Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2013 volume:44 issue:1

Article
PERFORMANCE, VARIANCE COMPONENTS AND HERITABILITY OF OATS CULTIVERS UNDER IRRIGATION INTERVALS
الأداء ومكونات التغاير والتوريث لأصناف من الشوفان بتأثير فترات الري

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Seeds of five cultivars of oats (Avena sativa) were introduced from Italy in 2009. Seeds were propagated on the farm of the Dept. of Field Crops Sci. / Coll. of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad in the season 2009 – 2010. The cultivars Anatolia, Alguda, Hamel, Pimula and Genzania were planted under 3 irrigation intervals; 3, 4 and 5 weeks to give water depth of 480, 400 and 320 mm, respectively . The depth of water was 80 mm each irrigation. A factorial experiment with RCBD of 4 replicates was conducted in 2 consecutive seasons in 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012. The cultivar Alguda gave highest grain yield (8.07 t/ ha) under 480 mm, and 7.02 t / ha average of 3 water depths. This cultivar was characterized by high growth rate (13.2 g/m2/ d) that increased number of grains in unit area (24300 k/m2) , and accordingly higher grain yield . The 3 depths of irrigation; 320, 400, and 480 mm gave mean grain yield of 5.51, 5.97, and 6.13 t/ ha, respectively without significant differences . Genetic variance for most of traits studied was much higher than environmental variance, especially for days to 95% physiologic maturity, which gave a ratio of δ2g / δ2e around 5200%! . The traits; number of kernels, number of tillers, and number of racemes / m2, kernel filling period, day to 95% booting and physiologic maturity, harvest index and crop growth rate were of high genetic variance. Thus, it was concluded that these traits were of higher contribution to high grain yield, so, we recommend using these traits in next programs of testing oats a for a biotic stress tolerance. More care should be given to better plot leveling to reduce depth of irrigation to less than 80 mm, especially on Alguda and Anatolia cultivars for their high grain yield and stability.


Article
S1-PROGENY SELECTION FOR DROUGHT' N' K STRESSES IN MAIZE 1-Some field traits
الانتخاب بالتلقيح الذاتي لتحمل شدود الماء والنايتروجين والبوتاسيوم في الذرة الصفراء 1-بعض الصفات الحقلية

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In order to develop selected communities with high yield and water stress tolerance, the effect of selection on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and growth improvement was studied under some abiotic stresses (water, nitrogen, and potassium) with four fertilizer combinations (K100 N250, K200 N250, K100 N500, and K500 N200). A field experiment was conducted during six seasons(2009-2011) in the field of Crop Science Dept. – College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. In this experiment, the synthetic cultivar, Ibaa 5012 was used. The selection depended on grain yield under sufficient and insufficient water. The plants were selected from each group of combination according to phenotypic superiority, and undergone to self pollination for three cycles under sufficient and non sufficient water. In the fourth season, the manual random mating was used between selected plants in each group, the resulted seeds from random mating were divided into two groups, which were planted in a comparative experiments for spring and autumn seasons under irrigation levels(5 and 10 days), to compare them with the origins under tow plant densities (60 and 80 thousand plant/ha). Results showed the superiority of plants selected from 10 days irrigation. Plant high increased 4.6 and 7.6 cm for SDN2K2 in spring and fall season respectively. Leaf number increased for all selective over origin population. Leaf area and LAI increased 18% ,16%in Spring season and 15%,19% in fall season forSDN2K2 respectively. Selection cycles also affected the field characters of all selected plants under sufficient water (5 days) in the same way. Plant high decreased 20 and 15cm for SN2K2 in both seasons. Leaf number increased for all selected plant .Leaf area increased 11% ,10%,4% and12%,3%,6% in spring and fall seasons respectively. LAI increased 11%,9%,4% and 13%,5%,7% forSN1K1,SN1K2,SN2K1 in spring and fall seasons respectively too So we recommend the selection for high yield and device lines that tolerant to both of dry stress and high plant density to be used in breeding programs under abiotic stresses and producing improved cultivars suitable to our environments or to be crossed to produce distinguished hybrids.


