Table of content

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine

مجلة كلية الطب

ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of the Faculty of Medicine – University of Baghdad

A peer- reviewed journal published Quarterly by the college of medicine –Baghdad University

ISSN: 0041-9419

E-ISSN 2410-8057

The Journal interested in publication of clinical and basic medical research.


The first issue of this Journal was published under the name of (Journal of the Royal Iraqi Medical College) in April /1936, approved by the council of the College as a general journal dealing with the news of the college and few scientific articles to encourage the teaching staff for research publication. The journal was published randomly and ceased during World War II due to financial difficulties.
In 1946 Prof. Dr. Hashim Al Witri, the college dean, assigned republication of the journal and urged the teaching staff to participate and publish their research in the journal. Despite his effort the journal remained irregular in publication. In 1959 Prof. Dr. Faisal Al-Sabih became the Editor in Chief of the journal when he returned from the United Kingdom and appointed on the teaching staff, restructured the journal and changed its name to (The Journal of the Faculty of Medicine) and used new scientific system for publication of articles.
The first issue of the new series started in June 1959. The journal continued to be published on a regular basis since then without interruption in (four issues during the year). The journal became registered the international number (ISSN) in 2000 and entered in many important international indexes.
After 2003 the journal continued despite the difficulties involved in every aspect of the country and by the beginning of 2004 the journal progressed through a series of changes to reach a level that can be recognized internationally.
After 2010 the journal became published electronically of the same edited issues.
Recently the journal became recognized by the (Index Copernicus) and publicised internationaly.

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Contact info

e-mail:iqjmc@comed.uobaghdad.edu.iq
mobile:+96407709826825

Table of content: 2005 volume:47 issue:2

Article
LEAD POSONING IN CHILDREN

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Abstract

Background: Lead is one of the first metals to have served mankind. It was among the earliest metals used by man and was known to the early Egyptians and Hebrews. Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Lead poisoning regarding age, sex, areas of distribution, type offeeding, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and the outcome. Methods: Fifty patients with lead poisoning were studied in Al-Mansour (Children's welfare Teaching Hospital), Medical City, Baghdad, were included in the study. Results: Forty five (90%) children were under one year of age. Twenty nine (58%) children were males. Forty four (88%) children were from Anbar Governorate. Thirty five (70%) were from rural areas. Six (12%) infants were solely breast fed. Forty (80%) children presented with convulsions. Twenty six (52%) children their haemoglobin levels were (5.1 - 9)g/dl. Basophilic stippling seen in (38%) and urinary delta ALA were raised >4mg/L in all children. Lead lines were seen in (54%) of the children wrist X-rays. Conclusions: Lead poisoning is a major problem in Al-Anbar Governorate, especially Qaeem region, so infants and children in this area should be screened. Estimation of lead levels at different sites of the river and other water sources, soil, animals, agricultural products and all types of alkohl. Lead poisoning should be suspected in any infant with unexplained encephalopathy and particularly if resident in Al-Anbar Governorate and all members of the family of the affected baby should be screened for lead poisoning. Keywords: poisoning, lead, children, Baghdad, Iraq.

Keywords

: poisoning --- lead --- children --- Baghdad --- Iraq


Article
B- THALASSEMIA MAJOR IN RAMADI

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Summary: Background:The thalassemias are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders in which the production of normal hemoglobin is partly or completely suppressed because of a defective synthesis of one or more globin chain Jn Iraq, B - thalassemia major is widely distributed all over the country. An active program for the hereditary blood diseases had been adopted in cooperation with WHO in 1989. This study is done to evaluate the burden of the disease and its treatment on thalassemic patients in Ramadi. Methods: Thirty-one children with B- thalassemia major (17 males and 14 females) aged 9 months- 21 years attending the thalassemic clinic in MCH in Ramadi during the period from Is' Dec. 2001 to 31s' May 2002 were studied prospectively. _History, clinical examination , investigations, treatment and its complications were noted and analysed. Statistical analysis was done by the use of SD, t-test and P value of <0.05was considered statistically significant. Results: 90% had pretransfusion Hb <9gm/ dl. Only 27%> received Desferal regularly subcutaneously by infusion pumps. Splenectomy was done in 19.3%, all of them received pneumococcal vaccine and half of them received Benzathine penicillin regularly monthly. Body weight and height below 3rd percentile were noticed in 22.5% and 32.2% respectively. About 32% had myocardial systolic or diastolic dysfunction detected by Doppler echocardiography. Non had hypocalcemia. HBs Ag positive in 6.4%. Anti HCV was positive in 12.5%.None was positive for HIV. Conclusions:_The majority of patients were undertreated and various complications were probably related to chronic anemia rather than iron overload. Keywords: thalassemic

