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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2005 volume:8 issue:1

Article
Atmospheric Turbulences Image Restoration By Using Unconstrained Restoration Filters

Authors: A.A.Al-Lihiebe
Pages: 1-5
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Abstract

Image restoration process or deblurring h the process, in which the ideal image is estimated from that having a blur and noise and resulting from different degradation factors such as linear motion between object and camera, atmospheric turbulence mid optical abberations. In this research, unconstrained linear restoration (liters, which give the solution (or the optimal image ) by one step without iteration such as inverse filter arid wiener filler restore atmospheric turbulence images that have been photographed b> using satellite.

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Article
Thermal and Structure Properties in Ferromagnetic INVAR Alloys Prepared by Powder Metallurgy Processes

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Abstract

In order to understand the INVAR, effect in 3D-transition metal alloys . the Fe3. * Nix alloys with x= 0.35.0.50,0.70 have been chosen . Experiments have been made on thermal and structural properties to study the physical origin of INVAR characteristics such as : thermal expansion . phase transition, and curie temperature Tc which are closely related to its ferromagnetism . Fe0.65 Ni0.35 shows an anomalously small thermal expansion coefficient below the curie temperature with ( FCC ) structure . This behavior has not been found in other combination. The structural results show that the ( BCC ) phase occurs above 50% Ni and does not effect (lie INVAR behavior. The results are discussed with the relation between thermal and structural properties with respect to the Science magnetic transformation .

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Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Complexes of Some Transition Metals with 2-amino -5- (4-hexyloxyphenyl)- 1,3,4 - thiadiadiazole

Authors: Ameer A. Ameer --- Ayad S. Hameed --- Emad A. Yousif
Pages: 9-11
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Abstract

New metal complexes of the ligand 2-amino-5-(4-hexyloxypheiiyl)-l,3,4-thiadiazole with the metal ions Cr (111), Fe (HI), Co (II), Ni (11) and Cu (11) were prepared in an alcohol-water medium. The prepared complexes where characterized by FTIR Spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements and molar ratio method. From In'.- spectral measurements, monomer structures for the complexes were proposed.

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Article
Photochemical study of Tris (2N-salicylidene -5-(O-Chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole)iron(III) in Different Organic Solvents

Authors: Emad A. Yousif
Pages: 12-15
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Abstract

The photochemistry of chelate complex Tris(2N-salicylidene-5-(0-chloro phenyl)-l,3,4-thiadiazole) iron(HI) Fe(L)3 was studied in five organic solvent: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol (Me), acetone (Ac), ethyl acctate (Ea) and Toluene (To) .Monochromatic light of wavelength 365 nm was used for the irradiation process at 25 °C. Uv-visible speclral changes and olhcr observations indicated an intra oxidation-reduction reaction occuring during the photolysis of Fe(L).^ complcx, with homolytic scission of Fe-L bond. The quantum yield ( Me > Ac > Ea > To According to the experimental results obtained, the mechanism of photodecomption of these complexes under the applied conditions was proposed

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Article
Preparation and study of Chloride - Liquid Selective Electrode based on quaternary ammonium salts in PVC matrix

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Abstract

Chloride selective electrodcs based on PVC matrix membrane consist of various alkyl quaternary ammonium salts such as tetra heptylammonium chloride (THACI), and tetraoctylammonium chloride (TOACI) as a sensors with various mediators were prepared and studied. The study includes the electrodes parameters determination (slope, linear response range, detection limit, pH effect , life time and selectivity). Chloride electrode based on (TOACI) as sensor with di-n-octyl phthalate (DOPH) as mediator gives excellent response with a slop equal 60,1 mV.'decade which is the near to the Nernstian slope. Concentration was ranged from 10-2 M to 10-4 M with detection limit around 10-5 M. This electrode was used for chloride determination ion in samples using different potentiometric methods.

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Article
Molar Gibbs Free Energy of Activation for Viscous Flow of Poly (Viny I Alcohol ) in Aqueous Solution at Four Different Temperatures

Authors: Eman T. Kareem --- Takialdin A.Hamdin
Pages: 20-24
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Abstract

The densities and viscosities of solutions of poly (vinyl alcohol)(PVA) molecular weight 125kg.moI-l in water up to 0.004% mol.kg-1 at 298.15, 308.15, 318.15 and 328.15 K have been measured. On the base of Eyring,s theory of rate processes, the molar Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow of solutions AGI,2.have been determined. Additionally, the viscosity coefficient Be in Jones-Dole equation is calculated. The infulence of the temperatures on the above parameter is discussed.

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Article
Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Iraqi Individuals in kirkuk City

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Abstract

To determine the normal serum levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride in the healthy local population of individual and to compare them with normal values in literature. Secondly, to study the effects of age, sex and occupation on these parameters. Samples from (122) healthy Iraqi individuals in Kirkuk city, (76 men and 46 women) was used as subject of this investigation . The blood samples from these individuals were analyzed for total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The results were analyzed in relation to sex, age and occupation. The total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were higher but statistically not significant. Variation was observed in relation to sex. The study has also exhibit age depended statistically significant elevation the levels of serum lipid. Mean values of scrum total cholesterol and triglyceride subjects were level decreases in individuals engaged in heavy works. The normal values of scrum cholesterol and triglyceride were found to be higher compared to those the reported by other investigator. Because the variations both fat and carbohydrate composition of the diet rapidly induce changes in serum lipid fractions.