Article
S1-PROGENY SELECTION FOR DROUGHT' N' K STRESSES IN MAIZE. 2- YIELD ,SOME COMPONENTS AND ( WUEc)
الانتخاب بالتلقيح الذاتي لتحمل شدود الماء والنايتروجين والبوتاسيوم في الذرة الصفراء2- الحاصل وبعض مكوناته وكفاءة استخدام الماء

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Abstract

In order to develop selected communities with high yield and water stress tolerance, the effect of selection on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and growth improvement was studied under some abiotic stresses (water, nitrogen, and potassium) with four fertilizer combinations (K100 N250, K200 N250, K100 N500, and K500 N200). A field experiment was conducted during six seasons(2009-2011) in the field of Crop Science Dept. – College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. In this experiment, the synthetic cultivar, Ibaa 5012 was used. The selection depended on seed yield under sufficient and insufficient water. The plants were selected from each group of combination according to phenotypic superiority, and undergone to self-pollination for three cycles under sufficient and non-sufficient water. In the fourth season, the manual random mating was used between selected plants in each group, the resulted seeds from random mating were divided into two groups, which were planted in a comparative experiments for Spring and Autumn seasons under irrigation levels(5 and 10 days), to compare them with the origins undertow plant densities(60 and 80 thousand plant/ha). Results showed the superiority of plants selected from 10 days irrigation. that were selected under SDN1K2 increased ear number by 8% and grain weight by12% .This increase was reflected on grain yield increase for SDN1K2 over original population and all selected plants.WUEc increased by19%. In fall season superiority SDN2K2 in ear number, grain weight, grain yield and WUE by 33%,11%,94%,94% respectively over original population. Selective cycles affected the selections under 5 day irrigation. superiority SDN2K2 ear number increase by 28%,50%. Grain weight increase by7% and 16% for SN1K2 Grain yield increase by 20% and 61% for SN2K1 .WUEc was increased by 23%and 51% in spring and fall seasons respectively. So we recommend the selection for high yield and device lines that tolerant to both of dry stress and high plant density to be used in breeding programs under abiotic stresses and producing improved cultivars suitable to our environments or to be crossed to produce distinguished hybrids.


Article
HYBRID VIGOR IN COTTON AS INFLUENCED BY TWO IRRIGATION INTERVALS
قوة الهجين في القطن بتأثير فترتي الري

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A field experiment was carried out during 2010-2012 at the experimental field of Crop Science Dept. – College of Agriculture – Abu-Graib. This was to evaluate genotypes under water stress conditions and attempt to breeding of hybrids for tolerant of this stresses, with higher yield capacity. However estimate of heterosis. Five varieties of cotton included Cocker-310, Dise, Macneer, Marsoomi-5 and Rabeaa-122 were crossed, during the season of 2010 using half diallil. The traits for 10 single crosses and 5 parents were tested during 2012 using RCBD design under split plot arrangement with three replications, irrigation treatments occupied main plot included irrigation weekly and at two weeks and subplot.The Results showed that irrigation at two weeks produced highest seed cotton yield (104.36 g.plant-1), lint yield (21.64g.plant-1) and no. of open bolls (43.2). Significant differences were found among genotypes for all characteristics studied. The parent Macneer were attained highest seed cotton yield account 102.02 g.plant-1, also, crosses (Dise x Macneer) and (Cocker-310 x Rabeaa-122) were gave higher seed cotton yield (111.75 and 110.21 g.plant-1 respectively) attribute to higher contribute of boll weight and no. of open boll per plant. However, Cross(Cocker-310 x Rabeaa-122) showed high hybrid vigor of seed cotton yield (22.06%) and boll weight (52.10%) under irrigation at two weeks. It could be conclude to dependent on irrigation at two weeks that attained higher values seed cotton yield, lint yield, boll weight and no. of open balls. Also can be grown Marsoomi-5 variety that showed higher performance of seed cotton yield and lint yield under water stress conditions. Crosses (Marsoomi-5 x Rabeaa-122) and (Cocker-310 x Rabeaa-122) gave higher values of seed cotton yield and no. of open balls at the water stress conditions.