Keywords

thalassemic


Article
Hereditary Factor VII deficiency in 17 Iraqi patients

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Summary: Background: The objective of this study is to (1) determine the most common presenting and frequent hemorrhagic symptoms, in Iraqi patients suffering from F.VI1 deficiency, (2) The figure of prothrombin time ratio that make the physician suspect hereditary F. VII deficiency. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted by reviewing the records of 760 patients registered in the center of congenital coagulation disorder in Al.mansour teaching hospital. All patients who diagnosed as factor VII deficiency were included in this study. The diagnosis was based on prolonged PT with normal PTT and bleeding time. Clinical information regarding age, presenting features and blood group were also considered. Results: out of 760 patient registered in the center of congenital coagulation disorders, 17 patients were considered as having F. VII deficiency: they constitutes 2.2% of all recorded patients. The most common presenting feature was haemarthrosis (37.5 % ) followed by intracranial bleeding (18.7%) and ecchymosis (18.7 %) . The most common haemorrhagic symptom recorded was haemarthrosis (50%), epistaxis (50%) followed by ecchymosis (43.7%) . Patients with in intracranial bleeding constitute 25%. The majority of patients (88.2%) have prothrombin time ratio of more than 3.5 Conclusion : Hereditary F. VII deficiency should be suspected in : 1- Children presented with haemarthrosis, intracranial bleeding, epistaxis or ecchymosis 2- Children show prothrombin time ratio of 1.3 and more with normal PTT and normal bleeding time. Keyword: Hereditary F. VII deficiency , Prothrombin time ratio.


Article
MANAGEMET OF INFEIOR TURBINATE HYPERTROPHY, COMPARISON BETWEEN TRIMMING OF INFERIOR TURBINATES AND SUBMUCOSAL DIATHERMY IN SAME PATIENT

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Summary: Background: the inferior turbinate is the largest turbinate & it is variable in size due to changes in its submucosal vascular bed. Aim of study: the aim of the study is the compare between trimming of the inferior turbinate and submucosal diathermy in the same patient a management of turbinate hypertrophy. Subjects <6 Methods : 250cases inferior turbinate hypertrophy diagnosed by direct examination of the nose by anterior& posterior rhinoscopy were collected Aanalyzed in Saddam Medical City during 1995 - 2000 . Clinical examination, X-ray finding, regarding the age, operative procedures, patients follow up, their complications & treatment Results: The place of radical trimming of the inferior turbinate in the treatment of chronic rhinitis in this study give better results than other type of turbinate surgery in improving airways of the patients which give 100% patiency. Conclusion: the management of hypertrophic inferior trubinales in chronic remains a matter of the controversy . The place of radical trimming of the inferior turbinate in the treatment of this condition has to be established, detailed analysis is presorted Keywords: trubinales, rhinoscopy, submucosa

Keywords

trubinales --- rhinoscopy --- submucosa


Article
antibodies in ancient Iraq

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Article
HLA-DR and DQ Antigens in Iraqi Patients with Behget's Disease

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Summary: Background: Behqet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic in inflammatoty disorder, disease onset is believed to be triggered by many factors with a particular genetic background. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible correlation between HLA-DR & DQ antigens and onset of this mysterious disease. Method: By using microlymphocytoxicity test, the frequencies of 18 HLA-DR & DQ antigens were calculated in 65 patient with BD compared with 32 patients control with recurrent oral ulcers (ROU) & 115 healthy control. Results: Significant increased trend of HLA-DR52, DR53 and DQ3 antigens (P<0.001), and significant reduced frequencies of DQ4 antigen (P<0.01) in patient with BD as compared to H.C. group, on the other hand significant decreased DR1 antigen in patient with BD (P<0.005) as compared with patients with ROU. Conclusion: Higher frequency of DR52, DR53 & DQ3, these alleles could in one way or another play a crucial role in susceptibility to BD. Whereas DR1 DQ4 phenotypes decrease the risk to develop, this disease. Key words: Behget's disease, HLA- typing HLA-DR and DQ.


