Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
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009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2013 volume:44 issue:2

Article
SELECTION FOR HEAVIER SEED IN SUNFLOWER BY HONEYCOMB 1- FIELD TRAITS
الانتخاب بخلية النحل لوزن البذرة في زهرة الشمس 1- الصفات الحقلية

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Abstract

The local non-oil (Helianthus annuus L.) cv. Shumoos was used to study the effect of selection by honey comb method on the weight and size of sunflower seeds. The seeds were grown in the spring of 2011 by honey comb method with space 1.3 m between furrows and 1.5m between plants. Selection of larger capitulum, larger seed, and heavier seed were approved to increase the percentage of large seeds in the population. Superior plants, in properties, have been selected and self-pollinated. Then, seeds were planted and left panmixia. The resulting seeds were planted along with original seeds evaluation in a plant density of 40000, 50000, and 60000 plant.ha-1.The results rerealed that the selected genotypes 1 and 2 had a superiority in many properties such as the mean of days from planting to 95% flowering, for genotype2 was 108.1 days while for genotype1 was 105.3 days compared with the original which was 100.1 days. Also, the selection affected on height mean of plant, the genotype2 had the highest mean (258.5 cm) compared with the original (214.4), the mean of leaf area; the genotype2 gave higher mean (0.99 m2. Plant -1) compared with the original (0.72 m2. Plant -1), the capitulum of selected genotype2 (967.1 cm2) compared with the original (627.2 cm2), total dry weight; genotype2 was (1331g) compared with the original (811g), and mean of days number from planting to 95% physiological growth which led to increase the mean of seed fill duration; both selected genotypes 1 and 2 showed a superiority in seed filling duration, 24.1 and 24 days, respectively, compared with the original (19.7 days). Also, the selection affected seed weight; 131 and 141mg for selected genotype 1 and 2, respectively, compared with the original (116mg) that chaired to increase yield. Characteristics differed in values due to plant density increased, leaf area index and the mean of total dry weight per square meter increased by increasing plant density. The high plant density increased the mean of plant height, but there was no effects of plant density on seed filling duration, results caused by additive gene action in honey comb which increased the ratio of large seeds in both selected genotypes. It was recommended to use honey comb selection to improve both weight and size of seeds by increasing frequency of their plant in the population.


Article
SELECTION FOR HEAVIER SEED IN SUNFLOWER BY HONEYCOMB 2- GRAIN YIELD AND COMPONENTS
الانتخاب بخلية النحل لوزن البذرة في زهرة الشمس 2- حاصل البذور ومكوناته

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Abstract

The local non-oil (Helianthus anuus L.) cv. Shumoos was used to study the effect of selection by honey comb method on the weight and size of sunflower seeds. The seeds were planted in the spring of 2011 by honey comb method with space 1.3m be-tween furrows and 1.5m between plants. Selection on larger capitulum, larger seed, and heavier seed were approved to in-crease the percentage of large seeds in the population. Superior plants, in properties, have been selected and self-pollinated. Then, seeds were planted and left panmixia. The resulting seeds were planted along with original seeds evaluation in a plant density of 40000, 50000, and 60000 plant.ha-1.The results showed that there was a higher growth of the selected genotype 2 which gave 10.11 g.plant-1.day-1 compared with the original (6.79 g plant-1 day-1) . The selected genotype 1 had 131 mg seed weight, higher than the original (116 mg). However, the selected genotype 2 was higher in seed yield (10.17 t ha-1), compared with the original (6.57 t ha-1). Selection by honey comb increased the percentage of seeds longer than 18 mm and seeds kernel ratio of the two genotypes 1 and 2 recorded 67.5% and 49.7%, respectively, compared with the original for seeds longer than 18mm. The selected genotype 2 gave the highest kernel ratio (79%) of the seeds longer than 18mm while the ratio of the same genotype for the length 15–18mm was 84.5%. This was due to additive gene action in honey comb selection program. It was recommended to use honey comb selection to improve seed weight by increasing frequency of their plant in the population for more selection cycles.


