Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume: issue:202

Article
Ibn Abid Rabah, the Edenlost poet: Critical Appreciation
ابنُ عبدِ ربِّه الأندَلُسي في المِيزانِ

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Article
The function of storytelling in Luci Tapahonso’s collection of poetry Sάanii Dahataał: The Women Are Dancing.

Authors: نبيل محمد علي
Pages: 1-24
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The aim of this paper is to examine the function of storytelling in Luci Tapahonso’s collection of poetry entitled Sάanii Dahataał: The Women Are Dancing. Tapahonso uses the voice of the traditional storyteller in Sáanii Dahataał: The Women Are Singing as she draws upon an interactive, conversive storytelling style emphasizing the importance of women in the role of storyteller and culture bearer.

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Article
Building a Strong Frequent Patterns for Using the Web
البناء القوي للأنماط المتكررة في استخدام شبكة الانترنت

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Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. The first phase of web usage mining is the data pre_processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns discovered in the next phase. In reactive web usage mining techniques, the source data is web server logs and the topology of the web pages served by the web server domain. Other kinds of information collected during the interactive browsing of web site by user, such as cookies or web logs containing similar information, are not used. The next phase of web usage mining is discovering frequent user navigation patterns. In this phase, pattern discovery methods are applied on the reconstructed sessions obtained in the first phase in order to discover frequent user patterns. In this paper, we propose a frequent web usage pattern discovery method that can be applied after session reconstruction phase. In order to compare accuracy performance of session reconstruction phase and pattern discovery phase, we have used an agent simulator, which models behavior of web users and generates web user navigation as well as the log data kept by the web server.


Article
Psychological dimensions for the concept of political Affiliation
الأبعاد النفسية لمفهوم الانتماء السياسي

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يعد مفهوم الانتماء من المفاهيم المركزية التي حظيت باهتمام كبير في دراسات علم الاجتماع وعلم النفس الاجتماعي ، فضلاً عن الدراسات الفلسفية التي اهتمت بالتأصيل الفكري لهذا المفهوم بما في ذلك الاهتمام بالمفاهيم التي تقف على الضد منه وهما مفهوم الشعور بالوحدة ومفهوم الاغتراب النفسي . وعلى وفق اهتمام علماء النفس بهذا المفهوم ، طرح علماء النفس الاجتماعي – السياسي منظورهم لتحديد المحتوى النفسي والأبعاد النفسية لسايكلوجيا الانتماء وبكل أشكاله المختلفة والمتمثلة بالانتماء الأسري ، والانتماء الديني ، والانتماء القومي ، والانتماء الطبقي، والانتماء الطائفي ، والانتماء المهني ، ويعد الانتماء السياسي واحد من هذه الأشكال . وعلى وفق الطروحات النظرية المختلفة لعلماء النفس الاجتماعي وعلماء نفس الشخصية خرج هذا البحث بتحديد مجموعة من الأبعاد النفسية لمفهوم الانتماء السياسي وكان هذا هو هدف البحث . وإذ إن هذه الأبعاد قد عكست المحتوى النفسي لمفهوم الانتماء – الانتماء السياسي، فإنها قد كشفت عن ارتباط العديد من المفاهيم النفسية – والاجتماعية ذات الصلة الوثيقة به منها مفهوم المسؤولية الاجتماعية ، والاتجاهات النفسية ، والقيم الاجتماعية ، والحساسية الاجتماعية ، والتوازن والتطابق الاجتماعي وغيرها . وعلى وفق النتائج التي تم التوصل إليها خرج البحث ببعض التوصيات والمقترحات .

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Article
أثر عوارض الجهل والنسيان والخطأ على المسؤولية في الشريعة الإسلامية

Authors: . محمد رياض فخري
Pages: 45-95
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Research entitled (the impact of symptoms of ignorance and forgetfulness, and error on the responsibility in Islamic law) is trying to research the answers to questions such as: Can we say that Islamic law is a symptom of ignorance, forgetfulness, and error in legal judgment Dropped or reduced to judgment in this world and the afterlife or not? Do not take the ignorance, forgetfulness, and error in the legislation as a pretext to escape from responsibility? Is there a difference between these symptoms? All of this illustrates searching through an introduction, five sections, and a conclusion; explains in the introduction the reasons for selecting the topic and its importance, and separates in the first topic to talk about responsibility and legitimacy in Islamic jurisprudence, and in the second section separates to say in ignorance and its impact on the responsibility in Islamic law, and in the third section separates say in oblivion and its impact on the responsibility in Islamic law, and in the fourth section separates said in error and its impact on the responsibility in Islamic law, and in Section V detailing to say the difference between ignorance and error and oblivion, and in the Conclusion presents the main findings of the research on the impact of these symptoms on the responsibility in Islamic law.

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Article
Contrastive Analysis of Stress in English and Kurdish

Authors: Abbas Mustafa Abbas --- Rawand Sabah Ahmad
Pages: 45-66
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The title of this study is a’ Contrastive Analysis of Stress in English and English’. It deals with stress in both English and Kurdish languages to point out the areas of differences and similarities between them and to show the difficulties that face Kurdish learners of English language. The two languages have different rules and patterns of using stress. It is concluded that: A. Stress in Kurdish is a morphological phenomenon whether a syllable attracts or repels the primary stress is determined by morphology, i.e. it depends on whether the word is simple or derived, and whether the derivative is created by an inflectional or a derivational affix. Since all derivational affixes attract the stress on to themselves, while most inflectional affixes, repel it.Stress in English is mainly a phonological phenomenon, i.e. the position of the primary stress is determined by resorting to phonological factors such as length, loudness, prominence, the number of the syllables in a word, etc, although suffixes can have a role in assigning stress, those that attract the stress are few in number. B. Kurdish is a syllable- timed language, i.e. whether a syllable is stressed or unstressed its vowel will preserve its quality and remain a full vowel with all its distinctive features. English, on other hand, is a stress-time language, where the vowels of the unstressed syllable, lose their quality and are reduced to a schwa. Thus, Kurdish learners of English tend, or are inclined to use the strong forms of functions words in all contexts, and give equal time and prominence to all the syllables of English words, regardless of whether they are stressed or unstressed. Hence, their version of English lacks the rhythmic beats characteristic of the native or native-like pronunciation. The differences mentioned above are main factors of the difficulties by Kurdish learners.