Article
Purification and characterization of DNA from whole blood of children with ALL and normal children

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Summary: Background: The acute lymphocytic leukemias (All) make up about 76% of children leukemias . lymphoid leukemias occur more often than expected in patients with immunodeficiency , chromosomal abnormalities & ataxia telangiectasia . A number of chnges occur in preneoplastic & neoplastic cells as the progress towards a greater degree of malignancy . Nuclear DNA may be used as an aid in diagnosis , to predict prognosis & to determent of certain neoplasia. Aim of the work: is to purify DNA from whole blood of predict & normal children & to characterize it by spectral studies. Patients & Methods: Fifteen EDTA-treated blood samples of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the same number from normal children were used to isolate DNA from whole blood, then to characterize and compare the DNA of ALL patients with normal individuals. Typical ratio of260nm/280nm absorbance ( used to assess purity ) for DNA Results: purified were 1.5 and 1.3 for ALL patients and normal children respectively. No real differences between DNA of ALL patients and normal DNA, when characterized by using UV spectrum at PH (7), were found. Infrared spectroscopy in the 4000-200 cm'1 region was used to characterize the DNA structure of ALL patients and normal children. A set of IR bands characterize of DNA conformations was proposed. Key words: DNA, Purification, Spectral analysis & ALL.


Article
HI A ASSOCIATION WITH CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

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Summary: OBJECTIVE Many associations have been found between specific HLA antigens and increased susceptibility to various diseases . So we tried to associate class I and class II antigens with acute lymphoblastic leukemia . We also demonstrate the presence of antibodies in serum of acute lymphoblastic leukemic patients against HLA class I. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Tissue typing and histocompatibility center at Al- Karamah Teaching Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: 70 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients from pediatric hospitals. HLA ( human leukocyte antigens) typing done for them by serological method and cross matching and blood grouping were also done for them. RESULTS: there was significant difference between patients and control groups regarding HLA -C6.DR1, DR4, DR7, DQ1.DQ2 ,DQ3, DQ4. There was 14.2 % (10/70) of patients had antibodies against HLA class I. There was no significant association between blood group and acute lymphoblastic leukemia . CONCLUSION: Genetic factor increased susceptibility with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( HLA- DR1 DQ1, HLA - DR4 DQ4, HLA- DR4 DQ3, HLA- DR7 DQ2. This HLA typing increased susceptibility to be affected with leukemia after infection. RECOMMEND A TION: HLA typing was done to acute lymphoblastic leukemic patients by molecular -DNA based method (PCR-SSP, RSCA) in addition to serological method. KEY WARD : ALL, HLA typing, antibodies, blood group.

Keywords

ALL --- HLA typing --- antibodies --- blood group.


Article
HLA ANTIGENS OF ARAB CHRISTIANS IN IRAQ

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Summary BACKGROUND: Iraq had more than twenty-four millions inhabitants of populations. This nation is one of the most populated countries in the world. It is difficult to define Iraqi populations genetically (HLA polymorphism) because they are structured of a mixture of many groups. HLA phenotype frequencies that encoded by many closely linked genes that are responsible for a variety of cell surface alloantigen proteins that are responsible for differences in different ethnic groups. Arab Christians in Iraq, accounting for more than three millions inhabitant mostly the northwest and other parts of Iraq. This raised the need for a preliminary study of the HLA trend in this population. Aim of study: 1- Estimating the gene frequency of HLA class I (A, B, Cw) and class II (DR and DQ) alleles in Iraqi Arab Christians. 2- Assessing the genetic relationship between Iraqi Arab Christians and other Arabian, Asian and European populations. Materials and Methods: A total of unrelated 568 Iraqi Arab Christians (AC) healthy volunteers and individuals referred to Immunology and Tissue Typing Center in Al- Karamah Teaching Hospital for organ transplantation and Forensic medicine) were examined for HLA polymorphism using complement dependent cytotoxicity test from June-2003 to April-2004. Results and conclusions: The phenotypes of all loci of (AC) were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In case of HLA-A locus, three variants dominate this locus Al(0.123), A2 (0.149) and A3(0.134) which showed some similarities with Arabian , Asian and European people in the world. A3 had been found to be associated with Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) but the risk increased when there is a linkage disequilibrium between A3/B14. Fortunately, BI4 allele had a low frequency in this group and common allele was B35(0.154) and 851(0.128) which had an association with Behqet 's syndrom. So one can predict high incidence of this disease in this group of population. Last locus was studied in class I was Cw4 that had a higher rate (0.173) in HLA -Cw loci. In case of class II, it was done on small number of persons and the common allele was DR2(53.84%) which is protective from insulin dependent diabetes mellitus disease while DQ1 is common allele in HLA-DQ loci. HLA typing of (AC) had some similarity with Arabian people because of their same ancestry and also had some similarity with Caucasoid Europeans because of outbreading and intermixing with those populations due to migration. Key wards: HLA, Christian, Arab, Iraq.