Article
STIMULATION OF DETERIORATED SEEDS OF BREAD WHEAT AND TEST THEIR ABILITY TO INDUCE CALLUS IN VITRO.
تحفيز البذور المتدهورة لحنطة الخبز واختبار قابليتها لاستحثاث الكالس خارج الجسم الحي

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Two experiments were carried out at the laboratory of the Dept. of Field Crop Sci. Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during 2011-2012. The first was to study the effect of treatments T0 control, T1 seeds soaked with distilled water then dried, T2 seeds soaked with PEG 6000 (-1MPa) solution then dried, T3 seeds soaked with gibberellic acid (0.5 mg.l-1), T4 seeds passed through magnetic funnel (500 Gauss), T5 seeds soaked with distilled water then passed through magnetic funnel (500 Gauss) on stimulation of deteriorated seed (ger-mination 39%) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Al-Fatih. The second was to induct callus from embryo of deteriorated seed after stimulated via previous treatments then added different concentrations of 2,4-D (0, 0.75, 1.5, 3 mg.l-1) to the cultural media which was prepared for that purpose. This study aimed to stimulate deteriorated seeds to improve germination's characteristics and induction of callus. Complete randomization design was used. The results showed that stimulation by seeds soaked in gibberellic acid T3 was the best among the methods used. Also T2, T5 and T4 significantly outperformed the control treatment for most characteristics. Results showed that germination rate index is closest to the expression of germination speed, because it coincided with the high germination percentage in first and final count compared with coefficient of velocity of germination. Highest fresh and dry weight of induced callus were at 1.5 (mg.l-1 2,4-D) 93.7 and 9.6 mg respectively, they were 71.2 and 7.3 mg respectively at T3, and 107.8 and 10.9 respectively at the interactions of above treatments. We conclude that the methods of stimulation used had effectiveness in improving the viability and vigour of deteriorated seeds of wheat. The best was soaking with gibberellic acid T3. Also, treated deteriorated seeds with 0.5 (mg.l-1 GA3) for 6 hours has improved embryo viability of deteriorated seeds, which was reflected positively in the induction of callus at the concentration of 1.5 (mg. l-1 2,4-D). We recommend conduction further tests to determine the response of deteriorated seeds of several varieties of bread wheat using several methods of stimulation. As well as study the effectiveness of the stimulation mechanism to escape from the environment stresses and induction of callus.


Article
PROPAGATION OF STRAWBERRY VIA IN VITRO ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT FORMATION TECHNIQUE
إكثار الشليك بتقانة تكوين الأفرع العرضية خارج الجسم الحي

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This study was carried out at Tissue Culture Laboratory, College of Agriculture - University of Basrah, during the period from 2010-2012 to investigate the propagation of strawberry(Fragaria ananassa Duch.) Albion by in Vitro adventitious shoot formation. Results showed that MS medium supplemented with 2.0 and 2.5 mg/l BA + 0.2 mg/l. NAA gave highest rate of shoot number reached 23.00 and 21.67 shoots respectively. While BA concentration of 0.5 mg/l. + 0.2 mg/l. NAA gave lowest rate of shoot number (9.67 shoots). The results were reverse when kinetin replaced with BA for the same medium components of multiplication, they reached 8.33, 2.33 and 3.00 shoots at 0.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg/l. kinetin respectively. The concentration 0.5 mg/l. of BA gave highest rate of shoot length reached 4.33 cm whereas the 2.5 mg/l. of BA gave lowest rate of shoot length (0.67 cm). The similar results showed when kinetin replaced with BA for the same medium components of multiplication, they reached 3.00 and 0.67 shoots at 0.5 and 2.5 mg/l. Kinetin respectively. Results showed that rooting medium supplemented with 1 mg/l. IBA gave high rooting percentage of shoots (100%) and produced high rates of root number and length reached (3.00 root/plantlet and 3.67 cm) respectively. Finally, the plantlets were acclimatization by culture in mixture of river soil + peat moss (1:1) in growth room at conditions: 16 hrs. light and 8 hrs. dark and 27 ± 2 °C temperature. All plantlets were survived when transferred.


Article
EFFECTS OF SPRAYING SOME PLANT EXTRACTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF TOMATO PLANTED IN PLASTIC HOUSES
تأثير رش المستخلـصـات النباتية في إنتاجية الطماطة (البندورة) المزروعة في البيوت البلاستيكية

