Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:53 issue:4

Article
SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MANGANESE(II), COBALT(II), NICKEL(II), COPPER(II), ZINC(II) AND CADMIUM(II) COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM 1,2-DIPHENYL -3-METHYL-4-AMINO-5-OXO-PYRAZOLE WITH BENZALDEHYDE
تشخيص ودراسة طيفية لمعقدات المنغنيز والكوبلت والنيكل والنحاس والخارصين والكادميوم ثنائية التكافؤ مع قاعدة شف المشتقة من 2,1- ثنائي فنيل-3- مثيل-4- أمينو-5- أوكسو- بايرازول مع البنزالديهايد

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The synthesis and characterization of new complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) ,Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions with bidentate Schiff base 1,2-diphenyl-3-methyl-4-benzaladene-5-oxo-pyrazole ligand which was prepared via the condensation reaction of both benzaldehyde with 1,2-diphenyl-3-methyl-4-amino-5-oxo-pyrazole in acidic medium. The complexes were synthesized by treating an ethanolic solution of the ligand with appropriate amount of metal salts [1:2] [M:L] ratio. The complexes were characterized by metal and elemental analysis, FTIR, electronic spectra, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and mole ratio. According to the obtained data the probable coordination geometries of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium ions in these complexes with nitrogen and oxygen as donor atoms are octahedral. All complexes were found to be non-electrolyte systems in absolute ethanol, and the complexes were formulated as [ML2Cl2]n H2O.


Article
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF AMOXICILLIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS THROUGH DIAZOTIZATION AND COUPLING REACTION
التقدير الطيفي للاموكسيسيلين في المستحضرات الصيدلانية بوساطة تفاعل الازوتة و الازدواج

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Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of amoxicillin (AMX) in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods are based on a coupling reaction between AMX and diazotized p-amino benzoic acid or diazotized procain in alkaline medium to form an intense yellow, water-soluble dyes that are stable and have a maximum absorption at 435 nm using diazotized p- amino benzoic acid and 450 nm on using diazotized procain. The calibration graphs were linear over the concentration rangs of 0.4 to 10 µg mL-1 and 0.4 to 14 µg mL-1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1877 µg mL-1 and 0.1916 µg mL-1,molar absorbtivity of 1.914×104 L mol-1cm-1 and 2.544×104 L mol-1cm-1 , Sandellʼs sensitivity of 21.912×10-3 µg ml-1 and 16.486 ×10-3 µg ml-1 for diazotized p-amino benzoic acid and diazotized procain, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of AMX in capsules and injections.


Article
REACTION KINETICS OF 1,4-DIAMINOBUTANE WITH DIMERIC FATTY ACIDS
حركية تفاعل4,1 - ثنائي أمينو البيوتان مع الحوامض الشحمية ثنائية الجزيئة

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Kinetic studies were carried out on the reaction between 1,4-Diaminobutaneand dimeric fatty acids in melt phase . The reaction was performed at 123, 138, 146, 160, and 170 ºC and followed by determining the acid value of the product .The polyamidation reaction was found to be of overall second order with an activation energy of 28.18kJ mol-1up to 85% conversion and overall third order above 85% conversion .The Degree of Polymerization ,Number Average Molecular Weight, Weight Average Molecular Weight has been calculated during different times , The relationships between Degree of Polymerization ,Number Average Molecular Weight, Weight Average Molecular Weight with the times is linear until85% conversion ,The Refractive index of polyamide solution was measured at different temperatures.


