جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2012 المجلد: 40 العدد: عدد خاص بالمؤتمر الدولي الاول لقسم بالاقتصاد الزراعي

Article
A STUDY OF COMBINE HARVESTER PERFORMANCE FOR TWO TYPES OF WHEAT ON THE LOSSES QUANTITY PERCENTAGE
دراسة اداء الحاصدة المركبة لنوعين من الحنطة على نسبة الفقد الكمي

المؤلفون: Saad A . Al- Rajaboo سعد عبد الجبارالرجبو
الصفحات: 1-8
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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT A field experiment was conducted under sprinkler irrigation system at AL-Eatha location Ninaveh governorate. Three factors were selected for this study in determine the yield losses in wheat crop , 1st factor two types of wheat (durum & vulgare ) , 2nd three concave to threshing cylinder adjustment rear font (14-7,26-8,18-9 ) mm and three threshing cylinder speeds (750, 850 ,950 ) rpm . The experiment was set out as factorial with in split plot design; the most important results could be concluded as follows: The vulgare wheat significant increased with total losses for harvester but with less performance efficiency as compared with durum triticum . The 1st distance (14-7) mm gave a best result in decreasing losses percentage comparing with 0ther treatment. The thresher speed (750) rpm achieved best result in reducing losses % , the best relationship was obtained between durum wheat and distance (14-7) mm in which it was gave the lower losses percentage compare with all other treatment, there for the relationship was given less significant losses between durum wheat and thresher speed (750) rpm as compared with other treatment, while the best relationship gave between the distance (14-7) mm and thresher speed (850) rpm in decreasing losses percentage and high for performance efficiency and The interaction between three factors was significant in which it was gave the best relationship between distance (18-9) mm and (850) rpm with the durum wheat in determining the losses for harvester. Where as the distance (16-8) mm with the same thresher speed (850) rpm had the best relationship with vulgure wheat in reducing the losses in the yield for harvester with high performance efficiency compare with other treatments. For this research it was estimated the material loss in which it was recorded (14400) ton quantity losses in the planted wheat field under Ninaveh governorate in which the losses up to 7200000 Dollars.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PLANNING IN KARBALA'A PROVENCE BY USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING METHOD. HUSAINIA ATABA'S FARM AS A CASE OF STUDY
تخطيط الانتاج الزراعي في مشروع مدينة الحسين الزراعية/ محافظة كربلاء باستخدام البرمجة الخطية

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The objective of research is to formulate a plan for Al Husain agricultural city project in Karbala'a province by using linear programming method as one of planning tools and maximize the projects' profits. At the beginning the available resources were surveyed the need of activities from resources during productive season was calculate. The objective of the model was to maximize the gross margins of activities within available resources constraints and comparing it with the carried out from actual plan. Many mathematical models were formulated and the farm management could choose the plan that suits its' objective, all these models were derived from the prime model by using sensitivity analysis. the result showed that suggested plan achieved gross margin more than actual plan by 18% as the actual plan achieved gross margin of ID (710.17) millions while the suggested plan achieved ID (837.49) million . Many variable changes were supposed whether in the gross margin of objective or in the right side (RSH) of the model. The outcome was six alternative mathematical models in general and eight in details all of which achieved gross margin more than the gross margin achieved from the actual farm plan.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
OMPARATIVE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL IRRIGATION IN WHEAT ROWTH IN DRY AREAS
تحليل اقتصادي مقارن لأثر الري التكميلي في زراعة القمح بالمناطق الديمية

