columba domestica)

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Abstract: Macroscopical account of the extrapulmonary primary bronchi and lungs in the ten of the indigenous adult male pigeons (Columba domestica) collected from the Diwanyia city markets. It is expect that this work will provide a pivot for future research and subsequent clinical applications as regards the biology of the pigeons. After complete bleeding the target organs recognized then the shape, position, dimensions of each specimen were record. The building units of the pulmonary primary bronchi were C-shaped hyaline cartilages. Medial bronchial wall connecting all cartilages ends together. The mean length of right and left bronchi was (0.76±0.04 cm) (0.64±0.24cm) respectively. Lungs appear as pyramidal-shaped brilliant pink color; extend from the first to the sixth ribs. Each lung contain three surfaces (costal, vertebral, and septal) the dorsal border of the costal surface contain six deep grooves origin by embedded the first to the sixth ribs lead to divided the lung to seven lobes. The mean length of right and left lungs was (3.1± 0.66cm), while the mean width of right and left lungs was (3.1± 0.66cm).

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Article
General survey of epidemic hydatidosis in sheep in Al-Shula area in Baghdad
مسح عام عن وبائية الأكياس العدرية في أغنام منطقة الشعلة في بغداد

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Abstract: The survey of distribution of hydatidosis in sheep in Al-Shula Area of Baghdad region was conducted from Mar. 2010 to Feb. 2011. By examining of 2781 animals 1877 male and ( 904) female , the infection rate was( 12.69%). Out of 353 of affected sheep 211 was female (7.58%) and 147 was male (5.1%). Hydatidosis is found in internal organs for all months of the year .The ratio of infection was higher in female ( 59,77% ) in comparaion with male ( 40,22%) . 2428 hydatid cysts were isolated from liver , lung and liver together and lung organs mostly from lung and liver together with rate (61.53%) there was direct relation between the age of the sheep (male and female ) and infection by Hydatidosis .

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Article
Study the adverse role of histological and oxidative effects of ginger (Zingiberaceae) and cadmium chloride in liver tissue of rabbits
دراسة الدور النسيجي والتأكسدي السلبي لنبات (الجرجير) وكلوريد الكادميوم في نسيج الكبد للأرانب

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Abstract: In this study, was investigate the ability of Ginger to adversely histological and physiology effect of cadmium in the liver tissue of rabbit, Ginger is source of antioxidants was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of cadmium (cd). Twenty four male rabbits were randomized into 3 groups (n = 8), were used for this study. Animals in group (1) served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in groups (2) were drinking2% cadmium chloride. Group (3) animals were, in addition to drinking cadmium, treated with 250 mg/kg of ginger. All treatments were for 12 weeks. The results showed that cadmium caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma malondialdehyde concentration with histological changes in liver cell such as necrosis, hemorrhage with aggregation of some toxic spot as (black spot),protein cast with epithelial cell in group 3 comparison with control and other group , using ginger cause to modified these harmful effects. These findings lead to the conclusion that ginger significantly decreased (p<0.05) the adverse toxic harmful effects of cadmium exposure on the liver as oxidative stress.

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Article
A comparative study of the effect of Asacol and the ethanolic extracts of Matricaria chamomilla and Terminalia chebula on induced ulcerative colitis in rabbits
دراسة مقارنة حول تأثير عقار الأساكول والمستخلصات الايثانولية لنباتي البابونج والأهليلج على التهاب القولون التقرحي والمحدث تجريبيا في الأرانب

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Abstract: Twenty four local rabbits were used in this study separated into four groups. Ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced in all rabbits by rectal administration of 5% glacial acetic acid-30% ethanol (GAA 5%). Animals in the control group were orally (p.o) administered with distilled water, group 2 was administered with Asacol at a dose of 800 mg/kg BW/day p.o., where as group 3 was given ethanolic extract of Chamomile at a dose of 500 mg/kg BW/day p.o, and finally; the rabbits of group four were received 1000 mg/kg BW/day p.o of ethanolic extract of Haritaki. Each of the above agents was administered two days prior to induction of UC (as a single daily dose), the day of induction, and a dose 22 hours post-induction (i.e., 2 hours prior to sacrificing of the animal). The effects were observed as changes in the serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium), changes in haematological aspects including; Total white blood cell count (total WBC), lymphocytes count, Red blood cell count (RBC), Blood haemoglobin (HGB), and Packed cell volume (PCV%). Besides the examination of gross and histopathological changes of the colon segments for all the tested rabbits. In conclusion, GAA 5%-induced colitis in rabbits is preferred for testing the anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer effectiveness of new therapeutic modalities. Asacol showed high potent anti-inflammatory and protective effect against ulceration and inflammation of colon. As well as, ethanolic extracts of both Chamomile and Haritaki have an accepted prophylactic activity against GAA 5%-induced colitis in rabbits through correction of the changed electrolytes, haematological parameters and histopathological signs.