Article
MONTHLY VARIATIONS OF THE EPIPELIC AGAL COMMUNITIES IN AL-AaRAS TOURIST ISLAND LAKE , BAGHDAD - IRAQ
التغيرات الشهرية لمجتمعات الطحالب الملتصقة على الطين في بحيرة جزيرة الأعراس السياحية ، بغداد – العراق

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Three sites at the Al-aaras tourist island lake were selected to study the physico-chemical characters and epipelic algal communities . Monthly samples for 12 month were taken starting January 2009 . It was found that the lake is alkaline , well oxygenated ,oligohaline with low electrical conductivity and hard water . The concentration of reactive nitrite ( NO3) were available and low concentration of reactive phosphate ( PO 4 ) . A total of 67 taxa were identified dominated by Bacillariophyceae ( 65.7 % ) followed by Cyanophyceae ( 16.4 % ) and Chlorophyceae ( 13.4 % ) . Clear seasonal variations in the total density of epipelic algae were found at different studied sites with a binomial pattern at spring and autumn . The total cell number was ranged between 0.09 x 10 4 – 14.0 x 10 4 Cell / cm² . Almost similar binomial peaks also found in Bacillariophyceae , out of 11 taxa identified of Cyanophyceae , 6 were belong to Oscillatoria . While Scenedesmus quadricauda was composed of high cell number of Chlorophyceae . The dominant species were Cymbella affinis , Navicula cryptocephalla and Nitzschia hungarica which are all originally benthic Key words: Epipelic algae , Physico- Chemical Caracters , Al-aaras Turiste Island Lake , Iraq .


Article
THE SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF INFECTION AND SPERM ACTIVITY IN THE TEMPERATE CLIMATE
التقلب الموسمي للعدوى ونشاط الحيمن المنوى فى المناطق المعتدله

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Widal and Rose Bengal tests were conducted for patients who were attending to the High Institute of Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technology/Al-Nahrain University and a private Laboratory during the years 2005-2007. Monthly variation in the incidence of infections and the number of motile sperms were studied. For Widal test a titer of 1:80 regarded as negative, and a titer of 1:160 and more considered positive for O and H antigens with visible agglutination. Brucello-slide test was used to detect brucella–specific agglutinins. The positive sera for each of Brucella and Salmonella were 140 and1505, during the years 2006, 2007and2005, 2006, 2007 respectively. The seminal fluid analyses were evaluated separately for other 4398 patients during the years 2006-2007 to detect the number of motile sperms. The study revealed a significant difference between winter and summer, higher in summer than winter with respect to Brucellosis [p<0.05], Salmonillosis [p<0.0001]. In contrast, the number of motile sperms was higher in winter than summer [p<0.01]. On the other hand, the study may refer to the presence of a similar regular rhythm o¬f the infections that take place and the vitality of spermatozoa during different months of the year.

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Article
Trichomoniasis Vaginalis in Women Attending Family Planning Unit in AL-Liqa'a Hospital
داء المشعرات المهبلية لدى النساء المراجعات لوحدة تنظيم الاسرة في مستشفى اللقاء.

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The prevalence and the incidence trichomoniasis and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) correlated with risk factors among women attending family planning unit in AL-Liqa'a Hospital are determined. Two hundred and fifty (250) women complaining vaginal discharge were examined for the period from October 2010 till September 2011. From each women full history was taken including age, duration of marriage, residence, occupation, previous history of vaginal discharge and any history of STIs. Vaginal swabs tested microscopically and cultured on appropriate media. Trichomoniasis was detected in 18 (7.2%) out of 250 women included in this study. STIs were estimated in 58 (23.2%) women, and trichomoniasis represented about 31.0% of them. Forty women (69.0%), out of 58 infected women were found to be infected with other than parasitic pathogens. The highest rate of STIs was found in age between (25-29) years (32.8%). The highest rate of infection with Trichomonas vaginalis was found at two age intervals (25-29) and (30-34) years old (27.8%). There was a significant differences in the marriage age, occupation (house wives vs. employed), and the numbers of the sexual contact / week between the STIs infected women and uninfected women, while there was no significant difference among women infected with T. vaginalis and those infected with other STIs. The effect of other factors was also discussed. Finally Trichomonas vaginalis in women in Baghdad is one of the important STIs with a high prevalence.


