Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2013 volume:43 issue:special issue - 4

Article
CLASSIFICATION OF SOME IRAQI SOILS USING ONE OF THE METHODS PROPOSED IN THE AGGLOMERATIVE HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING
تصنيف بعض الترب العراقية باستخدام أحدى الطرائق المقترحة في التصنيف الهرمي التجميعي

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Abstract

This study was conducted on some Iraqi soils in different regions of the country, representating various physiographic units, according to previous studies in soil survey and classification, in order to classify them numerically using some morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics. Sixteen sites were elected in the following areas: Anbar, Mosul, Arbil, Sulaymaniyah, and Diyala.Soil individuals were classified numerically, using the method “Variable group algorithm” proposed by Fernández and Gómez (2008) to determine a uniquely type of valued tree and to compare the results with those of Ward method and USDA system. The results showed the homogeneity of the two soil individuals of Diyala due to their similarity in some morphological characteristics such as, type of structure of B horizon, thickness of A horizon, Value and Chroma of A and B horizons. Also it was observed their similarity in some chemical characteristics of organic matter content and cation exchange capacity of A horizon. When comparing the physical characteristics, it was noted a similarity in the value of bulk density of B horizon and content of clay and silt of A horizon.These soil individuals were classified according to USDA system at subgroup level as Typic Calciargids. The soil individual of Erbil was grouped with the soil individual of Anbar using the proposed method “Variable group algorithm”, while it was grouped with the soil individual of Mosul, using Ward method. This difference in the classification of soil individuals was due to the fact that Ward method has aproblem of multi-solutions in numerical classification and because of the development of links between soil individuals during the fusion of hierarchical levels. It is possible to avoid the development of such links by using the proposed method “Variable group algorithm” .

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Article
USE OF SOME MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS TO STUDY THE PATTERNS, FORMS AND DISTRIBUTION OF SOME MAJOR SOIL SERIES OF LATIFIYA AND DIYALA APROJECTS
استخدام بعض المعايير المورفومترية في دراسة أنماط وأشكال وتوزيع بعض سلاسل الترب المفتاحية الرئيسة لمشروعي اللطيفية واسفل ديالى

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Abstract

Soil series maps of tow projects, on northeast Euphrates Latifiya project the one and other located east of Tigris (lower Diyala project). The tow maps matched and georefrenced with topology maps of 1:100,000 Scale using GIS to make cartography analysis to know the units map area and frequencies to determinate most extensive. the map unit and the most frequented to apply the morphometric calculation for them. Tow of them are pedological parameters that is coefficient of dissection CD and form index and the other three geological parameters which they are form .CH chorley index, k2(kurtosis index). result showed that dominant map unit is DM97 series in lower diyala project and the MM11 series of latifiya project, the I range between 0.002- 0.005 for both project while the CD range between 1.09- 3.63 for both projects while the K2 ranged between 1.20–13.17 for both projects and upper value for MM11 series. The F ranged between 1.11–5.80 and the upper and lower values were for DM95 series for both projects while CH ranged between 0.05–2.53 for both projects.

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Article
USING SOIL TEXTURE IN FORECAST AVAILABLE WATER
استخدام نسجة التربة في استشراف حدود الماء الجاهز فيها

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Abstract

An available data of 173 different soil samples of different textural classes from different regions of Iraq were used to forecast available water. Particle size distribution was estimated and 11 classes of texture were identified. Also, bulk density and moisture content at 33, 1500 KPa tension were measured, then available water were calculated. Analysis of variance with and without intercept constant was used to estimate a linear relationships between available water as a response variable and each of; soil moisture at field capacity and soil particles percentages as explanatory variables. In addition, fictitious variables approach was used to express the relation of texture, which calculated in laboratory (twelve classes system of soil texture classification) and estimated by feeling (triple classes system of soil texture classification) as an index of available water in soil. The efficiency of soil in supplying water to plant and prediction power of derived estimation models were calculated. Results of this study showed that available water is significantly and positively correlated with each of silt and clay percentage, and negatively with sand percentage. Also, silty clay soil was superior among all other texture classes in soil water supply efficiency. Although, all derived mathematical models were efficient to estimate available water in soil regardless of the explanatory variables type, yet use of the model that depends on soil feeling of texture was the best from practical point of view because it is easy, quick and low cost when applied. Soils differ in their moisture characteristics silty clay soils detain more water at the field capacity and more of the available water. While the water content at the field capacity and the available water may reaches the lowest limits in sandy soils. Water content at the field capacity and the available water is positively significant correlated with clay and silt separates while it goes reversible significant correlated with sand separate.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF INTERACTION AMONG SOIL CONTENT OF GYPSUM, SOIL DEPTH AND IRRIGATION WATER SALIINTY IN CONTENT OF NUTRIENTS ELEMENTS NPK IN WATER PLANT
التأثير المتداخل بين محتوى التربة من الجبس وعمق التربة وملوحة مياه الري في محتوى نبات الحنطة من عناصر NPK