Keywords

HLA --- Christian --- Arab --- Iraq.


Article
Immunofluorescen Study of Trophoblastic Bound Immunolglobuline G in preeclamptic women at term

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Summary Background: The role of humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of PET is well known so that an altered immune response could be the cause of this disease . Objectives: to evaluate the rule ofplacenta _ bound IgG in the pathogenesis of PET. Methods: 31 pregnant women were included in this study delivered by cesarean section at Baghdad Teaching Hospital , 16 of them were diagnosed and treated for PET. while the rest 15 cases were of normal women of using direct immunoflorescnt test, the level of IgG was detected. Result: Tthe study showed a significant higher level of IgG in the placental biopsy of PET cases than those of control group using ttest, (P<0.025), Conclusion: Trophoblastic bound IgG plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PET as a part of altered humoral immune response against placental tissue in those patients. Key words: PET: preeclampsia, IgG: immunoglobuline. BP: blood pressure


Article
passive immunization with Candida albicans antiproteinase as a prophylactic tool against the candidiasis

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Summary: Background: life threating fungel disease is now a frequent substantial of the immunocomprimised host population . Candida infection has raised throughout the era of antibiotics & immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Aim of study : to highlight the need for alternative immunprophlactic tool .Therefore the need to develop prophylactic or therapeutic immunolglobulin against candidacies Materials & Methods: 12.5 mg/ml. of Candida albicans proteinase enzyme was injected S/C into a group of five rabbits weighing 3 Kg. with complete Freund's adjuvant. Antisera was collected from the animals after 28 days . 0.2 ml of this antisera given l/V into two group of rabbits ; followed by 0.1 ml of the antiserum one of thses groups as control. the 21"1 group challenged with 2.8*10^7 cfu/ml of actively growing C. abicans for three days . the 3rd group received only 2,8*10A7 cfu/ml ofC. albicans for three days Results: Test rabbits , which received both antisera and C. albicans , were completely protected when examined after six weeks . No symptoms of the diaease ; no pathological lesions could be seen in the organs ( Kidneys, liver and spleen ). Culture for C. albicans from these organs were all negative . In contrast to rabbits received challenged dose of Candida; they become sick , visceral organs showed profuse microabscesses . Candida was isolated from minced organs on culture . Conclusion : the findings draws attention to an important fact that the passive immunizention can be applied to protect patients with leukemia and others immunocompromised individuals from serious infection of Candida . This discovery calles for application to open anew hope for these patients at least to diverse their suffer for sometime, Keywords: sometime, immunolglobulin, mtnunocomprmised


Article
Bacterial septicemia in neonates

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Summary: Background: This study was conducted to isolate and identify the bacterial isolates of neonatal septicemia in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unite in the Baghdad teaching hospital and the resistance of these locally isolates to different antibiotics. Suspected cases of neonatal sepsis which were not treated with any antibiotics were enrolled. Methods: One to two milliliter of blood specimens were collected from these neonates aged from 3-7 days and cultured in Brain heart infusion broth. Results: Out of 90 neonates, 15 ( 15.5%) were positive on blood cultures. Results showed that nine isolates have been obtained belonging to Klebsiella spp. comprising (60%) out of the total isolates followed by Staphylococcus aureus (27.7%) and E coli (13.3%). Depending on these results, all isolates from neonates possessed high resistance against Penicillin, Ampicillin and Gentamicine, but were sensitive to Cefotaxime, Ciprofloxacin and Amikacin. Of the 15 cases four died only. Conclusion: I concluded from this study that the Gram negative bacteria especially Klebsiella spp (nonsocial al pathogen was a major pathogen especially among premature neonates. Keywords: Klebsiella spp, septicemia