Article
Effect of Diode Laser (805) nm on alpha-toxin production and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus
دراسة تأثير أشعاع الليزر ثنائي الصمام [805] نانوميتر على إنتاجية السم ألفا وحساسية المضادات الحياتية على البكتريا Staphylococcus aureus

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The effect of low level laser radiation on Staphylococcus aureus with different exposure times has been studied. Thirty skin samples [swabs] were collected from patients with burn and wound infections of Al-yarmouk teaching hospital, during the period from November 2010 to March 2011. Ten isolates of S. aureus were identified by their cultural characteristics, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. The ten isolates were exposed to diode laser [805nm] at different exposure times [1min., 3min. and 5min.]. The activity of bacteria to produce alpha toxin and its sensitivity to antibiotics were determined before and after irradiation. The result of alpha toxin production of ten irradiated isolates were illustrated that toxin production was decreases after different time of exposure [1, 3 and 5 min.] of irradiation. The effect of diode laser on the sensitivity of S. aureus to antibiotics discs shows slightly increase in the diameter of inhibition zone to these antibiotics at different time of exposure.


Article
Biochemical and demographical study of lipid profile in sera of patients with gallstone
دراسة كيموحيوية وديموغرافية للدهون في مصول مرضى حصى المرارة

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Thirty patients with gallstone [aged 25-55 years]and thirty age-and sex-matched healthy subjects as control group were involved. Those patients were intended to undergo surgical removal of gallbladder in the surgical ward- Al Sadder Teaching Hospital and AL-Hakeem Hospital in Najaf city during the period from July/2009 to December /2009. The proportion of female was [86%] compared to the male t [14%]. The ratio of female: male was 5:1. Blood samples were obtained from all patients prior to surgery. Serum was obtained by usual methods and analyzed for lipid profile test [total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG], high density lipoprotein- cholesterol [HDL-C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol [VLDL-C]}. The results showed that there were no significant differences between gallstone patients and control regarding HDL-C [p>0.05] but there was highly significant [p>0.05] difference in the concentrations of total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG] and VLDL-C comparing with the control group. The study also showed that the sex has a significant effect [p>0.05] on the levels of TC, LDL-C, and VLDL-C in sera of patients with gallstone whereas, non significant sex variation had found with respect to HDL-C level. On the other hand, it was also found that there was a significant p>0.05 ] age variations with respect to serum levels of TC, TG and VLDL-C with effect with respect to both HDL-C and LDL-C levels in sera of patient with gallstone. Additionally, all items of lipid panel found to be significantly [p>0.05] varied with respect to the BMI. Similarly, smoking was found to be important cause and revealed a significant [p>0.05] difference regarding all parameters- but not LDL-C of lipid components. The objective of this study was to estimate the serum lipid profile, in sera of patients with gallstone and investigate their relationship with demographic factors.


Article
DISSIPATION AND DETERMINATION OF Spiromesifen 240SC RESIDUES IN CUCUMBER AND EFFECT OF FOOD PROCESSING ON RESIDUE
دراسة تلاشي وتقدير متبقيات مبيد الأوبيرون 240 على محصول الخيار وتأثير بعض عمليات التحضير الغذائي في خفضها