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Article
أيقونات النسـاء في قصيدة آن سكستون "نوعـهـا"
WOMEN ICONS IN ANNE SEXTON’S HER KIND

Authors: Mohamad Fleih Hassan
Pages: 67-80
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Abstract Anne Sexton (1928-1974) is one of the major feminist American poets of the twentieth century. She introduces feminist ideas and issues into her confessional poetry. Her Kind is one of Sexton's confessional poems that deal with the image of woman in the modern society. In her poem, she presents female stereotypes that are going through personal struggles. Sexton’s Her Kind is about a woman who is seeking her life through struggling for recognition by anti-domesticating herself in the masculine world. Sexton’s poem is a serious attempt to understand woman's estrangement of the world she lives in. Sexton categorized those women who suffers a lot in their endeavors to conform with the prevailing feminine stereotypes. She encouraged them to break the falsified conventions of the masculine society. The paper shows that there are three iconic images of women in the three stanzas of Sexton's poem; the ‘possessed witch’ in stanza one, the conventional and traditional housewife in stanza two, and the adulteress in stanza three, whose society continues to misunderstand her, therefore, Sexton celebrates her for She sees the world differently. This poem is about all women, for the speaker says she has “been her kind,” and that she is no longer of her kind because she changed into new different woman

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Article
Investigating Sentence Structure in Skype English Chat
تقصّي بٌنية الجملة الانكليزية في وسيلة التواصل الاجتماعي "سكايب"

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The prevalence of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) has enormous impact on the growing amount of research into the distinctive features of the text-based CMC. Recently, an urgent need arises to examine the linguistic features of this mode of communication. The present paper investigates sentence structure, viz, sentence length and sentence complexity, of 20 authentic Skype English chats. These sentential features have been examined and quantified to determine the structural characteristics of Skype chat. It has been found that short and simple sentences are the most frequent sentence types in this electronic register. The higher frequency of short and simple sentences in the present corpus can be attributed to chatters' tendency to save time and keystrokes, and thus speed up the communication process. That is, considerations of linguistic economy may help to explain the structural simplicity of this register. The linguistic economy of synchronous chats can result from the temporal constraints of the medium, and this, in turn, can lend support to the speech-like features of synchronous chat. Besides, Skype English chat is similar to other chat systems, viz, Y! and IRC with reference to sentence structure. On the basis of these findings, a number of pedagogical implications and future projects are suggested.

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Article
استراتيجية استخدام أساليب جدولة المشروع ، بيرت والمسار الحرج في المفاضلة بين الوقت والتكلفة لانجاز المشاريع

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Time & cost considered a mijor factor in the success of the projects and methods of project scheduling ,PERT &C.P.M.give us auseful information to analyse & control the projects network in order to achieve the optimum to establish the project according to the resources in hands with the minium cost possible. In this research the project suppose to be achieved during (60) day, but it is achieved with in (108) day,while the critical activities are (1,2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11).

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Article
THE EFFECT OF THE DEPRESSION ON THE LOWER-MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN FAMILY IN CLIFFORD ODETS’ PLAY AWAKE AND SING!

Authors: Zainab Ismat Safaeddin
Pages: 103-130
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During the thirties of the twentieth century, America witnessed the most destructive economic downturn which was called the Great Depression. It began in 1929 and lasted through the 1930s. It caused political, social, and economic changes. It affected American families in dramatic ways as thousands of people lost their jobs. The suffering of the American family was very great during the Depression. Due to their moral responsibility the American playwrights of the time used the stage as a means to reflect social problems. Clifford Odets (1906-1963) was one of the most prominent American playwrights of the thirties. He tried to show the reality of the American society and the suffering of ordinary people and their struggle to fulfill personal ambitions during the Depression. He had great faith in men’s ability to overcome obstacles as they understood themselves in a difficult life. The study reveals the suffering of the American families during the Depression era in Odets’ three plays: Awake and Sing! (1935). This play reveals the effect of the Depression on the lower-middle class family. The play is concerned with the lower-middle class American family life in Bronx during the Depression. As the family members aspire to a better life, they struggle with their everyday problems.

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Article
The strategies of teaching literary criticism & testing for the artistic image of poetry
إستراتيجية تدريس النقد والتذوق الأدبي في الحركة الفنية للصورة والشعر

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The technical image in poetry is a creation of new meanings where a poet mixes pronunciation and imagination in such an image. Senses are one of the important pivots of the technical image which is something felt by senses and expressed by touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste. Imagination controls the technical image and changes it to a movable image or gives it a motional dimension charged with emotion and idea. The world of feeling is moved through imagination which emerges from a free creative mental emotion full of feelings. It is through imagination that an idea grows and mind lits, and so the seen truth become self appealing beautiful image. The beauty of image appears in getting idea and passion altogether. It is through the strategy of motion and image in teaching criticism and taste that student's skills can grow where he can express his opinion, give judgment. The student can also acquire skills of literary analysis, identify spots of beauty, identify technical image and their explanation, and explain values and attitudes.