Article
TABLES TO ESTIMATE MAIZE LEAF AREA BY MEASURING ONE LEAF LENGTH
جداول تقدير المساحة الورقية للذرة الصفراء باعتماد طول ورقة واحدة

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Abstract

To facilitate estimating plant leaf area of maize (Zea mays L.) for researchers working on this crop, two tables were prepared for direct leaf area estimation. Tables prepared were put into two groups of maize cultivars, namely, cultivars of 14 + 1 functional leaf per plant and cultivars of 11 + 1 functional leaf per plant. To get plant leaf area directly from these tables, the reader needs the length of the leaf located directly below ear leaf of his cultivar, and find plant leaf area opposite to the leaf length. The first table was for cultivars have 14+1 leaf per plant, while the second table for cultivars have 11 + 1 leaf per plant. The first table relied on a formula to estimate plant leaf area = 0.65×L2 ,and the second table on formula that plant leaf area = 0.75×L2, when the L2 = length of leaf below ear leaf. Using these tables will facilitate maize plant leaf area estimation and make it much faster to the researchers.


Article
HARVEST INDEX AND PLANT BREEDING
دليل الحصاد وتربية النبات

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Abstract

Many models were developed to estimate harvest index (HI), but all still lack experience in estimating crop efficiency and selecting genotypes with higher productive capacity, for the calculation or equation which lying must be encompass numerous traits, beginning from cultivated seed and rate of emergence, because of the variation in emergency and seedling growth and plants will affect plant architecture and its crowding by shading that leads to variation in source strength which is very important to form the sink. The post anthesis dry matter accumulation contributes with greater ratio in sink formation, but the increasing in post anthesis dry matter accumulation is resulting from increased source size. Thus, management must be act to establish strong source capable to establish and support big better sink. The good understanding of assimilated partitioning don’t ensure an effective progress in plant breeding, and the lack in HI requires more care on factors that control the partitioning. The changes in root system architecture, high plant density tolerance improved stress tolerance effect of additive and non additive effects, and select high post anthesis accumulation biomass genotypes with less leaves senescence during post anthesis and possess high ability to translocation assimilate to seed. But the lack in favorable genetic variation within the germplasm pool, gives no chance to improve conventional breeding approaches, thus we should study HI as an assimilated partitioning ratio, and that means that the increasing HI resulting from assimilated partitioning contributed in yield increase, and in this status it is easier control than the control of yield by improving plant ability to assimilate translocation to sink more than to source. In this case it takes part in the increasing of HI. If we consider the HI as the ratio of yield to dry matter it means that yield control the HI, but in this situation, the heritability of yield is low and more affected by environment. If we use HI as selection criteria for high yield, it should be high variation, heritability and high translocation efficiency.


Article
DETECTION OF SALINITY TOLERANCE CAPABILITY IN SOME GENOTYPES OF SUGAR BEET BASED ON PCR TECHNIQUE
الكشف عن وجود قابلية تحمل الملوحة في بعض تراكيب البنجر السكري باستخدام تقانة PCR

