Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2012 volume:43 issue:special issue -3

Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TEMPEREATURE DEGREES ON THE STAGES DEVELOPMENT PERIODS OF WATERHYACINTH CHEVROUNE WEEVIL AND MOTTELD WATERHYACINTH WEEVIL
تأثير درجات الحرارة المختلفة في مدد تطور ادوار سوستي عشبة زهرة النيل المخططة والمزركشة

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Abstract

This study was conducted to delermine the effect of different constant temperatures on the developmental stages. Results reveled no growth of the eggs at 15 and 35 °C while their incubation periods were 17.88,7.8 and 7.38 days at 20, 25 and 30 °C successively. while 35.56, 32.25 and 30.81 for the larvae, and 31.16, 29.48 and 29.23 days for the pupae at the same temperatures successively. Results also showed that the life time of males was variant being 7, 31.24, 30.8, 29.27 and 5.53 days while 8, 33.53, 32.53, 31.73 and 6.8 days for females when grown at the wnstant temperature 15, 20, 25, 30, 35°C successively. Results also showed that the preperiod of the eggs were different being 9,4.6 and 3.2 days at 20, 25 and 30 °C successively. While the generation time was 93.6, 74.13 and 70.62 at the same temperatures tested successively. while the growth developmental time of N. eichhorniae for eggs, larvae and pupae were zero at 15 and 35 °C while the incubation period of eggs were 14.33, 8.86 and 7.8 days at 20, 25 and 30 °C successively. The developmental time of larvae was 73.4, 70.52 and 57.75 days at the same temperatures successively, while 27.38, 17.47 and 15.13 days for the pupae at the same temperatures successively. Results also showed that the life time of males was variant being 5.87, 20.13, 33.93, 39.93 and 5.2 when grown at the instants temperature 15, 20, 25, 30, 35°C successively while it was 8.87, 23.13, 34.4, 42.67 and 7.07 days for female at the same temperatures successively . Results also showed that the pre period of the eggs were 9.8, 5.2 and 5 days at 20, 25 and 30 °C successively. While the generation time was 124.91,102.05 and 85.65 at the same temperatures successively.

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Article
HOST PLANT EFFECT IN ACARICIDES EFFICIENCY ON TOWSPOTTED MITE
تأثير النبات العائل في فاعلية بعض المبيدات على الحلم الأحمر ذي البقعتين

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Abstract

Tetranychus urticae Koch is the most important pest on many crops,and causes huge damages in spite of different procedures are used to control it. Because of using the chemical methods, this research aims to clarify the potential difference in the degree of the pesticides influences according to the kind of the host plant. The results were showed by using the leaf- disk methods, which were taken from six hosts of three families, the differences between the daily degrees of influence, and the final averages of the two pesticides efficiency Fenpyroximate and Fenazaquin on the two hosts from Fabaceae (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Vicia faba L.) on two hosts from Cucurbitaceae (Cucumis sativus L., Cucurbita pepo L.) for Fenpyroximate were significant. The differences were significant between daily degrees of influence for the Fenazaquin and Dimethoate on two hosts of Solanaceae, (Solanum melongena L., Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)and for Fenpyroximate, Pyridaben, and Abamectin on two hosts of Cucurbitaceae. the results were showed the rule the host plant on efficiency of the acaricides.

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Article
THE STUDY EFFECT OF THE PREY DENSITY OF GREAT IMPACT ON LIFE CYCLE OF GREEN LACEWING
دراسة تأثير الاختلافات في اعداد حوريات منْ الباقلاء الاسود في الإداء الحياتي للمفترس أسد المَنْ الأخضر

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Abstract

A research was conducted at the Biological control Unit, College of Agriculture in Abu-Ghraib to show the effect the Prey density of Aphis fabae had great impact on life cycle of the predator green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea) Stephens.( The results of study also showed that the Prey density of Aphis fabae had great impact on life cycle of green lacewing C.carnea, the developmental time C.carnea larvae were 16.7, 12.6 and 9.7 days at prey densities 15, 30 and 45. The survival rates was also influenced by prey density ,the larvae mortality 50% at density 15 and 20% at 45 when reared at 25 ± 2C. The results of study showed that the predator increased the attack rat with increasing prey density .The larvae consumed 9.35, 16.57 and 22.06 nymph of aphid at the densities of 15, 30 and 45 nymph of aphid during their development. The developmental time of pupae was also influenced by prey density. It was 16.16, 12.66 and 9.66 days at densities of 15, 30 and 45 nymph of aphid respectively at temperature 25 ± 2C and relative humidity of 60 ± 5.