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الحسن بن عثمان الزّيادي وكتابه الضائع " تاريخ على السنين " دراسة عن طريق الرواية الثانية

Authors: حسين داخل البهادلي
Pages: 123-169
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This paper is dedicated to focus on the work of one of the forgotten historian of the Abassids Caliphate known al-Hassan b. Othman al-Zayadi ( d.424 H/ 856 A.D) who wrote his missing book entitled " History by Years " according to chronological order. In other word , he was one of the early three pioneers adopted the chronological approach to history , in contrary to the general idea considering al-Tabari was . It is almost certain that this book was changed hands during the 4th H/ 10th A.D centuries among his followers and scholars, but suddenly missed to see a lot of his narrations scattered among many books such as " al- Isteab fi Maarifati al-Ashab " to Ibn Abd al- Bar al-Qurdubi al- Nimri ( d. 463 H.) who quoted from Abi Bisher Mohammad b. Ahmed b. Hammad al- Dulabi ( d. 310 H.) in his book " The Birth and Death " who used al- Zayadi`s book a lot.

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Article
The downfall of the middle syllable in the Turkish language
سقوط المقطع الأوسط في اللغة التركية

Authors: Muhsin Kevser محسن كوثر
Pages: 131-135
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The downfall of the middle syllable that happens within the words , which consist of three syllables , is the most common . some syllables in Turkish language consist of one phonetic letter and its falling means the falling of the syllable and leads to the abbreviation of the word . The same with Arabic words that were borrowed and used by Turkish , the middle syllable that consists of a phonetic letter falls and leads to the abbreviation of the word .

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Article
دراسة تحليلية لبنية النسيج الحضري لمدينة الكاظمية القديمة

Authors: كريم حسن علوإن
Pages: 169-192
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The extraction of the innovation and the ideas from the detailed comprehensive elements for the traditional Arab Islamic cities through deep study and accuracy numerical indicators method which depend on the survey for all practical planning elements which reflect the unity sense for the principles idea and spiritualism factors, so it must analyze these indicators for the urban fabric to achieve this goal. The researcher get off from the study of these indicators the high association and unity elements between them through their functions and formations for the religious, sustainability, cultural and climate factors in these intelligent cities.

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Article
التّضْمينُ النّحويّ وأثرُه في المَعْنَى

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Praise be to Allah who sent down his book Arab spokesman indicated, and vowed to save it for this book Quran, he said in an airtight Downloads: ((I mentioned we went to him and I guard)) (Stone 9), and save it saved us the Arabic language, and methods, they remain as long as the book of our Lord, is the language of eternity, was born to stay to be authorized by God to his order. Has been devoted to this language - since the descent of the Holy Quran - the care and attention. And how can it not? The language of the guaranteed features of the guidance and the guidance. And aspects of interest in this language the noble variety, expanded to all levels, beginning with the letters individual passing through the composition of vocabulary, and the end of the vehicle, was written exchange, and language dictionaries and grammar books, and eloquence, these books collectively undertook a statement every arcane detail in the language honest. Depending on the function of language general, the words carry meanings, have varied these templates were the languages different, but they all have a common purpose, is the expression of meaning, if meaning is to them and based on, but this effect will not function fully unless seized cake controls properly be to be agreed between the speakers in, and this is what was sought by the scholars of Arabic, was a grammar derived from the words of the Arabs, if Valenho not the rules of verbal abstract meanings, but movements to express seized by the grammar is not only evidence of the meanings, says Abdul omnipotent Jorjani: (( The words to their meanings closed in order to be expressed is the one who opens it, and that the underlying purpose is to be extracted it)) (). And safety of the method, and the relationship of word and subsequent predecessor, and the changing significance Accordingly, although the expansion of its core Albulagjun Vosash and the science of grammar and expression, and what (the secrets of eloquence, and signs of miracles) to Abdul omnipotent Jorjani us so long ago ... This search is underway to clarify the relationship between word and meaning, the language contained in the methods to express a certain meaning in similar versions, calculated by the negligent they have the same meaning, and that some of the differences in composition may not change the meaning of nothing. It is the word (hear) in expressions varied, as was once a transgressor himself meaning: ((on listen to cry right that day off)) (S 42), and again transgressor b) to (meaning: ((do not listen to the Pleroma and pelted from every side)) (Saffat 8), and a third transgressor Ballam, Kalhadit Sharif, who directed the imams, from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, the Prophet peace be upon him, he said: If the Imam said: God is heard praise, say: O Lord you Praise (). as well as the Lord of the Arabs as saying: (distracted), and (come to), and (came) from the irrelevant. So why is this diversity in the installation? And why this diversity in the links? Is this how was anonymous, without meaning, or whether the effect of meaning in the diversity of style?

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Article
التعدية بالحروف في المعجم الوجيز

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The linguistic correction is a Phenomenon that has been resulted from the divine view to the language for the sake of maintaining the expressive image to guarantee the proper understanding of the religious and non-religious texts. Furthermore, it keeps the language away from the deviation as a result of the tremendous changes in its linguistic structure. In fact, the concise dictionary is considered one of the most important books that have been occupied by the process of gathering the proper expressive images. But, some of those linguistic expressions have been, and are, criticized bitterly by the critics of the language, as far as their semantic level is concerned. However, some of their objections about some of the linguistic expressions are unjustifiable as their usage is supported by classical texts.

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Article
Nasser and Arab nationalism, visions of Nizari
ناصر والقومية العربية برؤى نزارية

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History is the awareness of the nation's sense and memory, their true form of the unity of its people is the root of their past and heritage, poet inspired by the past and invoked by and turns to the life of the capital, and linking it to look human future; Poetry National has always been associated with the most important elements: namely history, language, these two items are among the fundamental unit of a national . This study is an attempt to explore the nature of the relationship between nationalism and hair through the extrapolation of four texts by the poet Nizar Qabbani had been organized in praise of Gamal Abdel Nasser, are respectively: (Gamal Abdel Nasser), and (a message to Gamal Abdel Nasser), and (Pyramid IV) , and (on the anniversary of his birth). However, we we will discuss a poem (Gamal Abdel Nasser), specifically the study, criticism and analysis in sufficient detail by the model for the other sisters.