Article
The Effect of Garlic Powder on Enterobius vermicularis infection

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Summary: Background: Enterobius vermicularis causes infection in different age groups , but specially in small ages . It is well known that parasitic infection in most middle eastern countries is common among them is Entrobius vermicularis , in which 11% is in school- children & 14% in pre-school children . In Iraq several studies on the prevalence of Enterobiasis in different age groups & from different areas were reported. Aim of study: This study was conducted to look for the therapeutic efficacy of garlic powder against Enterobiasis and the recurrence of this infection in many individuals to be compared with the drugs of choice that is a single dose, 100 mg of mebendazole tablets. Patients <6 Methods: One hundred and sixty patients were included in this study mostly were children, suffering from the clinical manifestation of Enterobiasis and confirmed by scotch tape slide method for identification. Those patients are divided into 2 groups: - 1- first group including 80 patients treated by garlic capsule 400 mg 2- Second group included 80 patients treated by mebendazole tablets lOOmg. Results: We found that the highest incidence of Enterobiasis was in females 56.9% than males 43.1 % simultaneously age group 6 to 10 years showed the highest rate of infection. Our results showed that the typical dose of garlic capsule to eradicate Enterobius vermicularis 100% is one capsule twice-daily for three consecutive days. All patients and control group were followed up to 6 months and it has been noticed that patients who received garlic therapy had no recurrence, except three patients as compared with twenty-five patients of control group. Conclusion: Our study had proved the therapeutic efficacy of garlic powder against Enterobiasis and we recommended it to be used instead of mebendazole. Keyword: Entrobius vermicularis, mebendazole


Article
PREGNANCY RATE AFTER OVULATION INDUCTION, SPERM INTRAUTERINE TRANSFER (SIUT) AND LUTEAL SUPPORT THERAPY IN LUTEAL PHASE DEFECT (LPD) INFERTILE PATIENTS.

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Summary: Background: It is well known that the early removal of corpus luteum (CL) in pregnant women results in abortion . Defects in the function of CL lead to deficiency in the secretion of progesterone which adversely affect human embryo implantation . Aim of the work: l)to determine progesterone concentration in the luteal phase defect (LPD) patients complaining from infertility and 2) to evaluate the clinical value of ovulation induction, sperm intrauterine insemination SIUT and luteal support therapy in the treatment of LPD patients. Patients & Methods: One hundred and twelve LPD patients were involved in this study. The progesterone concentrations were performed by radioimmunoassay method on cycle day 21. Patients were considered to have severe LPD when progesterone concentration was 3.56 ng/ml and mild LPD when the progesterone concentration was less than 8.63 ng/ml. Those patients who had progesterone concentration of more than 10 ng/ml were considered normal (without LPD). Ovulation induction was induced by clomiphene citrate (lOOmg/day for five days) and human menopausal gonadotropin (300 international units for another five days) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) treatments. Standard technique for in vitro activation of human sperm and sperm intrauterine insemination (SIUI) were performed. Following III I the patients were received 1500 IU of HCG on cycle day 14,17,20 and 23. Results: The pregnancy rate in the severe LPD group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of control and mild LPD groups. The pregnancy rate in the control (without LPD) and mild LPD group was significantly not different (P>0.05). This indicates that the outcome of luteal support therapy following ovulation induction and SIUT was significantly improved when compared to control group .

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Article
Chemical Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Black Tea Extract Components

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Background: Aqueous extracts of black tea exhibited antimicrobial activity against wide range of bacteria. Aim of study: In this investigation the antimicrobial ly active components of this extract were identified and characterized. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each one was determined. Subject & Methods: the active components of the aqueous extract were identified and characterized. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each was determined. Tannic acid, theophylline, caffeine and theobromine were isolated by thin layer chromatograhy (TLC) and purified by silica gel column. MIC was assessed by using agar dilution method. Results: Broad spectrum activity of three components excluding theobromine against gram- negative and selective gram-positive organisms was observed. Tannic acid showed the greatest potency with MIC of 160 /ig/ml. whereas the MIC of theophylline and caffeine was 2.5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml respectively.