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Article
THE ROLE OF ORIUS ALBIDIPENNIS (REUT) (HEMIPTERA: ANTHOCORIDAE) IN CONSUMPTION OF WHITE FLY ALEUROCLAVA JASMINE (TAKAHASHI) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
الكفاءة الافتراسية للمفترس Orius albidipennis (Reut) على ادوار ذبابة الياسمين البيضاء عند ظروف المختبر

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Abstract

The role of the predator Orius albidipennis (Reut) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in predation of white fly Aleuroclava jasmine (Takahashi), was examined under laboratory conditions. The result of white fly eggs predation showed that average consumption by single predator`s adult was 59.0 egg/day. This was continued for 10 days with no significant differences between first and last day. As well as the average consumption of predator`s adult were 10/day and 2.07/day of nymph and adult white fly respectively for the same period. The adult of the predator was able to consume 590 eggs, 102 nymph and 20.7 adult during the 10 days of the experiment. The result also showed that predator`s nymph consumed an average of 60, 68, 96, 132, 157 eggs of white fly during 1st., 2nd., 3rd., 4th. and 5th. instar respectively. The total consumption was 513 white fly eggs per nymph stage.

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Article
EVALUATE EFFECTIVETY OF DIFFERENT ISOLATE OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENSE AGAINST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM AND RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI
تقييم فاعلية عزلات مختلفة من البكتريا PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENSE ضد الفطرين RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI و FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

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Abstract

This study was conducted in plant protection department Agriculture College and Marin Center University of Basrah 25 isolates of Psedomonas fluorescens were obtained from different geographical area. The isolate were identified according to their biochemical profile and differences between five isolate were done by RAPD-PCR .Results of antagonism test revealed that pfm3 and pfm5 were more effective against Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani as radial growth reach 2.7And 2.9 cm respectively compared to 9 cm in control treatment. Additional experiment showed that bacterial isolate reduced the negative effect of the pathogenic fungi as seed germination of Okra increased from 20 and 23.3% in F.oxysporum and R.solani to 86.6 and 83.3 respectively. Result also showed that bacterial isolate were effective in reducing okra seedling damping-of which reduced from 83.3 and 86.6 in F.oxysporum and R.solani(control treatment) to 13.7 and 10.3 in soil treated with pfm3 isolate.

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Article
EVALUATION THE EFFICIENCY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS IN REDUCTION OF CORN SEEDS CONTAMINATION WITH FUMONISIN B1
تقييم فاعلية بعض المستخلصات النباتية في خفض تلوث حبوب الذرة الصفراء بالسم فيومونيزين B1

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Abstract

The objective of the study is to evaluate the activity of some plant extracts for inhibition of Fusarium verticillioides and reduction the contamination of corn grains with Fumonisin B1 (FB1). The concentration of mycotoxin in corn grains was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Green cress, Harmal and Fenugreek seeds were prepared , and their efficiency for Fusarium verticillioides growth inhibition was tested at 1, 3, 5% in PDA cultured media, and at 5% for reduction the toxin in corn grains. Results showed that all the grain sample contained FB1 at 342.47–661.34ppm. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Green cress showed the higher inhibition of fungus growth on PDA. 47.6% and 50.91% respectively compared with 16.16%, 12.16% and 23.08%, 33.83% with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Fenugreek and Harmal respectively. It was found that the concentration 5% for the two extracts was more efficient in fungus growth inhibition 52.2%, 57.50% with green cress extract, followed by the alcoholic extract of Harmal 48.50% for the same concentration. The extracts also showed activity in mycotoxin reduction produced by the fungus with higher reduction with Harmal seeds alcoholic extract at inhibition percentage of 25.83% followed by alcoholic extract of Green cress seeds 22.90%.