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اجري البحث خلال عاميين متتالين (2010 و2011) على ثلاثة أصناف من الطماطة المعتمدة في الزراعة المحمية في احد البيوت البلاستيكية العائدة لأحد مزارعي الخضر في بانياس (متن الساحل). استخدم في هذه التجربة نباتات ( البقلة Portulaca oleraceae (P) والخبيزة Malva parviflora (M) والتين الشوكي ( الصبار) Opunita ficus indica (C) .حٌضرت المستخلصات المائية بطريقة التخمر اللاهوائي ، كما استخدم الهرمون التجاري Flower-Set ورشت على أصناف الطماطة ، الأرجوان والبادية وسويتي. كان ذلك بهدف تحديد تأثير رش المستخلصات النباتية في نسبة العقد والإنتاجية في الطماطة وإيجاد بدائل عن الهرمون التجاري الذي يستخدم بكثرة من قبل المزارعين لزيادة عقد الأزهار. صممت التجربة بحسب تصميمان القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة في تجربة عامليه بعدد وحدات تجريبية 81 وحدة للمقارنة مابين الأصناف والقطاعات الكاملة المعشاة. تفوقت معاملة الرش بمستخلص (P+M+C) على جميع المعاملات في صنفي الأرجوان وسويتي بإعطاء أعلى معدل بنسبة العقد والإنتاج الكلي وبمعدل (94.50 %و97.53%) و(25.86 و22.63) كغم / م2 على الترتيب ولكلا الموسمين في صنف الأرجوان وفي الصنف سويتي (95.03 % و94.76%) و(21.36 و17.86) كغم / م2 على الترتيب ولكلا الموسمين. ولم تختلف هذه المعاملة في كلا الصنفين معنوياً عن باقي المعاملات عدى معاملة المقارنة التي أعطت اقل معدل لهذه الصفات. أما صنف البادية فقد أعطت معاملة (M) أعلى معدل لهاتين الصفتين بلغت نسبة العقد (92.66% و90.23%) على الترتيب ولكلا الموسمين, والتي لم تختلف عن معاملة (P) للموسم الأول ومعاملات (P+M+C وM+C) في الموسم الثاني أما بقية المعاملات فقد تفوقت على معاملة المقارنة التي أعطت اقل معدل لهذه الصفة وبالنسبة لصفة الإنتاجية فقد أعطت معاملة (M) إنتاج (21.16 و21.20) كغم / م2 على الترتيب وللموسمين وتفوقت على معاملات الرش التي هي الأخرى سجلت أعلى معدل في الإنتاجية وتفوقت على معاملة المقارنة.


Article
USE OF YEAST EXTRACT TO IMPROVE YIELD AND COLD STORAGE OF OYSTER MUSHROOM.
استخدام مستخلص الخميرة في تحسين الإنتاج والقابلية الخزنية للفطر المحاري

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Three experiments were conducted in the Dept.of Hort./College of Agric./Univ.of Baghdad from 20/11/2010 to15/6/2011.The spawn of white strain of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.))was produced using tissue culture . Yeast extract (50 ml)before and after boiling for 15 min was added to the plastic bag after the incubation stage at the following concentrations,0%or2.5%or 5%or 10%. The results showed that the fresh and dry yield and the biological efficiency(BE)increased with the increase of the yeast extract concentration ( boiled or unboiled) but the effect of the boiled extract was better than the un boiled extract. Use of 10% boiled extract increased the fresh yield from 507.7g/kg of substrate to 918.41g/kg of substrate ,while the un boiled yeast extract increased the fresh yield to 813.8g/kg of substrate only. Use of 10% boiled extract increased the dry yield and the BE significantly compared with all other treatment. Use of 10% yeast extract (boiled or unboiled) increased the percentage of the protein and the dry matter significantly in the fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom. Treatments with yeast extract (boiled or unboiled )had no significant effects on the percentage of decay, weight loss, protein loss and dry matter loss after storage.


Article
PRODUCTION OF POLYGALACTURONASE FROM THERMOSTABLE MOLD ASPERGILLUS NIGER 1- ISOLATION AND SCREENING THE ENZYME PRODUCER THERMOSTABLE MOLDS AND IDENTIFYING THE PRODUCER ONE
إنتاج أنزيم POLGALACTYRONASE من العفن ASPERGILLUS NIGER المتحمل للحرارة1-عزل وغربلة الأعفان المتحملة للحرارة والمنتجة للأنزيم وتشخيص العزلة الأكثر إنتاجاً