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Laboratory and field studies were carried out at College of Agriculture- University of Baghdad and State Board for Plant Protection– Ministry of Agriculture to study the dissipation of insecticide, [Spiromesifen] 240SC which used to control insects on Cucumber [plastic houses] by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography [HPLC] technique, besides evaluate the efficacy of some treatments on cucumber fruits [ washing in water and soap, peeling, immersion in saline solution and pickling] to reduce the amount of insecticide residue in cucumber fruits. Results of Spiromesifen revealed that in first spray the residue in leaves was 23.65 mg/kg directly after treatment then dropped to 0.09 mg/kg after 28 days. However the residue dissipated faster in second spray. In fruits, the residue in first spray was 11.63 mg/kg directly after treatment reduced to MRL [Maximum residue limit] in 7 days 0.19 mg/kg, however the dissipation was faster in second spray, the residue reached MRL after 4 days 0.21 mg/kg. Regarding treatment of washing the fruit, Oberon residue was dissipated in first and second spray after 3 days 0.21 mg/kg and 4 days 0.2 mg/kg respectively. Residue of Oberon reduced to 0.04 and 0.06 mg/kg after 21 days respectively. Also, treatment of peeling, saline solution and pickling reduced Spiromesifen residue in first spray to MRL after 2 days [0.21, 0.23 and 0.22] mg/kg respectively, while in second spray, Spiromesifen reduced dropped to MRL after 2 days [0.2, 0.17 and 0.18] mg/kg respectively for previous treatment.


Article
Optimization of heavy metals chlorides resistance by Staphylococcus aureus and its ability to remove them
توصيف الظروف المثلى لمقاومة بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus لكلوريدات العناصر الثقيلة ومعرفة قدرتها على ازالتها

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Three Staphylococcus aureus isolates were selected after screening on nutrient agar media amended with 100μg/ml of five heavy metals chlorides (i.e: Aluminum Al+2, Iron Fe+2, Lead Pb+2, Mercury Hg+2 and Zinc Zn+2) from those isolates one S. aureus (S3) isolate was selected depending on its resistance to all heavy metals chloride. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for this isolate was 1000μg/ml for all tested metals chlorides except Hg+2 (300μg/ml). Growth of S. aureus (S3) was not affected in presence of pbCl2 and AlCl2 for 72hrs; however, it was affected by ZnCl2 and FeCl2 during incubation period while mercury causes no bacterial growth. In response to various temperatures bacterial isolate had clear growth in presence of heavy metals ZnCl2, FeCl2, AlCl2, PbCl2at 28 ºC and 37 ºC and the growth was inhibited at 50 ºC in presence of FeCl2. At different pH values; 4, 7 and 9 the growth of S. aureus (S3) isolate was affected at pH4 in presence of the four heavy metals chlorides Al+2, Fe+2, Pb+2and Zn+2. S. aureus (S3) isolate showed the highest Zn+2 removal ratio 43% while Pb+2 has the lowest removal ratio 7%.


Article
Exploration of antinociceptive, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcumin in male rat
الكشف عن الفعالية المسكنة للالم والخافضة للحرارة والمضادة للالتهاب للكركمين (Curcumin) في ذكور الجرذان

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Curcumin, one of active ingredients of Curcuma spp. Roxb (Zingiberaceae) is referred to main medicinal part in this spice. In the present study, the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions of Curcumin were investigated in male rats. Ninety Albino male rats (110-125g) were used in this study (six animals were used in each test for Curcumin, aspirin and Pethedine). The effects of curcumin on nociceptive response using writhing, tail flicking and formalin tests in rats were evaluated. The antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever and anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats were examined. Administration of curcumin significantly P<0.05 decreased the number of writhing and stretching induced by acetic acid, and suppressed the licking activity of the late phase in formalin test in rats. Curcumin had significant decrease P<0.05 effects on yeast-induced fever and carrageenin-induced edema in rats. Furthermore, the ED50 from Log dose response curve exhibited sequence order potency in formalin test, writhing reflex and tail flick as aspirin < curcumin. Curcumin showed synergistic effect centrally acting pethidine and peripheral analgesic aspirin. From these results it can be concluded that curcumin possesses analgesic effect via a different mechanism from that of aspirin and pethidine.