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Abstract

DNA was extracted from eight cultivars of Sugar beet (Beta vulgars), six of them are grown in Michigan state(EL-AO 13698, EL-AO 21483, EL-AO 22799, EL-AO 22438, EL-AO 15037, EL-AO 15028) one is wild and the last is introduced with five primers for five loci of salinity tolerance which are imported from Integrated DNA Technology company at the laboratories of the College of Plant and Soil Science/Michigan State University. The objective was to identify some salinity tolerance genes and estimate the genetic diversity based on PCR technique for the tested genotypes. Genetic diversity was estimated and cluster analysis was applied based on agglomerative method which accumulated the tested genotypes into groups according to resemblance of their responses. Twenty seven polymorphic bands were produced. The rate of bands was 4-7 for each genotype and maximum bands were produced by primer BVU07582-m and BVU07582-U. The tested genotypes grouped in three sets according to their alleles, the group A includes the genotypes EL-AO 22799, EL-AO 22438,and EL-AO 15028, group B includes the genotypes EL-AO 13698, EL-AO 21483, EL-AO 15037, and Swiss, while group C contain the genotype Wild. The genotype Wild was the most diversity, while the genetic diversity for group A was equal and faint and gave bands for all used primers. This may explain the responses similarity of genotypes of A group for the used primers, while no bands were formed for genotype Wild except primer F100-p49296-L. The genotypes EL-AO 22799, EL-AO 22438, and EL-AO 15028 have all the sequences of primers which code for salinity genes.


Article
YIELD STABILITY OF SOYBEAN GENOTYPES IN TWO LOCATIONS
ثبات حاصل تراكيب وراثية من فول الصويا في موقعين

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This research reports the analysis by using GGE biplot methodology, for seed yield of 7 genotypes of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown at 2 locations (Baghdad and Salah din) in Iraq over 2 successive seasons 2008 and 2009 combined to give four environments to determine yield stability and performance of genotypes. The experiments were carried out using a randomized complete block design with three replicates in each experiment. The main effect of genotypes was highly significant and the genotype x environment interaction was significant. F415 genotype produced significantly higher yields 2.47 and 2.42 t .h-1 at Saladin 2008 and Baghdad 2009 and G111genotype produced 2.73 and 2.53 t .h-1 at Baghdad 2008 and 2009 respectively. The GGE biplot analysis showed that F415 was the most desirable genotype across all environments followed by G111 and SE22 and high yield was associated with stability across environments. It could be concluded that GGE-biplot represented on ercellent toolbox for agronomists, plant breeders, geneticists and biometricians to interpret and understand GEI data in METs to assess gene action and quantitative traits loci. That technique was effective to derive the most stable genotype with high yield and in extracting stable genotype with high yield. The F415 and G111 genotypes were the best for being more stable than others for comparing soybean genotypes for stability.


Article
CORRELATION BETWEEN GRAIN PRODUCTION AND QUALITTY OF BREAD WHEAT WITH FLAG LEAF TRAITS UNDER WATER STRESS AND KINETIN
ارتباط انتاجية ونوعية حنطة الخبز بصفات ورقة العلم تحت الإجهاد الرطوبي والكاينتين

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The present study was conducted in the farm of the Faculty of science department at Basic Education college, Al-Mostansuria University during the winter seasons of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. That was to investigate the effect of skipping irrigation and kinetin application at different growth stages on som growth treats of flag leaf and grain yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the experiment was laid in arandomized complete block design in a spilt-plot arrangement with three replicates. Irrigation treatments (irrigation at two week, (control), skipping irrigation at tillering, elongation, booting, booting to 100% flowering, tillering+booting and tillering+elongation+booting stages) were assigned the main-plots, while application time (tillering, elongation and boating stages) was arranged in the sub-plots. As an average for the two seasons grian yield, flag leaf area, flag leaf duration 71.52, 58.58, 43.67% and its content of chlorophylls a , b, total chlorophyll, carotenes 45.37, 56.68, 57.14, 80.00 also carbohydrate percentage and N,P,K elements were significantly reduced of about 38.94, 21.83,61.29,64.46% respectively when skipping irrigation was conducted at tillering+elongation+booting stages compared with control treatment, whill less reduction in the most studied traits were found at anther skipping irrigation treatments. Kinetin applied at booting stage improved the most studied traits, specially increased flag leaf area (32.55 and 29.80) cm2, green leaf duration (25.51 and 25.39) day, and its content of chlorophylls a (13.97 and 13.59) and b (7.42 and 7.00), total chlorophyll (18.14 and 17.78), carotenes (1.34 and 1.07) mg/l, carbohydrate percentage (15.66 and 13.50)% and N (2.46 and 2.75), P (0.30 and 0.21), K (2.95 and 2.73)% elements which reflect on grain yield at both season respectively. There are positive-correlation between grain yield ton/ha. and flag leaf area (0.95), flag leaf duration(0.90) , content of chlorophylls a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenes (0.87,0.89,0.94,0.90), carbohydrate percentage (0.89), N (0.94), P (0.96) and K (0.92) as rate for seasonals search respectively.