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A total of 147 isolates of pectin hydrolysis enzymes producer molds were isolated from various sources(soil and decayed vegetables and fruit) using Czapek Dox Agar using 3% pectin as the sole carbon source by adding of 1M Hcl at PH5 and submitted to primary and secondary screening at 40 CO to select the best isolate that produces the highest level of polygalacturonase. It was found that 7 isolates were good producer but the isolate which designated TP4 was the highest producer one. The source of this isolate was deteriorated orange and identified as Aspergillus niger according to morphological, biochemical and molecular analysis which was achieved using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reactions) technique. This isolate was nominated as Aspergillus niger TP4 for distinguishing it from any other isolates used for production the same enzyme. This part of study was aimed to investigate the optimal condition of production the enzyme Polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger TP4 by solid state fermentation using different wastes available locally. It was found that the higher level of production could be achieved on wheat bran and sunflower head extract moistened with water at a ratio 3:1 with an initial pH 5 inoculated with 107 spores/gm during an incubation time of 4 days at 4 C0.the polygalacturonase activity was assay by measuring reducing groups The productivity under these conditions was 325.45 unit/gm using wheat bran and 242.28 unit/gm using sunflower head with an increase estimated about 124.7% and 120.8% respectively in relationship with productivity before of the optimization.


Article
PRODUCTION OF POLYGALACTURONASE FROM THERMOSTABLE MOLD ASPERGILLUS NIGER 2-OPTIMIZATION THE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION
إنتاج أنزيم Polygalacturonases من العفن TP4 ASPERGILLUS NIGER المتحمل للحرارة 2- تعيين الظروف المثلى لإنتاج الأنزيم بطريقة تخمرات الحالة الصلبة

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This part of study was aimed to investigate the optimal condition of production the enzyme Polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger TP4 by solid state fermentation using different wastes available locally. It was found that the higher level of production could be achieved on wheat bran and sunflower head extract moistened with water at a ratio 3:1 with an initial pH 5 inoculated with 107 spores/gm during an incubation time of 4 days at 40 C0.The crud enzyme was extracted by adding 15ml of water to each flask followed by filtration and centrifugation at 1000 for 15 min the resultant extract was used for enzyme assay polygalacturonase activity was assay by measuring reducing groups The productivity extract was used for enzyme assay polygalacturonase activity was assay by measuring reducing groups The productivity under these conditions was 325.45 unit/gm using wheat bran and 242.28 unit/gm using sunflower head with an increase estimated about 124.7% and 120.8% respectively in relationship with productivity before of the optimization Maximal levels of enzyme activityes were achieved upon growing upon growing the culture in amedium containing wheat bran after 4 days of incubation at temperature of 40 C0 with pH 5 .


Article
THE OPTIMUM COMMODITIES COMBINATION IN THE FACTORY OF MEDICAL COTTON PRODUCTS IN BAGHDAD BY USING THE LINEAR PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUE
المزيج السلعي الامثل في معمل المنتجات القطنية الطبية في بغداد بأستخدام اسلوب البرمجة الخطية

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بالرغم من اهتمام الكثير من الشركات الصناعية في العراق في توجيه الموارد الاقتصادية المتاحة لها نحو تعظيم ارباحها˛الا ان استخدام تلك الموارد على مستوى الشركات لايتم وفقا لمفاهيم اقتصاديات الانتاج مما يؤدي الى تباينات في الانتاج الفعلي والممكن على مستوى الوحدة الانتاجية .من اجل محاولة النهوض بواقع منتجات الشركة العامة للمنتجات القطنية كونها احدى الشركات التي لاتطبق مفاهيم اقتصاديات الانتاج ولايتم فيها استخدام مواردها الاقتصادية استخداما امثلا مما ادى الى تباينات في انتاجها الفعلي والممكن˛اصبح من الضروري محاولة التخصيص الامثل للموارد الاقتصادية المتاحة لها باستخدام اسلوب البرمجة الخطية وذلك لزيادة كميات الانتاج وتحقيق اعلى مستوى ممكن من الارباح لما لها من مردود ايجابي في مختلف النواحي الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والتنموية˛والتي هي من الاهداف الاساسية التي تسعى الى تحقيقها مختلف القطاعات.يهدف البحث الى التخصيص الامثل للموارد المتاحة للشركة باستخدام اسلوب البرمجة الخطية لعام 2010 للحصول على المستويات المرتفعة من الانتاج ومن ثم المستويات العالية من الارباح بتعظيم قيمة دالة الهدف وزيادة ربحية الشركة بالاعتماد على البيانات المستمدة من الشركة واجراء تحليل الحساسية لمعرفة مدى التغيرات التي تطرأ على التشكيلة السلعية المثلى كما ونوعاومستوى الارباح وبالشكل الذي يتناسب ومتطلبات النمو في الشركة.اظهر البحث عددا من النتائج من بين اهمها:اثبات صحة الفرضية بتحقيق مستويات عالية من الانتاج والارباح والتخصيص الامثل للموارد المتاحة اذ ارتفعت كمية الانتاج من1168750 وحدة في خطة الانتاج الفعلية الى5184907.5وحدة في الخطة المشتقة باستخدام اسلوب البرمجة الخطية محققة زيادةتبلغ نسبتها 77.5% ـ