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Abstract

The experiment pots was conducted to study the effect of interaction among soil contant of gypsum, soil depth and irrigation water salinity in contant of nutrients elements NPK in Wheat plant. The experiment was conducted at Khaldiyah city -Ghazwan during the season 2008-2009 in plastic pots (70cm high,42cm diameter) by using the complete randomized design, experiment contant three factors, the first Was soil contant of gypsum with two levels 98 and 194 gm.kg 1 soil, the second Was soil depth With two depths 15 and 30cm and the third was irrigation water salinity with three levels 1.13, 2.65 and 3.80 dS.m-1. The treatments Were irrigated after losing 50% of available water, so that taken plants samples for estimate contant of plant from nutrients elements NPK in hay and seeds. Results showed that soil contant of gypsum (P), soil depth (D), irrigation water salinity (W) and the interaction among these factors were significant effect on soil properties according to following mathematical relationships: Uptake of N in hay R2=0.837, Uptake of P in hay R2=0.816, Uptake of K in hay R2=0.836, Uptake of N in seeds R2=0.920, Uptake of P in seeds R2=0.841, Uptake of K in seeds R2= 0.836.

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Article
EFFECT OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC POSITION ON SOME PROPERTIES OF ALLUVIAL SOILS AND CLAY PANS IN PROVINCE OF BASRAH - SOILS TAXONOMY -
تأثير الموقع الفيزيوغرافي في صفات بعض الترب الرسوبية والطبقات الصماء في محافظة البصرة - تصنيف الترب -

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effect of physiographic position on some properties alluvial soils at Mesopotamia plain in Basrah, focusing on the clay pans at three locations and classification of these soils. The study area was chosen in west of shatt Al-arab river which including the following physiographic positions: river levees, flood plain and marsh land. Foure strips were indentified and the first strip was included three representing pedons for the physiographic position as Abou mohammer, Aldeir, Al–khmauge and Talha regions. The study showed that there was a variation soil particles content in both vertical and horizontal directions with dominance of clay and silt particles, this is because of the sedimentation of these particles rate according to distance from the source (river). This variation of soil particles affected on soil bulk density and soil compactability. Some horizons of these soils were similar to clay pans. Morphological, physical and chemical properties of the studied pedons indicated that all pedons belong to Entisols order and Fluvents suborder,Torrifluvents great group, Typic Torrifluvents as sub group. Seven series were identified in study area including (TM465, MM12, DF127, MF9, DM97, TW565, and DM116) and 2 new series were found (TM1274, TM1165).

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Article
SOIL SERIES ClASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR MESOPOTAMIA PLAIN SOILS IN CENTER AND SOUTHERN IRAQ
نظام تصنيف سلاسل ترب السهل الرسوبي في وسط وجنوب العراق

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Abstract

The results of applying some suggested systems for identification of soil series level under Iraqi pedological soils status, indicated the presence of some difficulties due to interaction between identified series which can belong to more than soil orders at the same time or one series can belong to more than one family. This fact is due to not taken all common soil properties for the soils of the Mesopotamian plain. The aim of this study is to fine a system allowing the systematic correlation between all soil classification levels with out any type of interaction between any soil taxon by using the most common soil properties as differentiation criteria between soil taxon Number of the most common and dominant soil properties were selected as differentiated criteria to classify soil series level for soils of the Mesopotamian plain. The control section for the series level as suggested by US system and applied in Iraq, was followed in this study. The control section was divided to three pats in order to avoid the stratification which is very common criteria in the soils of the Mesopotamian plain. The differentiated properties for the family level which belong to one family and have a relation to soil management were used in this study. These properties include: soil texture class, drainage class, cracking, soil structure, salt accumulations hard pans and buried status. In order to have a good correlation between all the classification level, the symbol of the order level was used as a part of the series name

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Article
SOIL GENESIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AL- QARA DEPRESSION IN WESTREN DESERT
وراثة وتصنيف ترب منخفض الكعرة في الصحراء الغربية

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Abstract

AL–Qara depression was chosen in western desert between 40.0–40.50° E and 33.3-33.40° N to carry out this study, a semi detail survey by free lance soil survey was transects were selected to conduct this study and 12 pedons were described morphologically soil samples were collected to analysis physical and chemical properties. The results showed that the texture ranged between sandy clay loam , loamy sand to sandy loam for both transects the clay content was 79-301 gm.kg-1 while the silt content was 35–287 gm.kg-1 and the sand content was 482-960 gm.kg-1 for both transects, the density ranged between 1.1–1.8Mg.m-3 for first transect while ranged between 1.2–1.8 Mg.m-3 for second transect. The chemical properties showed that pH value ranged between 7.50-8.10 that classified as normal to slightly alkaline while the salinity value ranged between 0.2–3.7 ds.m-1, the lime content 141-547 gm.kg-1 gypsum content 10–20 gm.kg-1 the organic matter content 1–9 gm.kg-1 the cat ion exchange capacity was 7.97–14.44 Cml + .kg-1. The soils were classified due to soil taxonomy 2010 at the subgroup level and to soil series due to AL–agidi 1981, the studied soils were in tow subgroup Typic Calciargids and Typic Haplocalcids.