Article
THE EFFICACY OF THE BIOLOGICAL INSECTICIDES BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS BERLINER AND SPINOSAD AGAINST THE LESSER DATE MOTH
كفاءة المبيدات الإحيائية Berliner Bacillus thuringiensis وSpinosad ضد حشرة الحميرة على النخيل

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Field studies were initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis and Spinosad for the control of lesser date moth in Saqlawyia /Al-Anbar during 2010. Results indicated that all insecticides were effective in reducing the infestation by the lesser date moth after two weeks of treatment. The biological insecticide B.thuringiensis was the most effective against the pest when applied as spray with an efficiency rate of 73% fallowed by 71% for the same agent applied as dust, while the efficiency of Spinosad and Deltamethrin were 58% and 58.2% respectively. However the relative efficiency of all treatments was reduce after one month of application. and was 68.7, 68.2, 49 and 49% for the four treatments, respectively. All treatments were effective in increasing some yield parameters such as number of fruits and weight of bunches. Results showed that the mean number of fruits per strand was 24.6,22.8 and 19.5 for B.thuringiensis applied as spray or dust,Spinosad and Deltamethrin treatments respectively. The means of bunches weights were 9.13,8.90,7.43 and 9.10kg/buch for the four treatment respectively, while it was7.27kg/bunch for the control treatment.


Article
FIRST REPORT ON PHYTOPHTHORA NICOTIANAE AS CAUSATIVE AGENT OF DAMPING OFF ON OKRA AND ITS BIOCONTROL IN IRAQ
تسجيل اول للفطر Phytophthora nicotianae كمسبب لمرض موت بادرات الباميا في العراق ومكافحته احيائياً

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This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Bacillus subtilis and Biokont against Phytophthora nicotianae the causal agent of okra damping off. The pathogenic fungus was isolated from infected seedling and identified on the basis of cultural and molecular characteristics. The pathogenecity of the isolate was determined on okra seedling. The antagonistic activity of biocontrol agents against P. nicotianae was tested on cultural medium by dual culture test. The more effective concentration of biocontrol agents was determine by mixing different concentrations from those agents with cultural medium and inoculated the medium with the pathogenic fungus. The efficiency of biocontrol agents in controlling seedling death was evaluated by adding the effective concentration of the agent into poting soil, then contaminated with the pathogenic fungus and sown with okra seeds. The results showed that all the biocontrol agents inhibited the fungal growth on cultural medium by 69; 65; 67 and 59% for each of S. cerevisiae; K. marxianus; P. fluorescens and B. subtilis respectively. The inhibition percentage was found to be 100% when the biocontrol agents were mixed with the medium at 7 x 105; 3 x 106 and 7 x 106 colony forming units/ml for K. marxianus ; P. fluorescens and B. subtilis and at 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 g/L of S. cerevisiae powder. All the biocontrol agents have reduced seedling death 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 6.7; 6.7; 6.7; 6.7; 13.3% with Biokont; S. cerevisiae; K. marxianus and P. fluorescens before and after emergence respectively compared with 33.3 and 40% in control, while the seedling death attained to 13.3 and 20% in soil treated with B. subtilis before and after emergence respectively.