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الخلاصة

الخلاصة تنطلق أهمية دراسة اقتصاديات الري التكميلي من دور هذه التقنية في تحسين كفاءة استخدام موارد الإنتاج الأخرى كالبذور والأسمدة والأرض، وبالتالي زيادة الناتج وصافي إيراد وحدة المساحة، ولما كان لتلك التقنية من مساهمة في ارتفاع تكلفة الإنتاج باعتبارها موارد اقتصادية فقد جرى تقييم (96) تجربة ري تكميلي مع التسميد نفذها (6) مزارعين في مشروع ري الجزيرة الشمالي (ربيعة)، معتمدين أسلوب التحليل الحدي ومن خلال التحليل الكمي للعلاقة بين المياه والسماد كمتغيرات مستقلة والناتج من القمح كمتغير تابع. وقد تم تقدير معلمات هذه العلاقة ومنها استحصلت الكميات القصوى والمثلى من مياه الري وذلك بأخذ مشتقات الدوال، ومن هذه الكميات تم تحديد المستويات القصوى والمثلى من الناتج عند كل مستوى من السماد المستخدم، كما تم التعرف على التحسن في كفاءة استخدام مياه الري نتيجة استخدام المعدلات المثلى من المياه والتي وصلت إلى حوالي 23%، وأيضاً جرى اشتقاق دالة الطلب على المياه حيث توضحت العلاقة العكسية بين الكمية المطلوبة من المياه مع سعرها، وأخيراً تأكد أن أعلى صافي إيراد يتحقق في حالة استخدام الكمية المثلى من المياه، وتوصي الدراسة إلى ضرورة استخدام مياه الري التكميلي عند مستوياتها المثلى مع ضرورة استخدام الأسمدة مع مياه الري لأهمية ذلك في تحسن الكفاءة الاقتصادية للمياه.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
MEASUREMENT OF BEEF PRODUCTION COMPARATIVE ADVANTIGE IN IRAQ
قياس الميزة النسبية لإنتاج لحم البقر في العراق

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT Livestock production generally and beef production in particular is characterized by the underdevelopment. Of the modes of its production and the low productivity of factors of production in addition to the lack. Of farmers skills which all of them affected on the size of beef production in Iraq. This was reflected on the need for the beef import to fill the gap between domestic demand and domestic production. The objective of this study is to calculate private and social profitability coefficients and comparative advantage coefficient for beef in Iraq. This was achieved by using policy analysis matrix, PAM, technique through which the efficiency, profitability and the competitiveness of domestic beef production on world level can be determined. By estimation of policy analysis matrix elements, revenue transfers I, tradable input transfers J, factors transfers K, were calculated which were 3276.11 dinars/1kg.beef, -465.91 dinars/1kg beef and -101.02 dinars /1kg beef consecutively. Net transfers L, was about 3843.04 dinars/1kg. beef which could be explained that government intervention was in favor of beef producers in short run, The results also showed that domestic producer gets economic profits by investing in beef projects and Iraq does not achieve a comparative advantage in beef production in spite of positive protection for domestic beef producer and subsidiesfor tradable inputs , The study concluded some recommendations most important of which is to adopt tradable input subsidy in short run in the hope that producer performance will improve and becomes competitive on the world level in the medium and on the long run.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EECONOMIC AND ENVIRONOMENTAL EFFICIENCY OF BUFFALO BREEDER IN NINEVEH PROVINCE BY USIN OF DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS (DEA)
الكفاءة الاقتصادية والبيئية لمربي الجاموس في محافظة نينوى باستخدام تحليل مغلف البيانات (DEA )

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الخلاصة

Farms of buffalo Breeding are of important agricultural activities with good economic return. Buffalo first is breeded to produce milk and numbers of Buffalo in Badush area (study case) representing about 50% of their total number in Nineveh province. The research handles the level of economic and environmental efficiency for breeder in study sample of 69 farms. The research depends on the style of field questioner in getting necessary data. Levels of economic and Environmental efficiency are estimated by using of data enveloping analysis from input oriented supposing the variable return to scale .estimation results by Data Enveloping Analysis have shown that economic efficiency reached the middle 67.7 % and number of farms achieved the complete economic efficiency (3) farms forming a ratio about 4.34% of the total farms of paper sample while the middle environmental efficiency 90 % and number of farms achieved the complete environmental efficiency (27) farms forming a ratio about 39 % . and the study found some of the conclusions and recommendations of the most important move away most of the breeders for access using their resources to best use the consequent waste in quantities of economic resources used and the rise in production costs and at different rates, and dairy buffaloes is almost devoid of harmful substances environmentally result of high environmental Farms Ulkipa sample for this study recommends the need for optimal utilization of economic resources and to achieve the optimum economic efficiency and the need to preserve the environment and buffalo breeding to ensure the safety of water and air pollution .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUPPLY RESPONSE OF SPRING SEASON POTATO GROP IN IRAQ USING ERROR CORRECTION MODEL AND COINTEGRATION DURING THE PERIOD 2008_1980.
تحليل اقتصادي لاستجابة عرض محصول البطاطا للعروة الربيعية في العراق باستخدام نموذج تصحيح الخطا والتكامل المشترك للمدة 1980-2008