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Article
الكشف عن الأنواع الجرثومية المتواجدة في اسماك السمنان كبير الرأس (القشاش Albornus capito) من مياه نهر الخازر

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Abstract: The object of this study was to detect the bacterial types that founded in 35 Albornus capito fish in water of Khazer River. Swaps from gills and pieces of internal organs (Livers and Intestines) were taken, then put in Thioglycolate broth (Anaerobic culture) and Brain Hart infusion broth (Aerobic culture) and incubated at 37° for 24hr. All broths were cultured by two methods aerobically (on Blood agar, MacConkey agar and Manittol salt agar) and anaerobically by putting of thioglycolate broths in Water bath at 80° for 10 minute, the broths were left to cold and cultured on Clostridial agar, SFP agar for detect anaerobic bacteria. The results of aerobic culture showed isolation of numerous bacterial types from Albornus capito fish that included 249 bacterial isolates which involved Corynebacterium spp. In a high percent, then Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp., Proteus spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterococci spp., E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus albus, Actinomyces spp. and finally Staphylococcus epidermidis. While the results of anaerobic culture were not revealed isolation of any anaerobic bacteria.

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Article
Detection of extended spectrum-beta lactamase enzymes producing E. coli that isolated from urine
تحديد العزلات المنتجة لانزيمات بيتا لاكتام واسعة الطيف لبكتريا Escherichia Coli المعزولة من الادرار

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Abstract: The production of extended-spectrum- β lactamases (ESBLs) is an important mechanism for resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins. ESBLs represent a major group of lactamases enzymes that mostly produced by gram-negative bacteria, so the detection of these enzymes are very important for optimal patients care. The present study was done to detect extended spectrum beta lactamase producing E. coli among urinary tract infected patients. A total of 223 urine samples were examined for presence of E. coli and those producing ESBL enzymes. Urine samples were cultured for aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing carried out by using Kirby-Baur agar diffusion method. Coli were tested for ESBLs on Mueller-Hinton agar by both modified double disk ( MDDT ) and phenotypic confirmatory test. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated from urine 104 ( 44.2 ).78 E. coli isolated from urine are tested for ESBL production and it was found that 30 ( 38.4 ) were MDDT positive and 27 phenotypic confirmatory test positive. Three strain E. coli were MDDT positive but negative by phenotypic confirmatory. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that E. coli isolated were totally resist ( 100% ) to ampicillin, moxicillin,and trimethoprim but maximum susceptible to imipenem ( 100% ) and variable resistant to another antibiotics. The ESBLs producing E. coli are highly resist to different types of antibiotics , especially third generation cephalosporins.

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Article
Histomorphological study of tubular system and collecting tubules in domestic rabbit's fetuses (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
الوصف الشكلي النسيجي للجهاز القنوي والنبيبات في أجنة الأرانب المحلية الجامعة

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Abstract: The developmental study of tubular system and collecting tubules has been done in the local rabbit's fetuses, which including detection the timing of appearance of metanephros collecting tubules. The study revealed that the differentiation and development of the collecting tubules in metanephros began in the rabbit at 14 day from pregnancy. Also the histological examination showed at the end of pregnant, the tubular system and collecting tubules visible in medulla and less degree in cortex with clear renal pyramids and well developed long sharp pointed papillae. The purpose of our study to provide a more complete quantitive description of the histomorphology of the tubular system and collecting tubules in rabbits during prenatal development.

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Article
Tick distribution and infestation among sheep and cattle in Baghdad’s south suburb
القراد وانتشاره على الماشية و الأغنام في الضاحية الجنوبية من بغداد