Article
In vivo lung injury caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA
تلف الرئة الناتج عن دنا بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa داخل الجسم الحي

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Noticeable inflammatory reactions in rats lungs were caused by DNA isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa include infiltration of macrophages, neutrophiles and lymphocytes. Additionally, fibromuscular hypertrophy of smooth muscles in respiratory bronchiols was seen as well. Since lung homogenate shows no bacterial growth in all samples. Consequently, these inflammatory signs were attributed to DNA effect rather than any other cause. In conclusion, apart from live bacteria, P. aeruginosa DNA has the ability to cause inflammatory response in rat model airways.

Keywords

lung --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- DNA


Article
Purification of Crystals Protein by Aqueous Two Phase System from Bacillus thuringiensis Local Isolate
تنقية البلورات البروتينية المنتجة من بكتريا Bacillus thuringiensis باستخدام الانظمة ثنائية الطور المائية

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The crystals protein of local isolate Bacillus thuringiensis were purified by using aqueous two phase system method in two steps ; the first 94% of crystals protein and spores were separated from cell dibbers by using 14% g/ml ammonium sulphate and 4% g/ml of Polyethylene glycol 6000 at pH=7 with separation time of 30 min. While in the second step, crystals protein were purified from spores by using a system consisted of 8% g/ml Dextran 60000-90000 and 9% g/ml of Polyethylene glycol 6000 at pH=7 with separation time of 2.5 h. the a final yield was 70.6% with purity of 92% .


Article
1f7/2 1d3/2MODEL SPACE AND INELASTIC LONGITUDINAL C6 ELECTRON SCATTERING FORM FACTORS IN Ti-50, (RESIDUAL INTERACTION CONSIDERATION)
الاغلفه الثانويه 1d3/2 2/7f1 كأنموذج فضاء و دراسه عوامل التشكل للاستطاره الالكترونيه الطوليه غير المرنه متعدده الاقطاب C6 لنواة Ti-50 ( أعتبارات تفاعل البقيه)

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Abstract

Skakura Arima Sebe "SAS" has been adopted as an effective interaction to generate the model space 1f7/2 1d3/2 wave functions with Harmonic oscillator wave functions (H.O) as a single particle wave function to study inelastic longitudinal C6 electron scattering form factors in Ti-50. The modern realistic M3Y effective nucleon- nucleon interaction with two sets of fitting parameters (Ried fitting (M3Y-P1), and Paris fitting (M3Y-P0)) is used. The adjustable interaction "MSDI" has been used as a residual interactions in the calculation of core polarization effects within the framework of first order perturbation theory with 2ћω excitation energy coupling the core orbits to the higher configurations one across the model space at normal transition. Theoretical results have been compared with the experimental data. PACS:25.30.Dh;21.60.Cs;27.30.+t.

Keywords

F7 MB2 --- C6 --- Form Factors --- 50Ti --- M3Y


Article
Electromagnetic Transition Strengths in110Cd Nucleus
قوى الانتقال الكهرومغناطيسي في نواة الكادميوم 110Cd

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Pure transition strengths [M(E1)]2W.u,[M(E2)]2W.uand [M(M1)]2 W.u for γ-transitions from four excited states in 110Cd populated in the 108Pd (α,2n) reaction have been studied through the mean life times with relative intensities of γ- transitions measurements. Good information describes the main features of the transition modes for electric quadrupole [M(E2)]2 W.u and electric dipole [M(E1)]2 W.u in addition to magnetic dipole [M(M1)]2 W.u are concluded . PACS:- 27.60-j, 23.20-g, 23.20.Ck, 23.20.Gq.


Article
Nucleon Momentum Distributions and Elastic Electron Scattering Form Factors for some sd-shell Nuclei
توزيعات زخم النيكليون وعوامل التشكل للاستطاره الالكترونيه المرنه لبعض نوى القشره sd

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The nucleon momentum distributions ( ) for the ground state and elastic electron scattering form factors have been calculated in the framework of the coherent fluctuation model and expressed in terms of the weight function (fluctuation function). The weight function has been related to the nucleon density distributions of nuclei and determined from theory and experiment. The nucleon density distributions( ) is derived from a simple method based on the use of the single particle wave functions of the harmonic oscillator potential and the occupation numbers of the states. The feature of long-tail behavior at high momentum region of the has been obtained using both the theoretical and experimental weight functions. The observed electron scattering form factors for and nuclei are very well reproduced by the present calculations throughout all values of momentum transfer PACS: 25 . 30 .Bf.