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT Potato is considered one of the most important strategic crops. From nutritional value aspect, it is considered the first alternative for cereal crops in solving the food shortage. In Iraq, potato represents one of the main vegetable crops which is grown in two seasons: spring and autumn.This study aimed to estimate supply response function of potato crops and to determine the main factors that affect the supply. The descriptional and econometrics analyses were used where models of distributed lagged models (ARDL) were used to measure the degree of supply response to the change of current and past price change. Finally, Pesaran model was used for estimation of the main factors affecting the supply of potato in Iraq during the period 1980-2008. Distributed lagged model was found to be the most convenient model. The price supply elasticities were 0.15 and 0.37 in short and long term repectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ESTIMATIONG TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT FARMS UNDER SUPPLEMENTARY IRRIGATION USING THE STOCHASTIS FRONTIER APPROCH(SAMPLING AREA: TELLKEF DISTRICTL
تقدير الكفاءة الفنية لمزارع القمح تحت الري التكميلي بإستخدام Stochastic Frontier Approch ( قضاء تلكيف أنموذجا )

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT Wheat production under dry-land farming systems faced sharply seasonal fluctuation caused by variability of whether conditions mainly distribution and quantity of precipitation which affect yield and production . In Tellkef district (research area) . the amount of precipitation reached to 186.5 mm during (2008-2009), beside there was a diminishing in share of available water in irrigation and its poor investment. How ever there was a need for food because of increasing in population . for increasing the efficieny uses and economically water resourses there must be an active irrigation system to use. The aim of thin work was to estimate the technical efficiency (TE) of wheat farms by using stochastic frontier analysis and transcendental logarithmic depending on field data of a random sample contain 53 farms in tellkef district-Nineveh proviance the results revealed a technical efficiency of 62% (medium) and thin means that the impact of in-efficiency represented by the element ui produce the same amount of wheat usin only 62% or less of the input to reach optimum efficiency . however there was a positive relation ship between mechanical technology with seeds, area, and production . mean while production had a negative relationship with labor and quantity of irrigated water. Increasing water irrigation for crop needs by 1% will cause a drope in production by 0.808% which leads a waste of water resources and a decrease in technical efficiency down the optimum degree. .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE PROFITABILITY OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN IRAQ
أربحية إنتاج محصول الطماطة في العراق

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to calculate the profitability and comparative advantage of tomato production in Iraq by using policy analysis matrix (PAM). The study was carried out by taking primary data through deliberate sample from tomato producing area in karbala province . the secondary data were taken from all sources related to study(official directorates, sale agencies …etc) .The result showed that the revenues wereID 750000 I on in private prices , and the costs of tradable inputs in private prices were ID 28930 ton of production and the cost of domestic resources were ID 230315.8 on of production in private prices ,and the private profits were ID 490754 .2 on of production .The revenues in social prices were ID 615960 on of production and the cost of tradable inputs in social prices were ID16503.9 ton of production and the cost of domestic resources in social prices was ID 234068.78 on of production and the social profits were ID 365387.3 on of production The results also showed that there is a comparative advantage in tomato production in Karbala province as the value of DRC was 0.39 and the commodity system was subsidized by the government according to PSR value which was 20.35%.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND THE STANDARD FUNCTION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TOMATO CROP IN TERMS OF FRESH BATH OF NINEVEH PROVINCE, THE AGRICULTURAL SEASON 2011
التحليل الاقتصادي والقياسي لدالة انتاج محصول الطماطة في ناحية حمام العليل محافظة نينوى للموسم الزراعي 2011

المؤلفون: Imad Abdul Aziz Ahmed عماد عبد العزيز احمد
الصفحات: 73-76
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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT Study of function productivity of tomato crop in hand, bath and fresh province of Nineveh to the season of agricultural production (2011) Rodeo random hit 25 farmers have been derived quantities best suppliers Alamloras money as they hit the amount of work the best (4) worker/ day and the amount of capital (7182.56) JD/ acres and was the ideal size of production (3351.68) kg and total production per Aledumn (2115.67) kg were selected as well as the contribution of each of the source.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE REALITY OF THE PRODUCTION OF POTATO CROP IN SOME ARAB COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD 1981-2010 (IRAQ MODEL)A COMPARATIVE STUDY
دراسة تحليلية لواقع انتاج محصول البطاطا في بعض الدول العربية للفترة 1981-2010 (العراق نموذجا) دراسة مقارنة