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برامج النطق الآلي أو ما يعرف بـ(مركبات الكلام) وعلاقتها باللغة العربية

Authors: جمانة خالد محمد
Pages: 293-310
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In light of this great development in the world of computer (PC), and entry in every detail of the joints of our daily lives, it makes sense to meet the language surprise, and cause it to a basic and simple, is the fact that language embodiment of what is essential in humans, ie, his mental in all its manifestations, and the direction of a computer to simulate the functions of man and his abilities of mind, was a product of the emergence of software speech automated or what is known (compounds to speak), has entered these programs in different aspects of life: education, and helping the disabled of the blind and visually impaired, mobile phones and computers , and other fields can be defined as those programs [software converts any written text to the words uttered]. These programs are available in foreign languages while in the Arabic language is still at the beginning of the road, and due to the fact that computer systems were designed originally to deal with the English language, and the Arabic language has features that qualify to enter the world of computers based on the system of sports, Arabic language can be converted into mathematical equations is understood by the computer to turn the franchise system, the roots of the word and statement of user and neglected, and the feature; weight that RPR morphological Arab regime. We call this research we try to strive to bridge this gap and the adoption of recent studies that combine linguistics and computer science, a so-called (Computational Linguistics, Linguistics or computer) .

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Article
جون لوك من الحرية والتسامح إلى تقريظ التسامح والحقوق الطبيعية

Authors: هشام محمد الشمري
Pages: 309-327
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The research aims to consolidate and disseminate the case of the most important humanitarian issues, but an issue of tolerance between people, in essence, emotional and its template humanitarian and not the default, and this is what he needs now is our Iraqi rife with differences of intellectual and religious and fanaticism, which cost him the sweetness of nature, the Islamic beauty of tolerance, there is nothing wrong to represent us John Locke, for example, and through the tolerance and undermine and praise tolerance normal, it is not all right in the issuance of ideas to change the character and flavor of the ideas of divine or natural tolerance, but tolerance is to respect one's views of other worldly matters, religion and forgiveness for their mistakes, and that tolerance is to leave people and what are it from the customs and traditions in order to Highlands the ethical them, then it must all be is the ethical aspect of tolerance, as it's something comprehend in ourselves and our conscience because we are human beings, and to take care of tolerance has to be generosity rights and tolerance, then, also must understand that tolerance is not a source of predominance strong for the weak, but is convinced he believes in man according to his religion and his conscience .

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Article
دلالة السّياق اللّغويّ في سورة يوسف

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Every content in this soura connect each other , so the method has great importance and role in explanation. where I select to my subject in the research . The holly Quran has complicated and miscellaneous built foundation, each enforced other, and never diverse than that, truth of so called method evidence , also truth on each other. Unless in composition . that make it so personnel and specialized by anything else, The Holly Quran include from separated parts, each one called soura , and the soura include from smaller parts , each one called aya , We are able to divide the linguistic method of Quran in to many sub-methods like : First of all minimal method , that mean the statement method, by the literal idioms, secondly: aya method, thirdly: Quran sentence method, fourthly: soura method, fifthly , one content or subject method, sixthly, civil and macci method ,finally the greatest method , That all of Quran methods , studied in most method evidences, in which benefit from the great scientist Tabataba'i in his explanation for the sharief soura . where found most of it belong to the first three methods and the last one .

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Article
Innovative thought and identity in Interior Design
الفكر الابتكاري والهوية في التصميم الداخلي

Pages: 373-388
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Means research study thought innovation and its relationship to the substantive identity of the spaces of the Interior, as dealt with the researcher in this research - types of thinking: sensory and abstract and inferential and critical with the concepts that defined identity, and what the identity of thought linked to the characteristics of interior design for the purpose of getting to know the identity of contemporary reference to the references that touched so , revealing the interaction of human values holds with an individual sense of belonging to the place which indicates the geographical identity. It is known that the identity born from the womb of thought, and the spirit of this identity is the spirit of Thought produced a civilization and culture, has touched the researcher as well as to the need for identity requirement physiological and security needs and the needs of corporate, and the needs of cognitive and aesthetic, with the needs of self-realization. It must provide the product is compatible with these needs, which occur in changing the environment of the individual and his style of living, and correlated this to the need for aesthetic, not to mention legacy of civilization and cultural awareness group in order to express the identity of the building, which is characterized by personality exclusivity and privacy associated with the place and time, and then concluded research on the role of identity in interior design which is unique in nature as the identity of the national, regional and character designer who is the son of that civilization, and innovative thinking among influential with inspired of civilization and the Arab heritage that belongs to him and strengthened it with examples and evidence of the most famous designers of Iraqis and Arabs And adopted a researcher on the research methodology basic desktop in force in the theoretical research of intellectual is different from the experimental method, in reference to the references and sources that dealt with each of the two concepts Synonymous They thought innovation and identity with the clarification of the relationship objectivity between them, as well as reference to the talented people who emerged as designers and architects by referring to the Internet with books and periodicals, which was a means of collecting data for this research 3

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الإله نن ازو Nin- azu في حضارة العراق القديم

Authors: . شيماء صلاح احمد
Pages: 397-411
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The ancient religions was featured by polytheism .Although appearance of monotheism in worship of some peoples such as Babylonians , Pharos and Hebrews in the early eras from their religions histories the general feature in old believes was polytheism because of the ancient man believe in natural forces and its role in organizing his live . Thus he interpret by this natural forces all his existence dependence .The ancient man believed that gods are exist in heaven or in underworld or in deepwater .Among theses gods was Ninazu ,The god of medicine and cure and one of underworld gods