Article
USING PHYTOREMEDIATION TO REMOVE PETROLEUM CONTAMINANTS AND ITS EFFECT ON SOME SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
أستخدام الاصلاح النباتي لازالة الملوثات النفطية وتأثيره في بعض صفات التربة الكيميائية

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A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of adding diesel engines oil used at different levels and two different species of plants (alfalfa and barley), and two levels of NPK 100 and 50 kg. ha-1 the use of fertilizer, in some soil chemical characteristics, and to determine the efficiency of the plant in the analysis and reduce hydrocarbon oil in the soil. Diesel engine oil was added to the soil at levels of 0, 20, 40 and 60 g. Kg-1 After three months the soil was cultivated in pots. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in the soluble cations in soil from(5.74, 4.32, 1.82,1.41, 6.40, 1.70 and 5.73) Cmol.Kg-1 to (3.51, 2.32, 0.57, 0.63, 3.29, 0.61 and 2.72) Cmol.Kg-1 for all from Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cl, HCO3 and SO4 successively and a significant increase in the concentration of total nitrogen from 0.53 to 0.83 gm.Kg-1, organic carbon 6.5 to 45.2 gm.Kg-1, CEC 18.10 to 23.11 Cmol+.Kg-1 and numbers of microorganisms from 19.7 and 18.4 to 63.21 and 41.23 CFU for all from bacteria and fungi in soil after storing with increase oil levels added. There was also a significant decrease in the concentration values of oil in soil in treatment alfalfa plant and fertilizer additions (100 kg. ha-1) compared with other treatments.


Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROGESTERONE METHOD ADMINISTRATION ROUTES IN IRAQI EWES AND IT’S EFFECT ON REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY
مقارنة لطرائق اعطاء هرمون البروجستيرون في النعاج العراقية وتأثيرها في الكفاءة التناسلية

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Abstract

This study was performed on 50 Iraqi ewes in Abu-Griab village in Baghdad province during the period 2009-2010 and their age from 2-4years and they had at least one parturition before 2-2.5 months, the ewes were divided randomly into 5 equal groups according to the hormonal regime used,1st group injected with 25mg progesterone I.M every 48hrs interval for 4 times followed by 750 IU of eCG injected I.M on day 9. 2nd and 3rd group were treated with intra vaginal sponges impregnated with 40 or 60 mg of medroxy acetate progesterone (MAP) respectively for 9 days. On day 9 the ewes of both groups were injected with 750 IU eCG /I.M after withdrawal of vaginal sponges directly. 4th group were drenched daily with 50 mg progesterone (as pilots) for 8 successive days and on day 9 injected with 750 IU eCG /I.M while 5th group (control group) were injected with normal saline and kept at the same circumstances. After day 9, the ewes of all groups mentioned above were mixed with rams for 7 days to ensure mating. The results revealed that 90% of all groups showed estrus behavior after day 9 with significant variation in the period of response in each group and as follows 5.16±1.26 days , 3.42±1.1 days , 3.57±1.24 days , 5.32±1.81 days and 58.36±9.6 days in the 1st , 2nd , 3rd ,4th and 5th group respectively. While the pregnancy rate was recorded 70% in treated groups. However the percentage of dystocia was 16.67%. the result may indicate that there was no effect of using hormonal treatments on the nature of parturition in spite of getting 28-6-50% twinning rate for the treated groups compared to 12.5% in the control group and there results indicated no effect on the viability of the offspring (90.4% for alive and 9.6 for dead ). It was concluded that the using of progesterone in different routes gave a good result in estrus synchronization , pregnancy rate and shortened an estrum period in summer and increase twinning rate when it was administered mixing with eCG.

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