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT Potato crop regarded as one of the main vegetable crops in Iraq, due to it's economic and nourishing importance, that's why, the caltivated areas by this crop have been expanded. It is caltivated by two seasons, in autumn, spring and in main agricultural areas in the country, potato crop, also, regarded as an important vegetable which are planted in Syria, in three seasons, spring, autumn, and summer, an it has an increasing exporting capability. In spite of the increase in cultivate areas by this crop in Iraq, it still cant crop with the local demands. As for Syria. There are an increase in the areas planted with this crop, together with the increase in production, which covers the needs of the population increase, provide a chance for export probabilities to other countries. Thus this research aimed to define the time development, for each of production power, the cultivated zone, and the hectare productivity both in Iraq and Syria the period of (1981-2010) .The research concluded that the average growth of the Syrian production power, amount of to (12.91) is higher than the average growth of production power achieved in Iraq, which amounted (0.03) . From this average the range of potato crop cultivation can be discerned in Syrian country comparing with its cultivation in Iraq. This development attributed to the development of the planted areas by this crop.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ESTIMATING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF SUPPLEMEMTAL IRRIGATION IN RAINFALL AGRICULTURE
تقدير الكفاءة الإقتصادية للريِّ التكميلي في الزراعة الديمية

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT According to its climate, Iraq is classified to be within the arid to semiarid region, supplemental irrigation was used on the rainfall irrigated fields including those in the governorate of Nineveh which represents the investigated area of the study. The conditions are worsened by the loss of irrigation water and the inefficiency of its usage, This is reflected in inefficient utilization of the available recourses including land, labour, capital, and supplemental irrigation water.The research attempts to estimate the economic efficiency and its two components(TE,AE), by relaying on the field data for a random sample which amounted to (53) farm . The estimations in the study were based on uses Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) based on the variable of returns to scale .The farms using all production inputs(29 farms) showed that The technical efficiency for these farms reached (83%) which means that the farms should be able to produce the current level of wheat production using no more than (83%) of its input.And the Allocative Efficiency at(65%) meaning that the farmers should lower the production cost by decreasing the input by (35%),The jeneral of economic efficiency was about (59%)thus the farmers should use no more than (59%) of its input to produce the same level of its current production, in order to be economic efficient.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF BARLEY SUPPLY RESPONSE IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD 1980-2009
دراسة اقتصادية لاستجابة عرض محصول الشعير في العراق للمدة 1980-2009

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT Barley is one of the main crops in Iraq and is ranked the second most important crop after wheat. This study aimed to estimate supply response of planted acreage for barley in Iraq and irrigated and rained areas for the period from 1980 to 2009 using Nerlove dynamic model. Estimated results indicated that the main variables are lagged price of barley, lagged price of wheat, and lagged planted acreage for barely , besides irrigation water for Iraq and irrigated area, and risk factors of production for rained area .These variables represented about 82%, 87%, and 83% of the change in planted acreage for barley for Iraq, irrigated area, and rained area respectively . The own elasticities of barley with respect to its price for Iraq, irrigated area, and rained area were 0.046, 0.020, and 0.024 respectively. The cross elasticities of barley in respect to wheat price for Iraq and irrigated area were -0.115 and -0.229 respectively. The cross elasticities for barley in respect to legumes for irrigated area were -0.128 and -0.232 in the short-term and long-term respectively, whereas these elasticities in respect to vegetable price were -0.008 and -0.022 in the short-term and long-term respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ECONOMIC STUDY TO DEMONSTRATE THE IMPACT OF RISK AND ITS ROLE IN THE MARKETING MARGIN OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIODS (1985- 2010)
دراسة اقتصادية لبيان اثر المخاطرة ودورها في الهامش التسويقي لمحاصيل الخضر في العراق للمدة (1985-2010 )