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Abstract: The study was conducted in Aldoura region south Baghdad from January to December 2010 ; out of 284 animals , only 79 were infested ( 23 cattle and 56 sheep) . The total tick prevalence was 27.8% ( 19.7% and 8.1% for sheep and cattle respectively ) . Ticks predilection sites were more prevalent on cattle's udder (41%) and sheep's ear and tail (38%) . The high number of infestation was in May and July months respectively. 521 ticks were collected and 3 genera ( Hyalomma 70%, Rhipicephalus 25% and Boophilus 5% ) were recorded from April to October months of the year . The total tick index found 1.84 . 13 species were identified; H. anatolicum anatolicum had highest tick index 0.54 among all ticks, followed by H. anatolicum excavatum, H. asiaticum asiaticum , H. marginatum marginatum , Hyalomma marginatum turanicum, Hyalomma detritum ; Rhipicephalus turanicus was highest tick index of Rhipicephalus genus ,then R. bursa, R. sanguineus ; B. annulatus was higher indexed than B. kohlsi among Boophilus genus; lowest index were found to Hyalomma spp. and B. kohlsi . Ticks spp. monthly distribution was significant (p.<0.001) . B. kohlsi , firstly record in Baghdad region and from sheep host. Given data might be aid in control ticks and minimize public and veterinary infections .


Article
Bacterial flora isolated from genital tract of cows submitted for artificial insemination in Balad district
المستنبتات البكتيرية المعزولة من القناة التناسلية للأبقار المقدمة للتلقيح الاصطناعي في منطقة بلد شمالي العراق

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Abstract: This study was conducted at the Veterinary Clinic for Artificial Insemination and Genital Diseases in Balad district for the period from 1st. January/2011 to 30th. June/2011. Vaginal aspirates were collected from vaginal fornix of cows during the estrus cycle attending the clinic for artificial insemination using frozen semen. A total of 90 cows were included, 60 of which were multiparous and 30 cows were heifers. The aspirate materials were streaked on Blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Bacterial isolation and identification was based on standard bacteriological criteria. The study revealed that S. aureus was the most frequently isolated from heifers (36.7%), followed by E.coli (30.0%) and proteus spp. (6.7%). Whereas, 8 (26.6%) were culture negative. In multiparous cows, the highest bacterial isolates were E. coli (38.3%), and S. aureus (20.0%). Mixed bacterial growth was found in 40% of multiparous cows and 5 (8.3%) were culture negative. Multiparous cows with five previous deliveries had highest isolation rate (32.7%).

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Article
Anatomical and histological investigate of vomeronasal organ (VNO) in Iraqi sheep Alawasi
دراسه تشريحية ونسيجية للجهاز الميكعي الانفي في الاغنام العراقيه العواسي

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Abstract: This work was focused on the vomeronasal organ (VNO) anatomically and histologically in Iraqi sheep. Vomeronasal organ (VNO) plays essential role in the urinary sensation pheromones (sexual scent) which has not been studied extensively. In this study, six samples of the VNO for both sexes, adult were taken from the normal heads of Iraqi sheep Alawasi. The VNO was located in the anterior portion, just in the floor of the nasal septum (ventrolaterally), it is a tubular crescent shape, 6 cm in length and opens cranially in the incisive duct and blinded end caudally at the level of 2nd upper premolar tooth. Histological examination of the VNO was revealed three regions were divided into cranial, middle and caudal. It is encompassed inside a cartilaginous capsule which appeared as U- shape in the cranial region, while in the middle region was a free ends of the U-shape beside separation the narrow cleft dorsally, in the caudal region the cartilage became circular (ring shape) and surrounding the VNO completely, which separated the organ from the respiratory epithelium of nasal cavity. The lumen of VNO appeared in cranial and middle region as a comma shape, while, the caudal region was heart in shape, the border was irregular due to the folding of epithelial mucosa. The lumen of VNO was lined by a sensory medial wall showing the bipolar sensory neuron supporting and basal cells and non-sensory epithelium in the lateral wall was contained the basal cells, ciliated columnar and goblet cells.

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Article
The role of antioxidant (vit-A and glutamine) in ameliorating methotrexate induced hepatic toxicity in rats
دور المضادات الأكسدة (فيتامين A والكلوتامين) في معاكست الميثوتركسيت المحدث سمية الكبد بالجرذان