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Article
Dialects and Linguistic Sounds in Arabic
اللَّهَجَاتُ والأَصواتُ اللُّغَوِيَّةُ في العربيَّةِ

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This study is a new reading of the (dialect) and (sound) in Arabic dictionary and in the terminology of Arabic scientists who have identified the organs of speech and named them according to their functions. They referred to the elements to be available to complete the process of sound production and perception . In its second part, the study deals with the reasons for the appearance of Arabic dialects, of which can be (bedouin life or civilization) (natural factors), (Social class and profession), (linguistic contact), (pronunciation deviation) and (deviation of the modernists who spoke Arabic but were non- native). The third part of the study deals with the methodological mistake in the study of the dialects because of the geographical dialectal mixture and historical dialectal mixture . The fourth part is devoted to the aspects of dialectal differences in Arabic and it ends with a conclusion comprising the major findings of the research .

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فهم النص القرآني في ضوء اللغة العربية

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The Glorious Quran, which is the speech of Almighty God is challenging all the rhetoricians at that time. They admit their helplessness to create such a discourse and believe that it cannot be created by any human being. So, the miracle of Quran came in the time of rhetoric, poetry and literature. Certain conclusions are achieved throughout this study: 1- Lexical semantics is one of the devices needed in understanding Quran and interpreting its meanings, rules and wisdom, since language is defined by understanding the meaning of the items according to their place in discourse so it cannot be interpreted by someone who is not specialized because he might give different interpretation. 2- Grammar is concerned one of the basic devices to understand texts because the meaning is changing by the change of position since position is controlling the meaning and the intention of the speaker. 3- If someone has to interpret Quranic a text, he has to be acquainted with inflection which is what connects the word with its structure. This has a great influence on meaning interpretation. 4- The interpreter has to have some knowledge in rhetorics which is the essential part of being an interpreter because he has to consider Quranic devices to realize the marvels of the words of God. 5- The Holy Quran, is marked by highly organized structure because each Ayah is unique by the eloquence of its wording, the accuracy of its meanings and the strength of its style.

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المهارات اللازمة للتدريس الجامعي الناجح

Authors: محمد سعدي لفتة
Pages: 447-463
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Does not depend on the skills of university teaching connect ideas and theoretical concepts Applied Environmental trial, but relationship between university students and its interaction with them. And in favor of the lecture series to provide sequential and integrated regulation of the interesting and influential in the hearts of students to learn it and become part of their personalities, and only lacked the feasibility & importance and thus lost and forgotten. We must retain learners' knowledge and skills for a long time to become a philosophy and style in their lives and their careers and aspirations, and only lost the value and essence that the university seeks to develop in the preparation of students. The proficiency of teaching for the purpose of digesting the information and understanding of the thermoplastic students reduces save this information for the purpose of the exam only, and thus reduces waste among students because of the failure and dropout and frequent absences from lecture courses that support teaching in the style of recitation and repetition is programmed. The teaching of the main tasks of the university professor. The other tasks as a measure of research, guidance, direction and administrative work and contribute to the committees, conferences and seminars are temporary seasonal tasks progress. The acquisition of teaching skills does not come haphazardly it is acquired by doing long, participate in training courses and to look to new technology, reading the extensive, observe the teaching of teachers, and mixes all of this like of teaching and the development of efficient methods of teaching, university training, the application of modern theories, tested in their real and the best place rows, lecture halls and practical workshops. The skills that will be reviewed by a researcher here is the result of his experience in university teaching in different educational levels may not find the reader in a single source but collected his brief in this research.

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Article
الرياشي وآراؤه النحوية والصرفية جمعاً ودراسةً

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It is important to study the opinions of the grammarians who lived in the era preceding the deviation of the grammatical lesson from its original course before the complication of its issues and the distortion of its concepts by logic. Thus, this era is considered one of the important eras in the grammatical lesson. And it is worth collecting the heritage of those grammarians who witnessed that ear which reveals the clarity of the grammatical opinion and its purity to serve the grammatical heritage attributed to the great scholars of Arabic and to show loyalty to our great ancestors. Accordingly, the researchers choose Al-Rayashi Al-Basri .He is one of the scholars who lived in the second and third centuries for Hijra, the era of flourishing, growing and developing of the grammatical lesson. The reason behind the researchers’ choice of this scholar is that they did not find a study discussing his grammatical opinions by lesson. Besides, he is one of the outstanding pioneer grammarians in their environment. And the explorer of the grammatical resources might find pieces here and there pointing to his grammatical opinions. The researchers intend to trace or deduce the research material and collect those scattering pieces from their sources. The research is of three sections. The first section includes Al-Rayashi’s character starting from his birth to death. The second section includes talking and his grammatical opinions .The third section is about his morphological opinions. The approach of the research depends on presenting the basics of the issue relating to the grammatical and morphological opinion. This is considered as an introduction to these opinions in order to make its idea clear. Then, the opinion is presented and discussed reaching at the results of the research. Following that is the list of resources. We ask Allah his guidance.

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Article
الرياشي وآراؤه النحوية والصرفية

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It is important to study the opinions of the grammarians who lived in the era preceding the deviation of the grammatical lesson from its original course before the complication of its issues and the distortion of its concepts by logic. Thus, this era is considered one of the important eras in the grammatical lesson. And it is worth collecting the heritage of those grammarians who witnessed that ear which reveals the clarity of the grammatical opinion and its purity to serve the grammatical heritage attributed to the great scholars of Arabic and to show loyalty to our great ancestors. Accordingly, the researchers choose Al-Rayashi Al-Basri .He is one of the scholars who lived in the second and third centuries for Hijra, the era of flourishing, growing and developing of the grammatical lesson. The reason behind the researchers’ choice of this scholar is that they did not find a study discussing his grammatical opinions by lesson. Besides, he is one of the outstanding pioneer grammarians in their environment. And the explorer of the grammatical resources might find pieces here and there pointing to his grammatical opinions. The researchers intend to trace or deduce the research material and collect those scattering pieces from their sources. The research is of three sections. The first section includes Al-Rayashi’s character starting from his birth to death. The second section includes talking and his grammatical opinions .The third section is about his morphological opinions. The approach of the research depends on presenting the basics of the issue relating to the grammatical and morphological opinion. This is considered as an introduction to these opinions in order to make its idea clear. Then, the opinion is presented and discussed reaching at the results of the research. Following that is the list of resources. We ask Allah his guidance.