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT This research aims to describe the impact of risk on the margin catalog of vegetable crops summer in Iraq, through the study of the risk of price and cost of marketing, as well as the margin catalog of crop okra and eggplant for being one of the vegetable crops key, as is the margin catalog the most important key indicators on the performance of the marketing process, and found from the analysis That the variable production came the impact of a positive and significant in the margin catalog of crop eggplant is indication that the risk price of output will increase the margin of marketing, while came the impact of negative and highly significant relatively "to harvest okra, this is evidence of risk in the cultivation of this crop, while it became clear contrast The impact of negative and highly significant relatively "to harvest okra, this is evidence of risk in the cultivation of this crop, while it became clear contrast to the index of risk of price was a positive influence and moral for the eggplant other words, the decision-makers to harvest eggplant are averse to risk Odhu negative impact Bmanueh relatively high This suggests that any increase in risk will reduce the margin catalog, so it must be to stabilize the prices of these crops that oversees the vegetable markets and the expansion of marketing and competition marketed quantities of these crops in order to lead to higher marketing margin for them .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AFTER AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS AND IMPORTS IN AGRICLTURAL OUTPUT GROWTH IN SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD 1990 -2010
اثر الصادرات والاستيرادات الزراعية في نمو الناتج الزراعي في اقطار عربية مختارة للمدة 1990- 2010

المؤلفون: Ramya Amer Khalil راميا عامر خليل
الصفحات: 119-126
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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The imports and exports of agricultural economic activities important in many Arab countries, including Iraq and knead through the role parents play in providing agricultural commodities and Algdaúah fill the shortfall in agricultural products and to meet the increase in demand for this topic products bridge the gap between supply and demand due to increasing population and rising the standard of living of citizens as well as provide the raw materials of agricultural necessary in the process of agricultural production of Dan increase agricultural exports leads to an increase in foreign exchange which Tsthdamha developing countries in the Implementation of development programs Ed is the research problem in enrollment parents face this topic countries including Iraq and my father is in the low ability to increase and diversify production and exports of agricultural research aims to assess and analyze the impact of exports and imports of agricultural growth of agricultural output and their different impacts on the performance of the economies of developing countries (Iraq) In order to prove the hypothesis study the effect that the imports of agricultural exports different impacts in agricultural growth in the Iraq was to follow the style of quantitative analysis using Laws mathematical and statistical and standard building Alnmodj Economic stainless analysis has been shown from the results of the analysis, said agricultural exports have a positive effect on the growth of agricultural output valuable in gorden , Syria and tunisyia imports a negative impact on agricultural output growth in Iraq

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF HONEY PRODUCTION IN A BEE-KEEPING PROJECT- ABU GHRAIB-BAGHDAD PROVINCE AS A CASE STUDY -FOR THE PRODUCTION SEASON 2011-
الجدوى الاقتصادية لانتاج العسل في احد مناحل ابو غريب / محافظة بغداد للموسم الانتاجي 2011

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The research aims at calculating the economic feasibility of honey production by choosing a random sample of beekeeping project in Abu- Ghraib. The questionnaire data concern the production season 2011. The results showed that all criteria for the calculation of economic feasibility, which were applied on research sample, were profitable. The results also showed that fixed costs consisted about 84% while the variable costs consisted 16% of total costs. The results of the revenues for bee-keeping project in the sample showed that the net profit was ID (9692000), This was due to the large revenues in comparison with low costs which is consistent with economic logic. The revenue of each invested dinar was (4.33) dinars which expresses the good economic feasibility. The project management recovered the invested capital in three months period when the pay-back period criteria was applied which indicates the very short period in comparison with the pay-back period of other projects .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
USING QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES FOR DETERMINATION THE OPTIMUM ECONOMIC ROTATION OF PLATANUS ORIENTALIS L. ARTIFICIAL STANDS IN NENAVAH FOREST
استخدام الأسلوب الكمي لتحديد دورة القطع الاقتصادية المثلى لمشاجر الجنار الشرقي الاصطناعية في نينوى/ شمال العراق

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT In this aspect two main methods were used; the first is an administrative one represented by determining the optimum economic cutting rotation for Platanus in artificial stands in Ninevah, and the relation was represented mathematically and graphically by using a method depends on the current annual increment and the mean annual increment.The cutting rotation of Platanus 13 years. At the same time the economic method was used and represented by the separate mathematical model to determine the optimum economic cutting rotation of the same type of trees. In comparison between these methods and the first method the results showed the optimum cutting rotation for the three models are(10) years. at the same time the equation of net present value was used and by making discount on the data information that is concerned with the studied costs, incomes and stands, and they all showed the following best rotations of cutting: (10) years at 5% discount rate. (10) years at 10% discount rate. (9) years at 15% discount rate. (9) years at 20% discount rate. (9) years at 25% discount rate. (9) years at 30% discount rate. Through the comparisons between the cutting rotations we notice that there is a convergence between using the three mathematical models in determining the optimum economic cutting rotation, and there were relative differences between using the other methods that are used in this study.