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Article
Effects of The Black cumin seeds (Niqella sativa Linn.) on Endometrial Mucins of Mature Rats; Histochemical Study

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Summary: Background: Nitre I la sativa Linn is a well known herb that is used by different societies, as food additive and as a medicinal herb: it used as a galactagouge for lactating women, and has long been described as an abortifacient-emmenagouge. Aim of the work: is to investigate the effect of crude black seeds on the endometrium and the pattern of it’s mucins, during the different phases of the Estrus cycle, making use of some special stains for the histochemical demonstration of mucins. Materials <6 Methods.'Crude Nieella sativa Linn, seeds were administrated for ten days, by an orogastric tube, on single regular daily dosage to properly selected mature Norway albino female rats. Animats were subdivided into subgroups, according to phases of the estrus cycle. Utera of these animals were routinely processed for carbohydrate histochemical (d-PAS, d AB2.5-PAS & A li 1.0) studies using carnoy's fixative, paraffin embedded sections. Experimental specimens were compared with that of control subgroups. Results: Results showed marked production of diastase fast-PAS reactive non-alcianophilic neutral mucins, with inhibited production of sulphated highly acidic mucins among the surface lining and the glandular epithelial cells, at Estrus. Effects of such changes in the pattern of endometrial mucins on the state of fertility, was discussed. Keywords: Nigella Sativa, Linn., Metrial gland, Endometrial Histochemistry. Sialomucins, Fucomucins, Sulphated mucins. d-PAS, AB2.5PAS, AB1.0. Introduction


Article
Decrease of Serum AST, ALT, and GGT among Male Alcohol Drinkers with Coffee Consumption Habit.

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Summary: Background: Alcohol is the most important causes of liver cirrhosis. Many of the factors underlying the development of alcoholic liver diseases remain unknown. Recently, some epidemiological studies showed beneficial effects of coffee against the occurrence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis and upon serum liver enzymes level. These observations have been examined in this work. Patients and Methods: The relation of coffee drinking to serum GGT, AST and ALT activities were examined in 59 alcoholic male patients with or without habit of coffee consumption. 35 (59.3%) out of 59 patients were alcoholic drinkers without coffee consumption habit, and 24(40.7%) were alcohol drinkers with coffee consumption. In addition to 24 healthy persons as a control group. Results: Highly significant decrease in GGT (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001) and ALT (p<0.001) activities were found in alcoholic patients with coffee consumption habit as compared with alcoholic patients or with healthy control group. Conclusion: The result of this research suggested that coffee consumption may inhibit the induction of GGT in the liver by alcohol consumption, and may possibly protect against liver cell damage due to alcohol. Keywords^ AST, ALT, GGT, Alcoholic, liver cirrhosis, coffee consumption.

Keywords

AST --- ALT --- GGT --- Alcoholic --- liver cirrhosis --- coffee consumption


Article
Evaluation of some individual antioxidants in seminal plasma of fertile & infertile men.

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(2000) Summary: (2001) Background: infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive after one year of a regular unprotected intercourse with the same partner. Many factors seem to play a role in male infertility. (2002) Aim: to evaluate the role of some seminal plasma biochemical components in male infertility. (2003) Methods: seminal plasma of 100 infertile men & 25 fertile men were chosen as a subject of this study. (2004) Different biochemical parameters that are related to oxidative stress were measured. These included Glutathione Peroxidase (GSHPX),superoxide dismutase (SOD),cerulopasmin (CP) scavenging activity, albumin & total sulfhydral (T-SH) & its individual parts (protein & non protein binding sulfhydral (PB-SH & NP-SH)). (2005) Results:- a significant decrease in GSHPX activity (P<0.05) , T-SH level (P<0.05), BP- SH (P<0.05) & SOD scavenging activity (P<0.01) was observed in infertile men in comparsion to that in the control group. While no significant differences were obsei-ved in albumin & CP scavenging activity between the two studies groups. (2006) Conclusion:- the result of this study indicate the presence of imbalance between pro/antioxidant, which in turn lead to increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in seminal plasma & ultimately cause defect in sperm

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Article

Article
The effect of prednisolone on sperm viability, sperm penetration rate and intra-uterine insemination rates in men with marked sperm agglutination and antisperm antibodies