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Article
Ministry At The Era of Boehy Prince Iz Aldawla Bekhtear Minister Ibn Baqia
الوزارة في عهد الأمير عز الدولة بختيار البويهي

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The Ministry was considered one of the important positions in Arabic Islamic State . This institution was developed since its first appearance in the first Abbasside Era as a political position and as a institution. After it was regulated and had its acts, the minister had a led position . He even was the deputy of the king and had administrative and military functions as well as great tasks by assuming this position. The study of Abbasside institutions during Boehyera is very important because of instability of the state institutions specially ministry institution which faced different condition and many challenges after control of Boehy Princes on Khilafa and took ministers for themselves b. They appoint only secretary for the Khalif .It was explained from our study in the time of Iz Aldawla Bekhtear the following : 1-The downfall of ministry institution because of it was assumed by incompetent ministers , competition and use of bribe . 2-Personal relations had its great effect on appointing the ministers specially the people close from the Boehy Prince. 3-The military institution had important role in choosing the minister 4- Little skilled and competent persons make the ministry weak and raise disturbances and ordeals . 5-Intervene of women in appointing ministers . 6- Conspiracies of opponents and bargains against the minister made him exposed to confiscate and dismissed 7- Dismissing ,confiscate and mistreatment by the Boehy Princes on their minister led to downfall of ministry institution because the minister was tortured ,jailed and killed 8-Finantial matters had strong motives. The person who had the money that fulfill the needs of his prince had the great opportunity to assume the ministry .That what had made the minister Ibn Baqia to overcome his competitors

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Article
الوظيفة الاتصالية للصورة الصحفية

Authors: عادل هاشم محسن
Pages: 556-585
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Photography plays a major role in media especially in our age which often called the "age of photography". Photos usually gain their power in the printed press as they help in communicating a large part of the delivered news. Photos usually have more effect on public opinions directing its trends; in addition to their role in shaping modern culture. The present paper explores the communicative function of photos presented in the printed media which aims at persuading the reader or the viewer of the message of the reporter, his attitudes and beliefs. Moreover, the paper clarifies the role of photos in press, news up to presenting information and explanations. This is to be done through trying a structural analysis to the photo and its communicative function.

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Article
اثر استراتيجيه جونسون وجونسون في تحصيل مادة الجغرافية والاحتفاظ بها لدى طلاب الصف الخامس الأدبي

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The present study aims at knowing the effect of Johnson and Johnson strategy in the acquisition of the geography and retaining them for fifth stageliterary male students. In order to verify the objective of this study, two groups have been chosen, and tested at the end of the experiment and retaining. The researcher determined the subject matter to be taught which included the first three chapters if the Book of Geography for the fifth stageliterary branch for the year 2011-2012. Then he formulated the behavioral objectives in the light of the general objectives according to Bloom's classification.

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Article
Historical relations and methodology for children's theater and theater school .
العلاقات التاريخية و المنهجية لمسرح الطفل و المسرح المدرسي

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Given the importance of children's theater and theater school for children of age (6_12), who are pupils in primary schools and for this category of importance as it represents the fundamental basis in the composition of generation conscious and which should be the focus of educational institutions, educational, artistic, and by all means in order to Bnahm construction proper and strong, which has all the ingredients of moral and aesthetic, educational, technical rise to our country and our society with them and through them and the fact that theater is the vessel through which induce the Tbahm and sharpen their sense of Altdhuqa works and because it works on the development aspects of the personalities of children from multiple. And it was targeted current research to know its present forms similarities and differences between children's theater and theater school term to achieve this goal followed the way content analysis was also used in classification (White _ Hiti) developer tool analyzed in the light of the texts and Guetsr search (6) the texts of the play of which (3) texts Theater for children and (3) of the theater school have shown results for the Children's Theatre that the total of the values of personal integrity was the first prize for the theater and the school has made the total of social values, the first prize was presented the study's recommendations and proposals in the light of the results

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Article
صورة المطر في المقدمات الطللية الشعر الجاهلي أنموذجاً

Authors: رجاء لازم رمضان
Pages: 647-664
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Literature Abstract That of the ruins of a great role and a wide and influential in the same poet , ignorant , and that the poets of pre – Islamic era believe that the Rainmaker is the legend of magic and the presence of Good for the rain irrigates Zruahm and their animals Therefore , there are two pictures of the rain in the introductions Tllih a negative image which represents sadness poet ignorant of due to be made rain of destruction , leaving only quader influential in the psyche of the poet. And the positive image of optimism and hope , often comes the poet in such images for the purpose of expressing praise and generosity and apologize as well as the spinning of this type of images .

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Article
فكرة التحريض في قصة آدم  (سورة البقرة، سورة الأعراف، سورة طه )

Authors: ضفاف عدنان هاشم
Pages: 665-674
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In some cultures , the idea of relating Eve to the concept of temptation and seduction of eating from the forbidden tree has spread Also , It has been known that the woman is the first person responsible for getting down to earth. After displaying the qualities of Adam ,Eve, and the tree that they ate from , we stated in this research through displaying order , sin, and punishment that the speech that almighty Allah addressed them is in the dual form depending on the story of the holy Quran . thus , the dual speech was addressed to both of them not to approach the forbidden tree or to eat from it , also the devils seducing them and punishing them . not even an (aya) was cited referring to Eves seduction to Adam to eat from the forbidden tree in all the texts that displayed the story of Adam and Eve .