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Article
Terpenoids Crude Extract of Caparis Spinosa Affecting Some Biological Aspects of Housefly , Musca Domestica L. (Diptera : Muscidae)

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Abstract

Terpenoids of Caparis spinosa was tested against Musca domestica . study results rcveald that crude terpenoids extracts of leaves and fruits significantly affected some aspects of housfiy . Egg production was droped from about 1147 egg / femal to 498 and 555 eggs/femal when the insect reared on diets treated with leaves and fruits terpenoids respectively , at concentration of 20 nig! ml . Cunimulative mortality of immature stages readied 72 % and 62 % at the same concentration , developmental period was exteneded to 17 and 15.2 days when treated with both extracts . compared with control ( 11 days ).Pupal wt. also, reduced significantly and reached 0.16 ( gm / 30 pupa ) and 0.18 ( gtn / 30 pupa ) compared with 0.89 gm / 30 pupa of control treatment.

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Article
Primary Tumours and few Vitamins

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Abstract

The requirements and / or the availability of various nutritional factors for the living cell(s) can be quite variable under both physiological and pathological situations. Vitamins are established components of the spectrum of necessary' constituents of food for the living tissues and many of them have proved a protective role in cancer etiology. Design and aims ot study: 1 his is a prospective study to investigate the levels of few vitamins in sera, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tumour tissues in the context of primary brain tumours (PBT), both benign and malignant, among a group of Iraqi patients. Setting: The Teaching Hospital at Kadhimiyah (THK) and Neurosurgical Hospital (Nil) in Baghdad. Patients and methods : This study had been conducted between November 2000 and October 2001 at both THK and Ni l in Baghdad. Out of the 107 patients suffering form !5BT with an age range 2-75 years (mean 35, the SD ± 19), 56 were males (52.3%), and 51 were females (47.6%). The most affected age group was 31-40 years (17.75%), 89% of the patients were under the age of 60 years (table 1). There were 77 gliomas (both benign and malignant) and 32 meningiomas (benign). A group of 50 patients with congenital hydrocephalus were involved in the study for CSF sampling, forty age- and sex-matched normal subjects were used as controls in serum and saliva measurements. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used in the study. Results: All 3 vitamins, A, C, and E, have shown lower values in malignant tumours patients (in serum, saliva, CSF, and tumour tissues) compared to those with benign tumours and controls in the biological fluids and tissues that were assayed with statistical significance (p<0.1). Conclusions and recommendations: These changes are quite significant, the findings should be considered in further research to determine both the specificity and sensitivity of low vitamins levels in the possible aetiological association with PBT.

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Article
Primary Brain Tumours and Lipids

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Abstract

The values of many biochemical parameters undergo changes to a certain degree in neoplastic conditions; serum lipids are some of those whose levels may be altered. The Teaching Hospital at Kadhimiyah (THK) and The Neurosurgical Hospital (Nl 1) in Baghdad. A prospective study to investigate the serum lipid profile of a group of Iraqi patients suffering from primary brain tumours (PBT) and to compare it with healthy volunteers. This study had been conducted between November 2000 and October 2001. Patients were evaluated by full medical history to exclude any existing systemic disease that may affect the parameters to be diagnosed, particularly diabetes, liver disease, renal disease and chronic drug intake, otherwise the patient would have been excluded from the study. One hundred and seven patients harboring clinically and histologically diagnosed PBT, qualified for the study. Their age ranged between 2-75 years, 56 males and 51 females. Blood samples were collected allcr 10-12 hours of fasting that had followed a light dinner the night before; the serum lipids were analysed using the enzymatic method. Forty age- and sex-matched normal subjects were used as controls. The present study demonstrated a variable changes among circulating lipids; a highly significant increase in serum cholesterol of patients was noticed in comparison to that of normal subjects; the same finding was observed in serum LDL. On the other hand, a high decrease in ..crum HDL and TG was observed. The levels of the most common serum lipids do change in patients with PBT. Brain tumour cells may manufacture their requirements from lipids. Our results are in agreement with the findings of few other researchers investigating lipids in neoplastic conditions. It is recommended that further studies similar to the present study to be conducted on a larger scale in order to find whether therapeutic measures may need to be implemented to correct such abnormalities that may have untoward consequences on patients' health.

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Article
Production of Alkaline from Alkalophilic Thermophilic Bacteria and its Application in Biological Detergents

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Abstract

Eleven alkalophilic thermophilic bacterial isolates producing alkaline protease(s) were selectively isolated from soil and compost samples, using solid medium amended with 1% wheat meal at pH 10.5. Proteolytic activity was qualitatively investigated, measuring the ratio of clear zone diameter to colony diameter. Isolate no. 3T, 4T and 9T were respected as the relatively most activc organisms, which were subsequently identified and designated as Bacillus sp. Qualitative assessment of alkaline protease activity was done on solid medium using agar diffusion method, by which isolate 41 showed the relatively highest enzyme activity. Optimal growth conditions influencing enzyme production were determined. Results showed that 950 unit / ml of alkaline prolease were produced after (3) days of incubation at 50 °C and pH 10. A commonly used detergent powder supplemented with 1% crude enzyme preparation showed better effect in removing blood smear from cotton cloths than control powder.