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Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the status of antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) during oxidative stress in blood serum of rats subjected to oral methotrexate administration at a dose 10 mg/kg B.W and administrated antioxidant therapy (vit A and glutamine) to reduced or ameliorate such stress. A total of thirty six, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (250 – 300) g divided equally into six groups. The first group, control, were fed only standard rat chow as their diet and water ad libitum. The second group administered orally a single dose of methotrexate at a dose of 10 mg/kg B.W. The third group, given a single dose of methotrexate 10 mg/kg B.W + Vit-A (5000 IU/kg B.W) orally by stomach tube, twice daily. The fourth group, given a single dose of methotrexate 10 mg/kg B.W + Glutamine (500 mg/kg B.W), twice daily dosing. fifth group, given vit-A at dose 5000 IU/kg B.W orally, twice daily. Sixth group, given glutamate at dose 500 mg/BW orally, twice daily, all this dosing continue for 8 days. At the end from all animal, draw blood from heart by syring to obtained serum to determine its level then sacrificed and take section from liver for histopathology resulted in. It was found that methotrexate caused a signifcant increase in GSH levels (an important marker of lipid peroxidation) when compared with the control group while the level GSH were signifcantly decreased in the methotrexate + vitamin A group, methotrexate+ glutamine group, vitamin A group and glutamine group. The results indicate that methotrexate cause oxidative stress by reducing the activities and consequently the effectiveness of the antioxidant enzyme defense system. while the antioxidant therapy reducing of oxidative stress. Histopathological examination observed was normal in methotrexate treated rats and MTX with glutamine and vitmine A . but showed hydrodegenerate in treated groups of MTX+vit A while the glutamine treated group showed a necrosis and amyliod change.


Article
Histopathological study of Salmonella typhimurium infection in laboratory mice by using the light and electron microscope
دراسة نسجية مرضية با ستخدام المجهر الضوئي و الالكتروني للإصابة بجرثومة السالمونيلا Salmonella typhimurium في الفئران المختبرية

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Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the histopathological changes for internal organs of white female mice after inoculation with Salmonella typhimurium in dose 1x108.Sixteen white mice apprrximatly age (one-two months) and body weight were (25-30) gram divided into 2 equal groups. The first group was inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium orally and killed after24hr.Group2 was inoculated with normal saline as control group. The histopathological changes of the liver were showed infiltration of kupffer cells and aggregation of mononuclear cells around the central vein with congestion of blood vessels and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The intestinal changes showed hyperplasia of goblet cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of atrophic villi. The results of the electron microscope were showed S. typhimurium lie close to the brush border of the villi of ileum of infected mice, and in another section noticed degeneration of the brush border and the apical cytoplasm with cavity formation occurs near a bacterium (arrow). In addition,budding, swelling and elongation of microvilli are evident.In summary to the above, the microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium have the ability to infect ileum and penetrate to other internal organs.

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Article
The effect of experimentally induced vitamin E and selenium deficiency on Creatine Kinase (CK) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in Awassi ewes and their newborn lambs
دراسة تأثير نقص فيتامين E والسلنيوم المستحدث على أنزيم الCreatine Kinase (CK) وأنزيم Aspartate Aminotransferse (AST)في النعاج العواسية ومواليدها

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Abstract: Experimental induction of vitamin E and selenium deficiency by deficient diet was carried out on Awassi ewes and their newborn lambs to study the effect of the deficiency on serum levels of Creatine Kinase (CK) and Aspartate Aminotransferse (AST). Fourteen animals in the deficient group and 7 animals in the control group were used. Results showed increased Creatine Kinase (CK) levels reaching (2070.51 ± 22.22 U/L) and (2756.52 ± 20.79 U/L) in deficient groups of ewes and lambs respectively compared with control groups in which levels reached (211.07 ± 2.23 U/L) and (292.52 ± 1.20 U/L) respectively. Results showed increased Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) levels reaching (143.71± 4.28 U/L) and (145.40 ± 7.94 U/L) in deficient groups of ewes and lambs respectively compared with control groups in which levels reached (69.14 ± 2.78 U/L) and (72.85 ± 2.33 U/L) respectively.

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Article
Histology of ovine placenta during gestation periods
التغيرات النسيجية لمشيمة الاغنام أثناء فترة الحمل

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Abstract: Placetomes were collected from 93 pregnant slaughtered Ewes at different gestation periods , from AL.Falluja slaughter house during the periods from 2, Jully 2009 to 30, December ,2010 . Tissue specimens for microscopic examination were taken from the centers of the sampled placentomes .Immediately following collection ,the samples were fixed in 10% bufferd neutral formalin for 24 h .Tissue specimens were dehydrated in a graded series of alcohol , cleared by xylol and embded in paraffin .Histologic section were cut at 3-4 µm thickness ,Stained with hematoxylin and eosin(H&E) (6).The period of gestation were measured according to Richardson (7) with aquation of x =2.1(Y+17) as x= gestation period in day and Y=the crown Rump. Histologic examination during early pregnancy (30 – 40 d) Showed a pronounced BNC with anumbe of nuclei with in each cellular boundary in the uterine epithelium indicates that possible fusions are restricted , It is also there is an increase in blood vascularity. At 40 – 50 d of pregnancy, there was a further increase in caruncular vascularity by 2-fold characterized by increase capillary number and 2 to 3 – fold increase in capillary diameter. Endometrial gland hyperplasia showed during this period . Then placentomes showed grow in number and size until 8oth day. It was shown that the BNCS of the trophoblast increase in size, in polarity and in the number of their cytoplasmic granules as pregnancy advanced.