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Article
THE ROLE OF CARBONATES AND ORGANIC MATTER IN CRACK DEVELOPMENT AND PATTERN OF SOIL SEPARATES
دور الكاربونات والمادة العضوية في حدوث التشققات في مفصولات التربة

Authors: M. K. Abbas محمد خضر عباس
Pages: 73-79
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The object of this study is to show the role of carbonate and organic matter in producing and developing of cracks in the three sized soil separates (Clay, Silt and sand). The soil's constitutes were separated and put in to petridishes, in equal volume of 1:10 suspension. Then treated chemically and left to desiccate in laboratory. The parted areas, the crust thickness, the shape and pattern of cracks were measured and described. The results of clay separates showed an increase in the number of parted area significantly at 0.05 probabilities. The sand separates showed an increase in crust thickness. In case of silt separates it showed the longest diameter and least parted areas over both sand and clay. The geometric shapes of most parted areas were varies. Clay distinguished by sharp geometric and elongated shape. Meanwhile, the silt showed irregular shape with curved boundaries, the sand showed absence of any geometric shape. When Carbonate removed from soil separates the clay particles separates increased. Silt and sand were insignificantly affected. Crust thickness of clay was thin when carbonate and organic matter removed when compared with silt and sand. Silt separates had longer diameters of the separates in all treatments. Geometrical forms of clays were clear and surfaces of weakness were different in all treatments. Silts geometric forms were varied from regular to rhombus and different surfaces of weakness in all treatments, and that was the same with sand separate.

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Article
EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL USE ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES FOR SOME GYPSIFEROUS SOILS IN TIKRIT UNIVERSITY
تأثير الاستغلال الزراعي في بعض الصفات المورفولوجية والمايكرومورفولوجية لبعض الترب الجبسية في جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This study was conduct to study the effect of cultivation on the development of some gypsiferous soils. four pedons between width equator-34 34 ْnorth and length equator-42 43 ْ east in the farm of agriculture college/ university of tikrit were selected on the bases of their past management. Two pedons represent cultivation for at lest 15 year under different irrigation springulare system fixed system and the other moving the second part of the farm had never been cultivated.four pedons at each site were excavated, morphologically described and sampled for some physical and chemical analysis.undisturbed soil samples were also for micromorphological studies.The study showed the following results, Appearance of different pedogenic features through soil horizons particulary cultivation as results of a clear role for soil management for changing soil properties. Micromorphological studies of thin sections indicated the occurance of dissected clay skins either around soil particales or on the internal surfaces of pores calcitans and gypsans for uncultivated pedons. The dominance of vughs pore for cultivated pedons, while channels and chamber types for un cultivated soil. Occurance single lenticuler crystals or spindle shope spreaded in soil matrix or in from of cutans paralel for pore walls or in from of nests filling soil pores. However the dominat structurs in most horizons of the soil pedons studied were the granular and the spongy and the sub angular blocky. Proe of vughs, chamber and planer type were abundant, Depending on clay accumulation index(Ci) and value of clay contact in B horizon to contect of clay in A horizon observed presence of case pedogenic development in particularly cultivation on version particularly un cultivation which was object weak development. Soil pedons have been classified according to (soil survey staff,(19)to great group level and to the series level according to Al-Agidi (1).

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Article
GENESIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARGILLIC HORIZON IN SOME NORTHERN IRAQ SOILS
وراثة وتطور الافق ارجلك لبعض ترب شمالي العراق

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Seven pedons were selected within three zones northern Iraq, represent a high mean annual rainfall (semi humed regions). The zone are Penjween in Al-Sulaimania Governorate, Mergasure in Arbil Governorate and Sarsank in Duhok Governorate, to study genesis and development of argillic horizons. The results revealed increase of total clay content in subsurface horizons to the level which perform argillic horizons formation conditions. Total clay content increase in illuvial horizons as compard with eluvial horizons and fine clay content comes agree with total clay distribution in these horizons and Also the ratio of fine clay/ total clay. The micromorphological results indicated the movement of clay from the surface horizon to subsurface horizon which include argillans and ferri-argillans and org-argillans as well calcians as a result of pedogenic activity, indicated that clay skins are not clear in some cases as a result of their breakdown by swelling and expansion of clay minerals, to the additions of some materials including carbonates in illuvial horizons.