Article
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF NH4F CONCENTRATION ON THE STRUCTURE OF ELECTROCHEMICALLY PREPARED TiO2 NANOTUBES
دراسة تاثير تركيز NH4F على تركيب الانابيب النانوية لـ (TiO2) المحضرة الكتروكيميائياً

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In this study Titania nanotube arrays were prepared at room temperature (~25 ºC) via electrochemical anodization process of pure titanium foil in glycerol base electrolyte, different concentrations of ammonium fluoride salt (0.5 and 1.5wt.%) were added to the electrolyte as a tube enhancing agent. When anodizing Ti in 0.5 wt. % NH4F, nanotubes are formed with 54 ± 10 nm tube diameter, 20 ± 3 nm wall thickness and 1.76 µm tube length. When anodizing Ti in 1.5 wt. % NH4F, nanotubes are formed with 69 ± 10 nm tube diameter, 29 ± 3 nm wall thickness and 2.71 µm tube length. The morphology and structure of the Titania films were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PACS numbers: 81.65.Mg, 82.45. +z, 81.10.-h.


Article
SEDIMENTATION AND FACIES ANALYSIS OF VOLCANICLASTIC UNIT WITHIN MAQDADIA FORMATION,INJANA AREA, SOUTHERN HEMRIN, NE IRAQ
رسوبية و تحليل سحنات وحدة الفتاة البركاني في تكوين المقدادية، منطقة انجانة، حمرين الجنوبي، شمال شرق العراق

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Field observations revealed the occurrence of volcaniclstic units (pyroclastic units) within the Muqdadyia Formation (Pliocene) in Injana area, southern Hemrin anticline; these rock-units located along Tayawi, Magrin and Zarloukh sections and has been called as a volcaniclastic unit of Muqdadyia Formation. the facies analysis for the volcaniclastic units is part of succession which was deposited in a fluvio-laucustrine environment. This succession is divided into eight facies on the basis of deposition and transportion settings into:- 1-Primary tuff rock (non-reworking), this represent the surge facies (A1) and fallout facies (¬A2) which deposited in a quiet environment (lake or marsh) near Zarloukh area; 2-Secondary tuff rock these represent the sandy tuffstone (B1), mudy tuffstone (B2) and clayey tuffstone (B3) which deposited in meander active channel environment during high concentration supply. And tuffaceous sand (C1), tuffaceous mudstone (C2) and tuffaceous claystone (C3) which were deposited in the same environment but during low concentration volcaniclasts supply. Accordingly, the rock unit deposited by two stages of the supplying in volcaniclasts during three deposition cycles.


Article
Studying the Pollution of Tigris River Sediments Between Al-Qayara-Balad
دراسـة تلوث رسوبيات قاع نهر دجلة بين القيارة – بلد

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This study including recognition ofdifferent minerals in Tigris River sediments within grain size (ø3.75<) andclay minerals in (5.0ø) grain size, The main minerals that identified are Quartz, Calcite and Feldspare, The clay minerals are illite, chlorite, kaolinite, palygorskite and montmorilonite, The heavy minerals are biotite, epidot, hornblend, zircon, rutile and muscovite. The source of these sediments are igneousand metamorphic rocks which are found in Northern Iraq within Tigris catchments area, or derived from Fat̓ha and Injana formations outcropedin part of the area, or may be formed by digenesis processes. The most common trace elements that have been identified which have local effect are Cd, Zn, Ni, & Cu of higher concentration more than the natural abundant, there are a local environmental pollutant in the sediments, may be due to the waste water and heavy industrial remains along the river valley, from the fertilizing materials, industrial processing and heavy remains of oil from Baiji refinery plant. The other trace elements are Pb, Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Se& Ag. The major elements Ca, Mg, K & Na, all of them are of normal concentration in Tigris River sediments.