Article
مفهوم الإتيان ومقارباته في الدلالة

Authors: طارق حسن خضير
Pages: 675-692
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I|t is clear, there is no synonymy between (al-ityan) in quran usage for its special usage. Pronounciation is coming closer from its meaning in addition to the meaning of (al-majee’), which comes closer from its linguistic meaning from (ityan) . in most lexicons, (al-majee’), is (ityan) and (ityan) is (al-majee’).

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Article
تطوير اختبار كاليفورنيــا لمهارات التفكير النــاقد لــدى طلبــة الجامعــــة وفقاً لنظرية السمات الكامنة

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The Present Study aims at developing The California Critical Thinking Skills Test for University Students According to the Latent Traits Theory. To Achieve this aim, Scientific Steps are followed Starting with the Translating the Items and its Instructions from English into Arabic, then re-translated the Arabic version into English, taking into consideration the accuracy and comprehensiveness of the whole ideas included in the test. Several modifications are required by translation experts and which were considered later. Then the Arabic version of the test is exposed on an Arabic Language expert who recommended certain modification in the style of the Arabic translation, and which were all taken into accont. The final Arabic version of the test is exposed on a number of experts in the field of Educational and Psychological Sciences in order to check its suitable characteristics as well as those of the alternatives with respect to form and content. Consequently all the test items are considered logically suitable to achieve the aim of the present study. The test is applied on a pilot sample of (50) male and female students in order to ensure the clarity of the test items and instruction, and to estimate the time required to respond to the test and which is fond out to be (50) minutes. The test Has applied on a stratified random sample of (500) male and female university students. Rasch's unit- dimension model, which is one of the Latent Trait Theory models, is applied for item analysis. To verify model's assumptions, the follow steps are applied: 1. One-dimensional: In order to verify this assumption, factor analysis is done by using (the Principal components Method). According, One factor meaningful to the test. The same factor depended on the lower limits of Guttman who believes that a factor is considered statistically significant when the (Eigen value) equals or more than (1), and depending on a ratio of (0.30 – up) to represent the items saturation ratio by the general factor according to Guilford's norm. No item is omitted from the test. another method is used to achieve One-dimensionality of the test which is by finding out Point Biserial correlation (i.e the relation of the item score with total score of the test) as an internal consistency index between the test items since it is directed to measure one trait or ability. 2. Matching the items of the model depending on the (Chi² value) according to the outputs of the program. This Procedure shows that four Items are statistically significant on a level of significance of (0.05). Therefore, (18) individuals of the sample of the statistical analysis were eliminated who have unmatched responses with the model's assumptions. 3. The discrimination coefficient value is found out to be near (1), where the exact value is found out to be (1. 03). 4. The independence of the scale to achieve objectivity of measurement is represent by Rasch's model, consequently, no items are removed. 5. In order to get rid of fractions and negative signals (i.e. minus), the logget unit is changed in to the percentile WAT unit to find out the items difficulty and the individual's ability estimation. In the light of the statistical analysis above, suitable conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions for further studies are put forward.

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Article
الملك لبت عشتار ( 1934 – 1924) ق.م في ضوء النصوص المسمارية المنشورة

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This research contained The personality of the king " Lipt – Istar" which means' touch of god istar, the fifth king in this dynasty. He Acceded the thorn after death of his father "Asmmidagan" (1953- 1935 BC) his mother was"lamastim" whoBuilt the shrine of the god " Istar" in eisin. He was the Last king of " Asbio- era" family . his Judgenent stayed for eleven years ( 1924 – 1934 BC). In one of the kings glorifrcation songs" Dipt- Istar" which was songs the ouch the colletion of Gods says that the God " Anow" The father of the gods and rfesponsible about the ens of the fates get king the godty greatroyality to be the person who they gave him the streangth and he will be rectiy flowerish the contry

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Article
Aesthetic and educaAesthetic and educational values of the Epic of Gilgamesh (Comparative study)
القيم التربوية والجمالية لملحمة كلكامش (دراسة تحليلية)

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The myths and legends and stories of heroism of great importance in the history of human thought the old, and is (Epic of Gilgamesh), one of these epics which have a record date to be among the Hoamaj world literature, in terms of the importance of humanity. From this standpoint, there is a problem of current research in an attempt to detect the content of these texts (The Epic of Gilgamesh), and its method for the detection of the moral and intellectual values and aesthetic of the students and analyzed from the standpoint of education .. The research aims to detect: 1. Educational values in the text's literary panels Epic of Gilgamesh and the (12) panels. 2. Aesthetic values (Arts) contained in the cylinder seals dating back to that era. Included the research community on two axes: the first is corrugated mud written in the form of texts, and the second the seals cylinder which dealt with the same subject, so resorted to the researcher to design tools: The first form content analysis of literary texts of the epic classification (White Hiti) developed a framework scientifically for the design of procedures current research, in the analysis of plates (Epic of Gilgamesh). With respect to the first search were analyzed panels epic (twelve) panels; The analysis revealed ideas value's (1443) idea of distributed (50) value resulting from descending order of importance, has been counting repeat units of any value indicative of the importance accorded to them. Has been given a set of values (personal integrity), the first importance, as was the set of values (national / national) ranked last, according to what I got from duplicates. As regards the second objective has shed light on the sculptor Alravedana religious subjects that occupied human thought at the time were referred to superstition and mythology of legendary open systems can not be attributed to the forms of the visible world, but its presence has become linked to beliefs that the security of the artist.The researcher came to several conclusions of the most important of which concerned itself with the epic monument and statues, because of its importance in ancient perceptions of it reflects the essence of rights and reflects the grandeur and beauty of human. As well as emphasis on the value of human relations in Iraqi society and of the old friendship which brought (Gilgamesh and Enkidu) and later became hits for example, in all parts of the Near East. The researcher recommended to include material history of ancient art and aesthetic implications of educational reached by the researcher in the search for the purpose of the current utilized by students as a reference and a cultural art could be employed in their art and in particular in Article (graduation project).