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Article
Eigenfunction Expansions Method for the Integro- Differential Equations of the First Kind

Authors: Ahlam Jameel Khaleel
Pages: 44-45
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Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is to present a new numerical method for solving the integro-differential equation of the first kind, namely the eigenfunction expansions method. This method is discussed for a Hermitian and Non-Hermitian kernels and is required that the eigenfunctions form a complete set.

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Article
On the Solution of Variational problems by Walsh Functions

Authors: Ahmad Ayoub --- Ahlam J. Khaleel
Pages: 46-50
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Abstract

This paper gives a clear procedure for solving the variational problems via Walsh functions. Many types of variational problems are solved by this approach like the simplest variational problem, functional depending on many dependent variables and functional involving derivatives of higher order. An illustrative examples are given for each type of these problems.

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Article
A Walsh Series Method for Solving Integro-Differential Equation

Authors: Ahmad Ayoub --- Ahlam J. Khaleel
Pages: 51-52
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In this paper, we use the orthonormality properties of the Walsh functions to give a new method for solving the initial value problem associated with the ordinary differential equation (with constant coefficients or with non-constant coefficients). This approach is named a Walsh series method and it is illustrated with some examples.

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Article
About The Two-- Parameter Strum -Liouville Eigenvalue Problem

Authors: Farah Jawad --- Ahlam J. Khaleel
Pages: 53-56
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In this work, we study the double eigenvalue problem related to the ordinary differential equation especially for the Strum-Liouville problem which is given by Science + (A,r(x) + us(x) + q(x))y(x) = 0 a

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Article
On the Exact Solution of a Space- Time Metric Conformal to Minkowskian Manifold

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Abstract

A space-time metric admitting 3-parametric group of isomctrics with 2-dimensioned space-like conformal to Minkowskian space is investigated subject to perfect fluid conditions. Mongers method may play a very important technique for solving and deriving the exact solution for such physical problem. So, new general exact solutions have been derived and it may be taken as a general solution of conformally perfect fluid distributions, in addition to that, all the perfect fluid distributions with variable and constant energy density have been derived.

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Article
On the Stability of Most General Exact Solution for Isentropic Superdense Stars

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Abstract

Most general exact solutions of Einstein’s field equation for isentropic fluid spheres have been investigated. Spherically symmetric model based on most general exact solution by Gupta and Jasim, 2000 have been analyzed for the stability performance. The analysis yields a strong indication that the model is stable with respect to infinitesimal radial pulsation. We also find that the adiabatic speed of sound is smaller than unity inside the fluid sphere if and only if the radius of the sphere is larger than 1.46 limes its Schwarzschild radius. Besides that the solution for case K--11 (case study), have been tested for the stability and found that, it is stable for least admissible value of ^ . Pn

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Article
Evaluating The Parameters of Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods Using Optimization Methods

Authors: Basim N. Ahood
Pages: 63-64
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In this paper, evaluating the parameters of implicit Runge Kutta methods using the least square optimization method have been introduced, which is used for solving the nonlinear system of algebraic equations resulting from the derivation of any R-stages fully implicit Runge-Kutta method.

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Article
Numerical Solution of the Delay Differential Equations Using Explicit Runge-Kutta Methods

Authors: Basim N. Abood
Pages: 65-67
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We investigate the stability of a numerical solution ot the delay differential equation by usine explicit Rungc-Kutta method, where the delay has been approximated by using Lagrange'and Hinnate interpolation polynomials.

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Article
Numerical Solution of the Sugeno Fuzzy Integrals

Authors: Meena M. Mahmood --- Radhi A. Zboon
Pages: 68-74
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An interesting theorem regarding the numerical solution of Sugeno fuzzy integrals have been presented and developed. Numerical procedures supported by optimization technique as well as some numerical methods have also been developed and presented in order to solve numerically the Sugeno fuzzy integrals. Some examples have been illustrated using the proposed computational procedures.

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Article
An Improved Janus Green Technique for Detection of Mitochondrial Structure with Electron Microscope

Authors: Kawkab Saleem Alkasiy --- May F. Al-Habib
Pages: 75-76
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Abstract

Previous studies have shown that Janus Green have a role in mitochondrial localization in light microscopy. In this study, Janus green have been used in electron microscopic technique to demonstrate fine mitochondrial structure. Tissue specimens from mice liver was preceded for electron microscope examination according to Hayat method, 1986. Certain modification was performed to use Janus green with uranyl acetate. The result has shown (hat Janus green gives a good contrasts to the membranous system not only to the mitochondria but, also to other cytoplasmic organelles (rough endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelop). Using Janus Green in electron microscopic preparation reflected the interaction between Janus Green and uranyl acetate and gives a good contrast to many cell components

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Table of content: volume:8 issue:1