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Summary: Background: the immune system differentiates between the endogenous and exogenous bodies that inter the body. The break-down of blood-testis barrier results in the production of antisperm antibodies. This may occur in the case of an infection to the prostate, seminal vesicle and epididymes. Antisperm antibodies (ASA) cause sperm agglutination and affect sperm motility, viability and sperm migration in the female reproductive tract. ASA also impair fertilization process. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of prednisolone on sperm motility index (SMI), viability and sperm penetration assay (SPA) in immunologically infertile men. Materials and methods: The semen and serum samples of 140 infertile men were examined by microagglutination test and slide agglutination test to detect ASA and sperm agglutination. Semen fliud analysis was performed to report sperm motility index (SMI), sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). Sperm penetration assay was done to record sperm penetration rate (SPR), sperm decondensation rate (SDR) and sperm penetration index (SPI). Men with positive ASA were treated with prednisolone and considered as treated group Prednisolone was given orally in a dose of 5 mg three times daily for three months. The semen analysis, SMI HOST and SPA were performed before and after treatment with prednisolone. The number of semen samples in the treated group was 144 and in the control fertile group was 80. HOST-SPA positive semen was exposed to antisperm antibodies separation (ASAS) and invitro sperm activation prior to intra-uterine insemination. Results: The SMI was significantly higher in the post-treated group compared to pretreated group (240 vs. 52.5, P<0.0l). The SPI in the control group was significantly higher than the post and pre-treated groups. The HOST and viability test results were significantly increased in the post-treated group compared to pre-treated group (73.42 vs. 48.56 and 71.36 vs, 50. 74 respectively, P<0.01). The sperm penetration rate, sperm decondensation rate and sperm penetration index were significantly increased in the post-treated vs. pre-treated groups (26.49 vs. 10.84, 10.91 vs. 3.47, P<0.05, 14.45 vs. 4.30, P<0.01 respectively). HOST-SPA positive semen was used for intra-uterine insemination (IUI). The semen was exposed to ASAS and in vitro activation prior to IUI and resulted in 42.86% pregnancy rate per cycle. The pregnancy was confirmed by the observation of gestation sac and viable fetal hear beet 5 weeks following IUI. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results of the present study that treatment of immunological infertile men with prednisolone improves SMI, sperm viability and SPA results. The application of HOST-SPA positive semen for IUI resulted in successful pregnancy. The authors indicate that these viable spermatozoa with high fertilizable potential could be used for IVF and/or ICSI in immunologically infertile men. Keywords: decondensation, antisperm


Article
Renal Cell Carcinoma in Adolescents

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Malignant renal neoplasm: Because benign tumors of kidney are rare, so it is a good rule that all neoplasm of kidney which are recognized clinically should be treated as malignant. They are uncommon between the ages of 7&40(l).Rcna! cell carcinoma is the most common tumor of the kidney in adult. It arises from renal tubular cells.. It is rare in children &is more frequent in men than women. It is an adenocarcinoma &is the most common neoplasm(75%) of kidney. The tumor may invade loca!Iy& metastasize by way of blood stream &the lymphatics. Regional lymph nodes are involved in approximately 30% of patients, unfortunately sign &symptoms are usually meager until the disease is advanced. Gross haematuria is the most frequent presenting compliant. Diagnosis of mass in the kidney is best established by intravenous urogram(IVU). CT scan may confirm the diagnosis. Radical nephrectomy is treatment of choice &offers the only known chance of cure. The over all 5 years survival rate of patient is 35%.Angiomyolipoma (Hamartoma) is a benign tumor of the kidney that may rarely be confused with renal cell carcinoma. It occurs frequently in patient with tuberous sclerosis^. Wilms' tumor is the most common of malignant tumors of kidney in childhood. It is highly malignant mixed tumors consisting of connective tissue origin& epithelial structures ,it is usually discovered as palpable mass by mother or by examining physician. Treatment of primary tumor is radical nephrectomy. Adjunctive therapy with irradiation &chemotherapy is important in improving the survival. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common tumor of renal pelvis & ureter. Squamous cell carcinoma may occur because of metaplastic changes. Clinical behavior of this tumor is dependant on degree of cellular differentiation &extent of invasion.( !|

Keywords

case report

Table of content: volume:47 issue:2