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Article
EFFECT OF SOIL DRENCH WITH RESISTANCE INDUCING COMPOUNDS ON CONTROL CUCUMBER DOWNY MILDEW DISEASE
تأثير معاملة تبليل التربة بمركبات استحثاث المقاومة في مكافحة مرض البياض الزغبي على الخيار

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to determine the efficiency of β- Amino butyric acid (BABA) and Salicylic Acid (SA) as a resistance chemical agents in cucumber against Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. & Curt.) Rostow.the causal agent of downy mildew. Both acids were used as soil drench at different concentrations 2 days before the artificial inoculation with fungal suspension. Results of this experiment indicated that there was a significant effects of both acids in decreasing the percentage of infected leaves, Disease Index (DI) and the rate of disease increase (r) compared to control plants. The occurrence of disease symptom of plants growing in soil drench treatment was delayed 1 week compared with control. Results also showed that the use of BABA at 100µg/ml and SA at 150µg/ml were decreased the percentage of leaves infection which were 4.16% and 8.66% in plants growing in treated soil for both acids respectively compared with 38.4% for control plants as a mean of 5 weeks recorded data. Results also revealed that BABA and SA have a curative

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Article
IDENTIFICATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL RACES OF ASCOCHYTA RABIEI (PASS.)LAB. THE CAUSAL AGENT OF ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT ON CHICKPEA BY DIFFERENTIAL HOST AND PROTEIN GEL ELECTROPHORESIS IN NINEVAH, IRAQ.
تشخيص السلالات الفسيولوجية للفطر Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab.المسبب للفحة الاسكوكايتا على الحمص باستخدام العوائل المفرقة والترحيل الكهربائي لبروتينات الفطر في محافظة نينوى

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the genetic variations among different isolates of Ascochyta rabiei (pass.)lab. the causal agent of ascochyta blight of chinckpea,Cicer arietinum L.,by differential hosts and gel electrophoresis of fungal proteins. Results showed the existence of significant (p=0.05)differences between the isolates in their disease severity on the different chickpea cultivars used in this study. The disease severity was found to be 99.8% ,the highest, on the sensitive cultivar ˝Marakishy˝ and 47.63% , the lowest, on the resistant line ILC3279. The fungal isolates were considered as 4 physiological races: Race 1, the weakest with disease severity above 66.6% on cv. Marakishy and line ILC1929, Race 2, the mild one with disease severity above 66.6% on cv. Marakishy, ILC1929, cv. Rafidain, and line ILC482, Race 3, the agressive race with disease severity above 66.6% on most cultivars except line ILC3279, Race4, the highly aggressive race with a disease severity above 66.6% on all the test genotype. It was found that these races belong to 3 pathotypes: Pathotype Ι, the weakest one including race 1. Pathotype ΙΙ, the mild one, including races 2 and 3, and pathotype ΙΙΙ, the most severe one, included race 4. Fungal isolates protein electrophoresis showed differences in position and number of protein bands which indicates the occurrence of 4 races of A.rabiei on chickpea in Ninevah . protein electrophoresis results were compatible with the results of pathogenicity test of these races on ascochyta differential Chickpea hosts.

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Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PREY SPECIES ON BIOLOGY
تاثير نوع االفريسة على حياتية المفترس الحشري اسد المن

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Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different prey ( green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and eggs of Ephestia spp ) on biological aspect of the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephen).The results indicated that the incubation period of eggs were 3.33 days and 3.1 days for C.cranea feeding on eggs of moth and green peach aphid respectively. The larval period was different by different host, duration of first larval instar was 1.97 days, the second instar was 3.39 days, the third instar was 3.10 days and the complete larval development period was 8.46 days on eggs moth, while they were 2.5 days, 2.75 days, 3.0 days and 8.25 days on aphids. The larval survival percentage was 88.1% and 90.2% respectively. The pupal period was 6.92 days on eggs of moth and 6.0 days on aphids, while the emergence was 87.4% and 94.7% respectively. There was significant pre-oviposition period (2.9days) when fed on aphids in comparison with 4.13 days on eggs of moth. The average longest oviposition period of female was 32 days recorded on aphids and 30.6 days. Feeding of different hosts to larvae of C.carnea significantly affected its fecundity higher fecundity (552 eggs/female) was recorded when fed on aphids ,while it was 320.86 eggs/female on eggs of moth. The maximum longevity of males was 28.6 days on aphids, and the maximum longevity of female was43.57 days on the same host. Predation efficiency of larvae was 40.3 nymph for the first larval instar,70 nymph for second instar , 165 nymph for third insar and 275 nymph for the complete larval stage ,while they were 53.4,336, 993, and 1253 eggs of moth respectively.