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Article
واقع مكتبة كلية التربية في جامعة البصرة من وجهة نظر المستفيدين

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The research aims to idcntiy the reality of the faculty of Eudation -Uninevsity of Basrah library in term of the staff (cadeor personnel) library collection and its organization section of the library and its services and use by the beneficiaries . Acase study method was used for this study, aquestionnaire as atool for data collection about the individuals of astudy sample that amounted to one hundred and sixty four beneficiaries , in addition to the interview . The most prominent results of the research showed that there are more than one side do purchase for the library . With respect of services , they are restricted to services of lending and CD (compact disks) and lack of automatic research and selective broadcast services . The other services such as photography, photocopy and to answer the reference questions . The current knowledge is weak . the research was concluded with several recommendations .

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Article
المجرورات في آيات المجيء « دراسة نحوية »

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Prepositions or Almakhfodhat (lowered nouns) in Arabic grammar are of two types: One of them is: genitives by preposition. The other is: genitives by annexation. The first: (genitive by preposition): It is mentioned in the verses of "advents" with nine characters of prepositions which are: (baa, taa, lam, fee, aan, man, ila, hatta, and ala). The origin of genitive is kasraa. It is substituted by yaa in dual and sound plural of males, fatha in indeclinable if it is stripped by "the" and "annexation". As for (genitive by annexation): It is mentioned as a frank noun, declinable by an apparent or implied diacritical mark or its substitute Muthanna and masculine-Salem collection and a hole in the forbidden exchange if stripped of the added. Lama (dative addition) came a name explicitly expressing movement phenomenon Aomekdrh Uma its behalf J or slot. And built (signal name or a name connected and conscience) and source Múla and sentence.

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Article
Space (Place) Description in(Ewarey perwana) Novel

Pages: 873-887
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This thesis is on the technique of description in the(Ewarey perwane)) novel of (Baxtiar Ali). It is a criteria- analytical research that deals with description in the cnidarians process. It aims to state that description is as significant as narration. It plays a role to speed up as well as slow down the narrative development. The scientific and artistic use of description in the novels of Baxtiar Ali is dealt with. Reference is made to types of description such as that of characters, things, and places.. the technique of description in (, Ewarey Perwane) Description of significant things, characters, and places are studied. This chapter is subdivided into in (Ewarey Perwane), place description, five, places are respectively chosen for discussion. As for as description chosen. General Conclusion follow the end of thesection

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Article
تحديد الزوائد الاشتقاقية في اللغة الكوردية

Authors: رفيق شوانى
Pages: 889-910
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تيَرِوانينيَكى ثرِاطماتيكى و رِةخنةيى بؤ ديَرة شيعريَكى نالي. ليَكؤلينةوةيةكى ثرِاطماتيكية

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This research is entitled “A Pragmatic Critical Perspective of Naly’s Verse". The researcher attempted to analyze and explain the verse depending on the links which are mentioned in Naly’s poetry in order to reach a good understanding of the poet’s mind, and specifying the context in which this verse was mentioned. Apart from the introduction and the conclusion, the research consists of two sections. The first section deals with the importance of analyzing and explaining poetry, in addition to the reasons why the poetic language is difficult to understand. In the second section the researcher analyzes and explains the verse. The research ends with the conclusion which summarizes the most important results.

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Article
הערכים הציונים בספרות העברית מתוך ספרי החינוך הישראלי
القيم الصهيونية في الأدب العبري من خلال كتب التعليم الإسرائيلية

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ספרי החינוך העבריים בשלווים הלימודיים השונים הושפעו הרבה מהמושגים הציוניים, לפי מדיניות תרבותיות שנרצה ממה לצור דורות מאמינות במחשבות הציונות. ועשו תכנון העתיד שרצו אותו המוסדות הציוניים ליחיד ולחברה היהודית בישראל. בישראל מלמדים ארבעה עשר מקצועות לשלבים שונים שהם היסטוריה ג'יופרפי והספרות העברית הקדומה, הטבע והלשון העברית. ומתוך השיטות האלו זרעו את המוסרים הציוניים בכל שלבי החינוך העברי. حفلت كتب التعليم العبرية في مختلف المراح


Article
العلاقات العراقية الأفغانية (1921 – 1968)

Authors: نغم أكرم الجميلي
Pages: 949-975
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Subject both Iraq and Afghanistan in the post – independence period the conditions some what similar, both countries gained independence at the beginning of the third decade of the twentieth century, after undergoing both people to alien domination for decades, but the policy has been the post – independence period is subject to the dominance of colonial indirectly in one way or another. Therefore did not record the Afghan – Iraqi relations in her twenties, long since a growing pattern of development, but proceeded to oscillating internal self specials treated with each of them on one hand, and external factors within the context of the world Alastratejat on the other. Can be divided into relations experienced by the two countries to stages: First stage: I have not seen the pre- July 14, 1958 clear Links between the two countries because of the tyranny of British influence in Iraq government into alliances and blocs. Second stage: a phase of post- revelations of July 14, 1958, despite the lifting of diplomatic representation from the Office of the Embassy between the two countries, it has also been marked by this stage is weak, why there were close ties with dimensions of real between Iraq and Afghanistan as a result of planning that has characterized domestic and foreign policy of Iraq before in 1968, which was a hindrance to drawing pictures clearly.

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