Article
THE INHIBITION ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PEGANUM HARMALA SEEDS IN GROWTH OF SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
التأثير التثبيطي للمستخلص المائي لبذور الحرمل في نمو بعض أنواع البكتريا المرضية

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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the inhibition activity of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Peganum harmala L seeds extract (25-500 mg/ml) in growth of some pathogenic G-bacteria species (e.g. E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella spp.( and G+ species (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus spp.). Activity of Peganum harmala seed aqueous extract in bacterial inhibition was tested by well-diffusion agar with piercing cork (8mm diameter).Result revealed, that different concentrations of aqueous peganum harmala L seeds extract was exhibited high inhibition activity in growth of G+ bacteria species in the comparison of G- bacteria. The inhibition zone diameter at 25mg/ml conc. of aqueous seed extract was 14 and 12 mm for G+ Bacillus spp.and Staphylococcus aureus respectively in the comparison with G- species (E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella spp.( which was 7,Nil and 6 mm respectively, similar trend to that of 50 mg/ml conc. was found, inhibition zone was 15 and 18 mm for Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus respectively, whereas it was 9,Nil and 10 mm for E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella spp. respectively. Inhibition zones were extrusive proportioning with increasing of concentration it was elevated positively with the extract concentration increasing for all species of pathogenic bacteria species which used in this study. The maximum inhibition zone diameters was 13 mm and 27mm for E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus at 300 mg/ml conc., it was 15 and 20 mm for Salmonella spp. and Bacillus spp. respectively at 350 mg/ml conc., of aqueous pegnum harmala L seeds extract, last but not least the maximum inhibition zone diameter was 22mm for Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 400 mg/ml concentration.


Article
EXTRACTION TEMPERATURE AND PERIOD OF COWS' BONES GELATIN AND IT’ S FUNCTIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES
درجة حرارة ومدة استخلاص جيلاتين عظام الأبقار وخواصه الوظيفية والحسية

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The aim of this study was to utilize hollow cows' bones as a raw material in production of different kinds of gelatin. The processing methods included, preparation of bones to be ready for extraction process at elevated temperature of (60, 70, 80 and 90) C° for different periods between (2-20) hours for each treatment. After the extraction, clarification, filtration and concentration of gelatinous extract was carried out, drying and then milling carried out according to temperature and extraction period. The obtained results showed significant affect on yield for extraction temperature and period and also for the interaction between the examined factors. All gelatin produced characterized with good functional properties being compatible with commercial gelatin, particularly the solubility, viscosity and water and oil absorption, high gel formation capacity at 2-3% according to extraction temperature, and the results showed insignificant differences for interaction for all examined factors for gelatin solubility and water and oil absorbed. While the results showed that significant differences for interaction effect for examined factors on viscosity. The organoleptic tests revealed that all kinds of gelatin had characterized with good properties such as color, odor and taste, the elevated temperature and prolonged extraction changed gelatin color from transparent to yellowish, light brown and eventually dark brown. The results revealed the types gelatin produced during early extraction stage at 60 and 70 C° for all extraction periods, gave better functional properties than that types produced during final extraction stage at 80 and 90 C°.


Article
RESPONSE OF KOHLRABI TO (TOTALGRO)SPRAYING AND NITROGEN APPLICATION
استجابة الكلم لرش (توتل كرو) واضافة النتروجين

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This study was conducted at the field of the Department of Horticulture – College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad – Abu Ghraib, during 2010 and 2011 seasons. That was to study the effect of nitrogen fertilization and foliar application of nutrient solution (TOTALGRO) containing NPK on growth and leaf mineral content on local kohlrabi cultivar. The experiment included 16 treatments wich were the interactions between four levels of nitrogen fertilization, [(N0), 60 kg N/ha ( N1) , 120 kg N/ ha( N2) and 160 kg N/ ha( N3) ] and four concentrations of nutrient solution spray (T1), (20-20-20) (T2), (10-52-10) (T3) and (12-12-36) (T4). Each treatment replicated three times with a factorial experiment using RCBD. The experimental results showed that interaction of nitrogen fertilization and nutrient solution spraying (N3T4) was significant it gave the highest leaf number (20,36 and 21,24 leaf per plant) and the highest leaves content of nitrogen (1,59% and 1,50 %) and the highest leaves content of Potassium (1,290% and 1,313%) and the bulbous stems mean weight (423,6 and 445,6 g/plant) for both seasons, respectively. The lowest value of these parameters were found in the control (N0T1) treatment. We recommended conducting these treatments annually and to study the effect of another levels of nitrogen and nutrient solution along with higher population densities.