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Article
EFFECT OF FEEDING OF HONEYBEE WORKERS ON MAGNETIZED SUCROSE SOLUTION ON FORIAGING THE ACTIVE AND OF POLLEN COLLECTION
تأثير تغذية شغالا ت نحل العسل على محلول سكري مائه ممغنط في السروح وجمع حبوب اللقاح

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Abstract

This study was carried out in Karbala for during March to May 2011. the results appeared increasing in the mean number of the foragers, which fed on sugar solution its water was magnetized it recorded 858.9, 107.8, 969.4 worker/hour comparing with the ordinary water treatment which recorded 423.1, 612.3, 535.3 worker/hour in three periods of the day. Also to the workers which carry the pollen , the first treatment (magnetic water) recorded 100.7, 127.9, 62.2 worker/hour in the three periods of the day in front of 51.7, 79.5, 53.9 worker/hour in the ordinary water treatment. From this results appeared that the magnetic water has high effect on the foraging and pollen gathering activities by honey bee workers.

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Article
DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF THE CORN BORER ON PLANTS, YIELD AND CHEMICAL COPOSITION OF THE SEEDS OF SOME SORGHUM CULTIVARS
تقدير الأضرار الناتجة عن الإصابة بحفار ساق الذرة في نباتات ومكونات الحاصل والمحتوى الكيميائي لبذور بعض الأصناف المحلية من الذرة البيضاء الحبوبية

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A field study was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib during ‎the autumn season 2011, to evaluate the susceptibility of 4 local varieties of sorghum ‎‎(Ishtar, Babylon, al-Warkaa and Lillo) against the infestation by the corn stem borer‎‏,‏‎‎Sesamia cretica Led., Compared with‎ variety Inkhad, and to study the effect of infestation on the ratio the loss in protein and carbohydrates in Rosses. Results showed that Lillo was the most preferred grain for oviposition, and also distinguished by the highest infection rate and dead heart after 3-4 weeks from emergence amounted to 13.62% and 7.19% respectively, while the lowest percentage was on Babylon (3.87% and 2 .01%) respectively.At harvest infestation rates on Al-Warkaa (41.77%), and the the lowest on Babylon (26.91%).There were not significant differences in the number of holes/plant and the total area of stem tunneled/plant, the lowest number of 1.85 hole/plant and 4.79% of stem tunneled were on Ishtar respectively, while Al-Warkaawas 3.15 hole/plant and 13.62% respectively. There was no effect of the infestation on plant height and loss ratios ranged between least percentage of 7.9%on Al-Warkaa and the highest percentage of 12% for Inkhad. Plant yield loss has ranged in different varities between 20% for Ishtar and the highest percentage of 25% for Lillo.There were not significant differences in the rates of loss in grain protein, the lowest percentage of 11.19% for Al-Warkaa, while it ranged between 14.47%-21.41% for the rest varities. There were not significant differences in the rates of loss in carbohydrates between sorghum varitiestested , and the lowest percentage of loss of 2.69% was recorded for variety Lillo and the highest of 9.44% for Inkhad.