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Article
THE SHORT-TERM AGRICULTUAL LENDING OF ACCESS TO THE OPTIMAL PRODUCTION VOLUME FOR WHEAT FARMERS IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE
الإقراض الزراعي القصير الأجل و أثره في الوصول الى حجم الانتاج الأمثل لدى مزارعي القمح في محافظة نينوى

المؤلفون: Hanaa' S. dawood هناء سلطان داؤد
الصفحات: 142-149
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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The research aims to quantify the impact of short-term loans in determining amazed optimal output achieved at the lowest point of the average total costs at the farm level. The search started from hypothesis that small producers of wheat liable variable capital necessary for expansion in investment the variable elements production to arrive rational stage of production. And comes the role of short-term borrowing and one of the tools to help producers to achieve this. They designed a questionnaire included a series of questions related to various production costs and what can leave over the farmer from the production requirements in case of the lack of capital and also he does not borrowed The sample included research (50) farms from farmers wheat crop in the area of Qush. One of the most important findings of the research show that the productivity of one ton of the wheat crop in the case of farmer do not borrowing was 558.622 kg while the productivity of one ton in the case of farmer borrowing was 1091 kg. It included some of the recommendations.

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Article
AGRICULTURAL LOANS AND ITS IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL ACCUMULATION IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD (1990-2008)
القروض الزراعية وأثرها في التراكم الرأسمالي الزراعي في العراق للمدة (1990-2008 )

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT Agrarian lending function important roles on agragamical development in the excrescence economics throughout standing by traufer processing and creating the agrarian investing , where the search aim into study and analysis relation in the agrarian loans and his effect in the brewing the capital on agrarian sector for (1990-2008) , accoreding of the studing results proving the loans distribution on the differend agrarian alacrities was vibrant and disparate during study time.while loans distribution according to prompt appearing crop out loans of the prompt long gets the first state where cames (33.1%) from total agrarian loans and throughout this study reaching to a groupe of recommendations and results .

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Article
ECONOMICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE EXPENSE OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD 1999-2006
اقتصاديات البيئة وحساب التدهور البيئي في بلدان عربية مختارة للفترة 1999-2006

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The study aims to identify of the economics of the environmental and their effects on of the reality resources and the nature economic development, and to the expense of environmental degradation in the sample countries using style descriptive, and because of what ails the environmental today of the problems and damage aggravated dangerous and threatening annihilation of all living organisms, including humans, and for that loud trends, and fell a part pens and held international meetings and organizations formed and research environmental centers and made a lot of legislation to put an end to this environmental degradation, Warner dangers expected of the land and threatened with extinction for all living organisms, including humans, as it is no longer comprehend the environment5al issue of the welfare and conditions for the life of an optimal. But an important issue in human life beyond its economic, social and education of the population, this researcher concluded that the cost of environmental degradation in the periods in which calculated which is still high and constitute a burden on the national economy and Egypt comes primarily, followed by Morocco and then Syria and Jordon, respectively this means the loss of social and environmental returns, health, health and economic result was different was possible that lead to the realization of benefits and the benefits to the community.

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Article
THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICIES ON FOOD SECURITY IN SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES WITH SPECIL REFERENCE TO IRAQ (WHEAT CROP MODEL)
أثر السياسات الزراعية على الأمن الغذائي في دول عربية مختارة مع إشارة خاصة للعراق (محصول القمح أنموذجا)

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The research aims to study and measure the impact of agricultural policies on the amount of output and food security of the wheat crop in some Arab countries (Egypt and Morocco) with special reference to Iraq and adopted a search on the hypothesis that agricultural policies effects of varying reflected on the food security of the wheat crop in the countries of the research sample , also adopted Find descriptive method with quantitative analysis using the method of least squares routine to determine the effect of some economic indicators, agricultural independent dependent variable amount of agricultural output of wheat and then measure the amount of estimated output of the first model with some indicators of the economic policies of agricultural in the size of the food gap of wheat crop using the method of least squares routine two-stage, in order to achieve more accurate results, and the most important conclusions of the research is the inability of the amount of output of wheat to keep pace with the quantities consumed due to the increase and the rapid growth in population in all countries in the research sample and this leads to increase aggregate demand for this crop and the inability to reach the stage of self-sufficiency.