Article
Using remote Sensing technique to detect the environmental changes in Halabjah north Eastern Iraq
استخدام تقنيات التحسس النائي في دراسة وتحديد التغيرات البيئية في منطقة حلبجة شمال شرق العراق

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This study aims to detect the changes that happen in Halabjah area and special in Darbandikhan Lake. As well as the vegetation cover during 1990 to 2000. The image data used in this study are Landsat 5TM (30-4-1990) and Landsat 7 ETM+ (28-6-2000) and it has been compared and inter- printed visually.two kinds of techniques have been used in this study; image differencing and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Ground truth checking was done to detect the changes that take place in the study area. The results gained from this study shows that the volume of the water has been reduced for about (1558005800) cubic meter and the area of vegetation cover reduced for about (39399.4) Hectare. This indicates great changes took place in the study area. These changes are due to reduction of rain fall and the policy of water balance


Article
CHARACTERIZATIOS and PROPERTIES of b-T1/2-SPACES
تمييزات وخواص فضاءات b-T1/2

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In this paper we introduce a new class of spaces, namely b-T1/2-space, which is strictly between b-T0 and b-T1 spaces, and weaker than Tgs-space. Several properties and characterizations for this space are investigated


Article
GLOBAL STABILITY AND PERSISTENCE OF THREE SPECIES FOOD WEB INVOLVING OMNIVORY
الاستقرارية الشاملة والاصرار للشبكة الغذائية ثلاثية الاجناس والمتضمنة القوارت

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In this paper, the dynamics of a three species food web model consisting of producers, primary consumers and omnivory is studied analytically as well as numeri-cally. The existence of equilibrium points and local stability analysis for this model is carried out together with a bifurcation analysis. The occurrence of hopf bifurcation is also investigated. The persistence conditions of the food web model are established by using average Lyapunov function. The global stability analysis of the food web model is also presented with help of Lyapunov method. Finally, in order to confirm our analytical results, numerical simulation is carried out for suitable choices of parameters values. It is observed that, the existence of omnivory in a food web plays a vital role in the stability of the dynamical behavior of the system.

Keywords

Food web --- Omnivory --- Sability --- Persistence --- Bifurcation


Article

مجمع -

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Abstract

In this paper we introduce a new tool in algebraic topology which is called (analogous terminology of J.H.C. Whitehead in [1] ) . By studying effect of this complex on the spectral sequences , we obtained some results , such as ; 1- Any complex is an 2- Let are two cw-complexes , if , then . 3- If is , then . 4- Let be a cw-complex , if is a , then is a , and the converse is not true .


Article
PURE – SUPPLEMENTED MODULES
( المقاسات النقية المكملة )

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Abstract

Let R be an associative ring with identity and M be unital non zero right R- module . M is called H– supplemented module if given any submodule A of M there exist a direct summend submodule D of M such that M = A+X iff M= D+X where X is a submodule of M. In this paper we will give a generalization for H– supplemented which is called pure– supplemented module. An R- module M is called pure– supplemented module if given any submodule A of M there exists a pure submodule P of M such that M = A+X iff M= P+X .Equivalently , for every submodule A of M there exist a pure submodule P of M such that << and << .


Article
The effect of slip condition on heat transfer of MHD oscillatory third order fluid flow in a channel filled with porous medium
التأثير المشترك لحقل مغناطيسي وانتقال الحرارة بالاشعاع في الجريان اللامستقر لمائع من الرتبة الثالثة في قناة مملوءة بوسط مثقب

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Abstract

The combined effect of a transverse magnetic field and radiative heat transfer to unsteady flow of a conducting optically third order fluid through a channel filled with saturated porous medium and non-uniform walls temperature is investigated.It is assumed that the no-slip condition between the wall and the fluid remains no longer valid. The third order fluid equations of continuity momentum and energy are obtained. Analytical solutions for problem are established.The effect of wall slip on velocity field is presented by figures. The basic properties of the flow are studied.