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Article
An evaluation of different vaccine models to protect mice from visceral leishmaniasis
تقييم مختلف انماط تلقيح لحماية الفئران من داء اللشمانية الحشوية

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Abstract: A soluble cocktail vaccine was prepared from sonicated promastigotes of five Iraqi Leishmania isolates with some adjuvants (BCG and Alum), was used experimentally to protect Balb/c mice against visceral leishmaniasis. Groups of mice were immunized with a soluble cocktail of antigens given in 75 μg /0.1 ml of phosphate buffer saline with booster at different intervals. Full protection was observed when mice were challenged one month post vaccination ; the challenged mice were rechallenged after six weeks. At the eighth week post challenge, the results exhibited complete resistance to the rechallenge (no parasites in culture media or impression smears of liver and spleen were noticed). A long run follow-up was performed. Five of the twelve vaccinated mice developed infection, which resolved by 16 weeks. Significant cellular and humoral response (Delayed hypersensitivity, Immunoglobulin levels, Lymphocyte subsets, Cytokine levels, Eosinophil cationic protein and Macrophages migration inhibition) to Leishmania donovani were demonstrated in all of the groups that were subjected to 75 μg of antigens. Protein bands of crude antigens of Leishmania isolates by SDS - PAGE and Western blotting and the specific protein bands for leishmanial cocktail was determined to be 18 k Da. Results of vaccination with 75 μg antigens and booster doses revealed that immunization against L.donovani could be a practical method of protection from visceral leishmaniasis.


Article
Protective Effect of Arabic Gum on liver Injury Experimentally Induced by Gentamycin in Mice
التأثير الوقائي للصمغ العربي على اذى الكبد المحدث تجريبيا بالجنتاميسين في الفئران

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Abstract: This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of Arabic gum (Ag) on hepatotoxicity induced by gentamycin in mice. Forty adult male Bulb/c mice were used. The animal were divided into four groups (Gs) each group 10 animals. G1 considered as control, G2 treated with gentamycin(40mg/kg/day) for 8 days (i.p.). G3 treated with Ag (10 gm/kg/day) for 8 days administrated orally. Then G4 treated with both gentamycin and Ag for 8 days. Biochemically, the results showed a significant decrease in levels of serum ALT and AST in G4 as compared with G2 . Moreover, serum Glutathione (GSH) in G4 also elucidate a significant increasing in its level, as well as a significant decrease in levels of malondialdihyde (MDA). Histopathologically, liver sections of animals in G4 revealed an ameliorative effects of Ag as compared with its compatible tissue sections of G2. Liver of mice treated with Ag (G3) showed an apoptosis in hepatocytes. In conclusion, treatment of hepatotoxicity by Arabic gum , showed melioration in histopathological changes in hepatic tissues in addition to have ability for induction of apoptosis and meliorating liver picture.

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Article
Prevalence and Bacterial Etiology of Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Al Sulaimaniyah District

Authors: Suha A. Hussein
Pages: 190-203
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Abstract

Abstract: Comprehensive data regarding subclinical mastitis in dairy cows are essential for implementation of an appropriate control programs for this economically significant disease Such data are unavailable in Al Sulaimaniyah district in Iraqi Kurdistan Region, therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence, bacterial causative agents and antimicrobial susceptibility of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in this district. A total of 288 milk samples obtained from 72 dairy cows in 5 different regions in Al Sulaimaniyah district were investigated for subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT). Milk samples with positive results to CMT were subjected to bacteriological analysis. Out of the 72 cows tested, 28 (38.89%) showed positive results for subclinical mastitis, of which, 15 were Holstein-Friesian cows, 4 were native cows and 9 were crossbred cows. Regarding age susceptibility, 7 infected cows were 2-4 years old and the other 21 were 5-7 years old. A total of 62 bacterial isolates were recovered and the biochemical tests revealed these isolates belonging to 8 species. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcucs agalactiae were the most common bacteria followed by Streptococcucs uberis, Streptococcucs dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus chromogenes respectively. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the simultaneous use of florfenicol, cephalexin, erythromycin and ampicillin may be useful for the treatment of subclinical mastitis cases in cattle in Al Sulaimaniyah district.

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