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Article
MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL GROWTH IN SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
قياس وتحليل اثر التكنولوجيا الزراعية في النمو الزراعي في بلدان نامية مختارة للمدة (1990-2010)

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The research aims to measure and interpret the impact of agricultural technology in a number of developing countries during the period 1990 - 2010 have been selected eight countries farming is (Jordan, Iraq, Indonesia, Turkey, Tunisia, Syria, Egypt and Morocco) have used the Standard Model with three formulas is the formula of linear formula and logarithmic double and semi-logarithmic on the assessment of The effect of using agricultural technology in the growth of agricultural output in developing countries, the study sample and within a period of research, in order to prove the hypothesis of the research has been to rely on the concepts of economic theory and previous studies that examined the same subject and collected variables of the study of data baskets time and for each country separately as it reflects what his characteristics and attributes vary from one country to another .

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Article
THE REALITY OF FOOD SECURITY IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD FROM (1980-2010)
واقع الأمن الغذائي في العراق للفترة (1980-2010)

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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT The research aims to study the concept of food security and Oaaqa food security in Iraq, the most important commodity strategy. Since become an issue of food security of the most important issues raised by the day where occupies utmost importance in light of the increasing population steady and lack of resources in light of the food crisis experienced by most countries, which were represented in decreased the most important food commodities major and growing demand and record highs in the price, and adopted research on the premise that food security in Iraq is moving towards increasing the gap between consumption of goods strategy and production of, and adopted research on the descriptive approach with quantitative analysis using multiple regression analysis. Where research has included time series range thirty years (1980 - 2010), and research found that there is variation in the proportion of self-sufficiency in crop strategy, amounting to the average self-sufficiency ratio for wheat and rice, during the study period (30.7%) Amamahsol barley has reached self-sufficiency ratio 83.7% is expected that problem is particularly acute food future in light of international economic trends aimed at liberalizing global trade and globalization of food, which will lead in turn to rising food prices globally and increase the plight of the poor with her and requires access to satisfactory levels of food security and concerted efforts of the State in the development of integrated strategies food security for the advancement of the agricultural sector and agricultural production through optimal and rational use of natural resources and the use of modern methods of agriculture to address the proble of food.

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Article
MEASURE THE IMPACT OF MAJOR STRUCTURAL CHNGES IN RURAL POVERTY FOR SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD (1990-2010)
قياس اثر التغيرات الهيكلية الرئيسية في الفقر الريفي لدول عربية مختارة للمدة (1990-2010)

المؤلفون: Aswan Abdul-Kadir Zaydan اسوان عبد القادر زيدان
الصفحات: 197-204
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الخلاصة

ABSTRACT Correlation between the phenomena of structural changes and poverty comes from the structural change in developing countries That requires sharp turns in the paths of economic policies based on the package according to of Economic trends that differ from those adopted by the stste,and often,What comes from this The effects of economic changes is desirable to pay several categories of members of the community toward or below the poverty line, so it has targeted a research measure the effect of structural changes in rural poverty for the Arab States (Iraq, Egypt) for the period 1990-2010, through the dentification of structural variables that affect poverty, has represented the relationship between poverty index (the average per capita income) As a variable "follower " and has a determinant of the contribution of the agricultural output in GDP, agricultural labor, agricultural area, the proportion of agricultural labor / employment College, mechanical technology, capital invested in agriculture as independent variables, and through the identification of the inability of the agricultural sector in Iraq to accept the rapid growth of The difficulty of creating complete the process of structural transformation toward modify the structure of the agricultural sector, creating the problem of poverty to that of necessity require the development of the infrastructure in the countryside and increase and develop Agricultural research centers and support for agrarian reform and the establishment of appropriate and mainly in areas with strong social disparities and poverty and food insecurity as a means to encourage Get more broadly on the land, water and natural resources and control. As in Egypt to study results indicate that the percentage of the poverty rate for the Aasthen and severity of poverty and inequality in Distribution of poverty is concentrated in the villages than in urban areas, indicating the impact of economic reform and structural changes, so the study recommends that the followers of a number of measures to combat Poverty through the implementation of the three entrances is not independent from each other: the entrance to strengthen growth, human development entrance, the entrance of well-being.

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