Article
ECONMIC ANALYSIS OF MUNG BEAN SUPPLY RESPONSE IN IRAQ DURING THE PERIOD 1970 - 2010
تحليل اقتصادي لاستجابة عرض محصول الماش في العراق للمدة من 2010-1970

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Mung bean is considered as one of the most important crops in Iraq, because it contains relatively high percent of lysine-rich protein, as well as carbohydrate, aside from gram's importance in maintaining soil fertility. The average planted acreage with gram in Iraq was 13.84 thousands ha, while average total production was 11.49 thousand tons, whereas average yield was 799.6 kg/ha for the period 1970-2010. This study aimed to estimate planted acreage supply response of gram during the period 1970-2010, and use of estimated coefficient in calculation of short and long-term price elasticities using dynamic nerlove model. The results of the study have important applications in adaptation of price policies required for increasing gram production in Iraq. The results indicated that the main variables were lagged planted acreage, the relative amended price of gram and lagged sesame price, and production risks. These variables represented about 70% of the total changes in planted acreage with gram. Estimated elasticities indicated that price-elasticity of gram in relative to its price was 0.2452, and it was significant. This means a 10% increase in gram price causes 2.4% and 6.3% increase in planted acreage in short and long-term respectively. The cross elasticities of gram were -0.3211 and-0.3022. That means an increase in the price of sesame by 10% will result in a decrease in planted acreage with gram by 3% in the short-term and 7.8% in the long-term.


Article
INFLUENCE OF SELECTED HARVESTER PARAMETERS ON QUANTI-TATIVE AND QUALITATIVE LOSSES OF BREAD WHEAT
تأثير عوامل منتخبة للحاصدة في الفقد الكمي والنوعي لحنطة الخبز

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Two field experiments were conducted on wheat crop in Al-Musayib township Babylon province during the ag-ricultural season of 2011-2012 using Claas combine harvester. The first one was to determine the effect of for-ward speed of 2.4, 3.34, and 4.28 km h-1 and cutting height of 10, 20, and 30 cm on header, threshing cylinder, separation and cleaning, total harvester, and total losses and combine harvester efficiency. A randomized com-plete block design in a split plot arrangement with three replications was used. There is a trend of increase in total harvester losses accompanied by decrease in the efficiency as forward speed increases. Losses in all harvester units decreased whereas the efficiency increased as the cutting height increased. The forward speed of 2.4 km h-1 and cutting height of 30 cm gave the lower total harvester loss of 2.583 % and higher efficiency of 93.824 %. The second experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of forward speed of 2.4, 3.34, and 4.28 km h-1, threshing cylinder rotational speed of 700, 800, and 900 rpm, and cylinder-concave clearance from the front and rear of 12-5 (c1), 17-10 (c2), and 22-15 (c3) mm respectively on kernel damage and germination percentage of wheat grains. A split-split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Results indicated an increase in kernel breakage and a decrease in grain germination due to decrease in forward speed, increase in cylinder rotational speed and decrease in clearance between cylinder and concave. The 4.28 km h-1×c3 interaction gave the least kernel breakage of 5.396 % with the best grain germination of 96.301%. However, the 4.28 km h-1×700 rpm interaction has lower kernel breakage of 5.562 % associated with higher grain germination of 96.913%. Whereas lower kernel breakage of 4.717% accompanied by greater germination of 96.859 % achieved by 700 rpm×c3 interaction.

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