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Article
THE EFFICACY CONTROL OF SOME ACARICIDES ON THE TWO SPOTTED SPIDER MITES AND ITS PREDATORS ON COTTON UNDER FIELD CONDITION
الكفاءة النسبية لبعض المبيدات في الحلم ذي البقعتين وتأثيرها في بعض مفترساته على القطن حقلياً

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Field study was conducted in the fields of Gollege of Agriculture to evaluate the effect of three acaricides on the two spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and the predators Stethorus gilvifrons (Muls) and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (perg). Results indicated that the acaricide Propergite was the most effective against all stages of mite followed by Abamectin and then Naturall. Efficacy control for adults were 83.51, 82.90, and 80.49% respectively recorded after five weeks of treatment. While efficacy control for moving immature stages were 86.47, 86.23 and 83.57% and for egg stage were 82.18, 81.25 and 79.39% respectively after the same intended observation periods.Results also showed that Propergite was the most harmfull acaricide on all stages of both predarors, Stethorus gilvifrons and Scolothrips sexmaculatus.Aduls of the predator Stethorus gilvifrons were less sensitive to the three acaricides than the other stages. Mortality percentages were 3.06 ,1.96 and 1.41 recorded after five weeks of treatment for intended acaricides respectively.As for the predatory thrips Scolothrips sexmaculatus,the mortality percentages for pupae were ;19.20,14.30 and 11.44% respectively indicating that the predatory thrips pupae were more sensitive to these acaricides than the small predatory beetles.Therefore, the application of the integrated management to control this pest should take in consideration the choice of the effective acaricides such as Abamectin with less toxicity to the two predators and other natural enemies in the same time.

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Article
EFFECTS OF HOST PLANT ON SOME ASPECTS OF REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF COTTON LEAFWORM
تأثير نوع الغذاء في بعض عوامل الكفاءة التناسلية لدودة ورق القطن

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Results of the experiments about the effects of the host plant on some aspects of reproductive potential for the cotton leafworm indicated that the incubation period of egg of Spodoptera littoralis were 4.33 and 5.67 days on tomato and eggplants respectively. Fertility rates were 96% on tomato, which was significantly different from 87.67% when larvae raised on eggplant. Duration of larval stage were 30.33 and 32.33 days for each of the two host plants respectively was. The average of pupal weight raised on tomato plants was 0.364 g significantly different from pupal weight of 0.252 g raised on eggplant. The results revealed that the age of the adult on each of the eggplant and tomato was 18.40 and 16.20 days respectively. There were no significant difference for the host plant in the pre-oviposition period for adult females. Statistical analysis of data showed a significant difference in the oviposition period for adult fed tomato leaves, amounting to 13.40 days compared to 8.60 days when fed on eggplant. Results showed the means of female fecundity, food consumption by larval instars and duration of the life cycle of cotton leaf worm.

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Article
Results of the experiments about the effects of the host plant on some aspects of reproductive potential for the cotton leafworm indicated that the incubation period of egg of Spodoptera littoralis were 4.33 and 5.67 days on tomato and eggplants respectively. Fertility rates were 96% on tomato, which was significantly different from 87.67% when larvae raised on eggplant. Duration of larval stage were 30.33 and 32.33 days for each of the two host plants respectively was. The average of pupal weight raised on tomato plants was 0.364 g significantly different from pupal weight of 0.252 g raised on eggplant. The results revealed that the age of the adult on each of the eggplant and tomato was 18.40 and 16.20 days respectively. There were no significant difference for the host plant in the pre-oviposition period for adult females. Statistical analysis of data showed a significant difference in the oviposition period for adult fed tomato leaves, amounting to 13.40 days compared to 8.60 days when fed on eggplant. Results showed the means of female fecundity, food consumption by larval instars and duration of the life cycle of cotton leaf worm.
حياتية خنفساء الطحين الصدئية الحمراء على بعض التوابل

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Abstract

In this research the biology of rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst was studied on fourteen kinds of the common used spices ( Cardamon, Red pepper, black pepper, Coriander, Cumin, Cubeb, Ginger, Roselle, Cinnamon, Anise, Thyme, Mint, Clove, and Bay Leaf) under controlled conditions of 33±1ْ C and 60±5% R.H. The obtained results indicated that many biological aspects of the insect were affected according to the kind of spices used as a food for breeding it. Anise was the more suitable food than the other spices used and caused in low developmental period which was 35.51 days and lowest mortality percentage 26.66% in comparison to cubeb which caused in longest developmental period of 49.75 days and higher mortality of 90 %. However red and black pepper were unsuitable for the beetle which caused in 100% mortality for the larvae in early instars.

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