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Article
STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME SALT AFFECTED SOIL IN THE MIDDLE OF IRAQ
دراسة الصفات المورفولوجية والميكرومورفولوجية لبعض الترب الملحية في وسط العراق

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Six sites in four regions in central Iraq were selected represent two sites of Sabakh soils, two sites of Shura soils, and two sites of normal soils (non salt affected) to study the morphological and micromorphological properties of theses salt affected soils and compare them to the normal soils in central Iraqi soils. The results indicated that there is some variation in particle size distribution and no pattern was detected for that variation which is con-sidered as one of the characteristics of alluvial soils, silt was the major separate in most soil samples which related to the quality of river Tigris loads in that region. Chemical properties showed that pH values were neutral to nearly alkaline where negatively correlated to the electrical conductivity of soil solution,. Organic matter was low generally with values ranged between 2 g.kg-1 up to 23 g.kg-1 the decrease in organic matter was due to the high temperatures and draught. Calcium carbonate ranged between 128 g.kg-1 to 343 g.kg-1. Carbonate minerals distribution was homogeneous in most soil horizons due to alluvial soils circumstances of formation in mid and south of Iraq and being rich in these minerals. Gypsum was positively correlated to EC values. The results of Micromorohological of scanning electron microscope and polarized light microscope showed that the shura soils was chloridic in the almaameer area, while it was extended to include chloridic sulfatic in swaira area, that was clearly shown as soluans on the inner walls of the soil pores. Metavughs and chambers were dominant voids in most of the thin section examinations, followed by channel voids, while the microstructure was varied from subangular blocky to spongy and vughy microstructure. Also there were some abvious pedological features shown in these sections as soluans and calcians, besides some slides showed a presence of salt and gypsum crystals.

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Article
USING DIGITAL PROCESSING OF SATELLITE IMAGES FOR LAND-COVER CLASSIFICATION
استخدام المعالجة الرقمية للصور الفضائية لتصنيف غطاء الأرض

Authors: H. Z. Ali حسين زيدان علي
Pages: 119-128
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The measurement and analysis of reflectance usually used to determine the most useful bands for fea-ture discrimination and to identify features based on spectral reflectance curves. The spectral reflectance curve is different from feature to other, each feature on the earth surface have reflectance curve in spectral bands (wavelengths), and this is the signature of this feature. The aim of this research is to find the profiles of different features using ERDAS program Ver. 9.2 applied on ETM+ images for some selected regions in Iraq. This is essential in selecting training samples during supervised classification. The profiles are drawn such that we infer different classes of soil and other features within the scene. Many standard spectral libraries are available and used for comparison with the results of this research. The creation of soil spectral library is necessary. A spectral library should be representative of variability of the soils in a region. The objective of this research was to create a spectral library of distinct soils from selected regions in Iraq. A graphic representation of the spectral curve was created for each profile. The reflectance intensity of the curve was principally influenced by the levels of different components present in the samples. The use of the spectral library as an indicator of possible soil classes proved to be an important tool in profile classification. The aim of this study is to generate map of Al Najaf and its surrounding area using supervised classification method based on calculating the classes’ profiles for the purposes of land cover mapping.

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Article
SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE PROPERTIES OF SOIL SURFACE AND LAND COVERS OF AL-SALMAN DEPRESSION IN SOUTHERN IRAQ
صفات الانعكاسية الطيفية للترب السطحية والاغطية الارضية لمنخفض السلمان جنوب العراق

Authors: K. A. Wheib
Pages: 129-140
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A study was carried out to reveal the correlation between spectral reflectance and some surface soil properties in Al-Salman depression southern Iraq. Results showed that the sand and silt content were significantly correlated to the reflectance values of bandwidths 3, 5, at partials of 0.4888, -0.4687, 0.4712, and -0.4702 respectively, while they were not significantly correlated to bandwidth 7. ECe was significantly correlated to reflectance of bandwidth 5, and 7 at partials of -0.4229 and -0.4030 respectively. There were significant correlations between different pairs of soil properties on different levels of significance. Eight un-supervised classified land covers regrouped to 7 supervised classified land covers were available in the area of study, the major land cover unit was the sandy soils because of the position of these lands, followed by the salt affected soils and wide depression units. Natural vegetation varied in a little bit slight biomass. Organic matter, lime and gypsum distribution did not show significant correlation due to the even content all over the area and to the same weather circumstances that available in this area. For more precise studies of revealing the correlation matrices, samples should be collected from areas differs in their properties especially in OM, CaCO3, and Gypsum content. Using reflectance values instead of digital numbers because they were more precise in expressing results. Lots of the area land can be used in the agricultural production especially when the moisture conditions are available and that was shown in wetland units spread throughout the studied area.

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