Article
Solving of fuzzy Multiobjective Optimization Problem Using The Weighting Method
حلول المسائل الامثلية المتعددة الاهداف الضبابية بأستخدام طريقة الاوزان

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Abstract

In this paper fuzzy multiobjective optimization problem with or without constraints is presented. The weighted method is considered to formulate the fuzzy multiobjective problem as a fuzzy singleobjective function and then Iskandars' approach is used to solve the resulting fuzzy optimization problem


Article
AGENT-BASED GRID COMPUTING LOAD BALANCING AT APPLICATION LEVEL
موازنة الحمل في مستوى التطبيق بأعتماد تقنية العميل في الحوسبة الشبكية

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Abstract

Grids functionally combine globally distributed computers and information systems for creating a universal source of computing power and information. Grid is a very large scale, generalized distributed network computing system that can scale to Internet-size environments with machines distributed across multiple organizations and administrative domains. The emergence of new variety applications demand that Grids support compatible efficient data and resource management mechanisms, This paper provides an application level load balancing for individual parallel jobs for grids data, implemented by using Borland JBuilder 7 Enterprise - WebLogic Edition.


Article
SIMULATION OF IMAGING EXTRASOLAR PLANETS NEARBY STAR
محاكاة لتصوير الكواكب الخارجية قرب نجم

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Abstract

Two-dimensional computer simulations are carried out to demonstrate the essential features of observing extrasolar planet nearby star. It has been shown that the wings of the point spread function of the optical telescope play an important rule in suppressing the features that related to the planet. The planet lies beneath these wings and the final image that recorded by an optical telescope looks like a star. Quantitative assessment of observing planet nearby star at different relative brightness and separation are demonstrated in this study.


Article
THE LONG PERIOD EFFECT OF TWILIGHT ON THE ABILITY OF SEEING CRESCENT
تأثيرطول مدة الشفق على امكانية رؤية الاهلة

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Abstract

Twilight is a light which appears in the horizon before the sunrise and after the sunset .This research is about the count of long period of twilight after the sunset for a day born of crescent in Iraq for the city of Baghdad , Mousl , Basrah for many years and for months of blessed Ramadan and Shawal . Studying the changes period of astronomic twilight on the long of months of year for three cities . It is found that the different between the bigger and smaller period for twilight on the long of months of year arrives to (22 ) minute in Baghdad and in Mousl (25 ) minute , in Basrah (19 ) minute . As well studying elements seeing crescent for this month .It is found that there is a reflected relation between the long period of twilight and the probability seeing crescent. When we take period of twilight (79 )minute , the probability is (39.43% ) and it is less than the value of probability to see . There is a reflected relation between the long period twilight and period of stay crescent. When we take period twilight (79 ) minute , period stay crescent is (18.52 ) minute . It is less than the value desired stay for seeing crescent as it showed the long period twilight is certainly firm on the round seasons of year with a simple different . It has not a huge effect on the probability of seeing crescent


Article
CALCULATING SPACE VELOCITIES (U,V,AND W) FOR STARS IN THE HALO OF OUR GALAXY
حساب السرع الفضائية (U,V, and W) لعدد من النجوم في هالة مجرتنا

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Abstract

Space velocities (U,V,and W)for many stars in the halo of our galaxy were calculated by choosing A,G and K spectral type stars at a distance nearly 10 pc. It was found that some of these stars represent a Local Association group (kinematic stream), the stars of this group are sharing in similar 3-D kinematic motion in the galaxy, in the solar neighborhood. The results displayed that these velocities are in a good correlation with each other .

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