Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:54 issue:1

Article
Knoevenaqgel Condensation of Trans-3-(2-furyl ) Acroline with Heterocyclic Active Methylene Compounds
تكاثف كنوفيناغل ترانس 3-(2-فوريل) الأكرولئين مع الحلقات غير المتجانسة الحاوية على مجموعة مثيلين فعالة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A new route of knoevenagel condensation for trans-3-(2-furyl)acroline with Rhodanine, Barbituric acid ,Thiazolidine-2,4-dione and 2-Thiohydantoin,in the presence of cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide(CTMAB) at room temperature in water


Article
Flow Injection- Spectrophotometric Determination of Salbutamol Sulphate and Pyridoxine Hydrochloride Using 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
التقدير الطيفي-الحقن الجرياني لكبريتات السالبيوتامول وهيدروكلوريد البايردوكسين باستخدام 2،4- ثنائي نايتروفنيل هيدرازين

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A batch and flow injection (FI) methods with spectrophotometric detection is proposed for determining of two of phenolic drugs: salbutamol sulphate(SLB)and pyridoxine hydrochloride(PYD) in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations. The methods utilized an oxidative-coupling reaction based upon oxi¬dation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) with sodium periodate, where an electrophilic intermediate (diazonium salt of the reagent) is produced, which couples with either SLB or PYD in the presence of sodium hydroxide yielding a highly colored condensation product. The absorbance is measured after 15min at 525and515 nm for SLB and PYD respectively. Calibration graphs for both batch and FIA methods were linear over the concentration ranges of 1-24μg/ml for SLB and 0.4-16μg/ml for PYD, and of 30-1100μg/ml for SLB and20-1200μg/ml for PYD respectively. A detection limits of 0.580μg/ml SLB and 0.150μg/ml PYD for batch method, and 15.32μg/ml SLB and12.21μg/ml PYD for FIA method. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of SLB and PYD in phar¬maceutical preparations and were compared statistically with reference methods by means of t- test and F- test and were found not to differ significantly at 95% confidence level. The procedures are characterized by its simplicity, accuracy and precision. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using reference methods for comparison


Article
Continuous Flow Injection Analysis for The Photometric Determination of Metformin Drug Via The Release of Copper(II) ion from Charged Gel Bead Crystal
التحليل الفوتومتري بالحقن الجرياني المستمر لعقار الميتافورمين من خلال تحرير ايون النحاس ( II ) من بلورة حبة الجيل المشحونة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A newly developed analytical method characterized by its speed and sensitivity for the determination of metformin-HCl via the formation of complex for metformin-HCl-OH--copper(II) ion from the gel bead system by continuous flow injection analysis. The method is based on the imbedded copper(II) ion in the gel bead structure can be used in the reaction for the formation of red –magneta colour complex(λmax. =530nm) formed by direct reaction of the drug with the released copper (II) ion from the gel bead in alkaline medium. Linear dynamic range for the absorbance versus metformin concentration was 0.001-1 mmol.L-1 while C.O.D was (r2% =95.33%) . The L.O.Q was 0.868mmol.L-1.L.O.D (S/N=3)=0.5µmol.L-1 from the step wise dilution for the minimum concentration of lowest concentration in the linear dynamic ranged of the calibration graph with R.S.D% lower than 0.5% for 0.01 mmol.L -1( n=8) concentration of metformin- HCl, throughput 30 sample.hr-1. The method was applied successfully for the determination of metformin in three pharmaceutical drugs. A comparison was made between the newly developed method of analysis with the classical method(Uv-spectrophotometry at wave length = 241nm) of analysis using the standard addition method via the use of paired t-test. It shows that there was no significant difference at α= 0.05 (95% confidence) between the two methods. Therefore the newly developed method(using the Metformin- OH- - Cu(II) entrapped inside gel bead) can be adopted as an alternative method for the analysis of metformin.


Article
The Effect of Pyriproxyfen on Eggs and Female Adults Production of The Sitophilus oryzae L.
تأثير منظم النمو Pyriproxyfen على بيض وأنتاجية الأناث البالغة لسوسة الرز L. Sitophilus oryzae

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs and neonates of the Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), exposed to the insect growth regulator, Pyriproxyfen, on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with Pyriproxyfen at the label rate of 0.003 mg [AI] /cm2 when used as a surface treatment in structures was 52.0 ± 7.3% compared to 93.0 ± 3.3% on untreated controls. In the second test, eggs were exposed to a dose-response series of 0.00003 to 0.03 mg [AI]/ cm2. Egg hatch was directly proportional to concentration and anged from 85.0 ± 2.0% on untreated controls to 26.7 ± 8.3% at the highest concentration tested. In the third test, 1 ppm of Pyriproxyfen was sprayed on long grain rough rice (paddy), and then individual kernels were cracked and an egg of S. oryzae was placed directly on the kernel. On untreated rice kernels, 67.5 ± 11.6% of the eggs hatched and were able to bore inside and all of these larvae emerged as adults. In contrast, 40.0 ± 5.3% of the eggs placed on treated cracked kernels were able to develop, but none emerged as adults. In the final test, newly emerged adults were exposed on rough rice treated with 1 ppm Pyriproxyfen. The number of eggs from adults on untreated rice was 52.1 ± 4.3 eggs per female, and on treated rice the average egg production was 12.5 ± 1.1 eggs per female. Pyriproxyfen applied on a surface or on rough rice affected development of egg hatch also reduced fecundity of parent adults exposed on the treated rough rice.


Article
Optimum Condition of Pullulanase Production by Liquid State and Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Method from Bacillus Licheniforms (BS18)
الطرق المثلى لانتاج انزيم Pullulanase بطريقة تخمرات المواد السائلة والصلبة من بكتريا Bacillus licheniformis (Bs 18)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Select 30 isolate from Bacillus to detect the ability to produce pullulanase enzyme in liquid and solid state fermentation, and use the isolate Bacillus licheniformis (Bs18) because the highest production of enzyme, the optimum condition for the production of enzyme by liquid state fermentation (LSF) in growen with: media contains starch + pullulan as a carbon source, peptone as a nitrogen source, inoculums size 2 ml, and incubated at 40 C° with pH 7 for 48 hrs. In addition pullulanase production by solid state fermentation (SSF) was investigated using isolated Bacillus licheniformis (Bs18). Optimization of process parameters were carried out ,the optimum solid substrate , Temperature , pH , incubation period , inoculation size , hydration solution and substrate to moisture ratio were found to be corn bran + rice bran (w/w) , 37°C , 6.0 , 48hr , 2ml , (0.2M) phosphate buffer , and 1:2 respectively. Calcium ions (2mM) enhanced enzyme activity by increasing its activity to 170%. Solid state fermentation had given higher production of pullulanase than liquid state fermentation (LSF).


Article
Histological Changes in The Liverof Mice Treated with Cadmium
التغيرات النسجية في كبد الفئران المعاملة بالكادميوم

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study was conducted using 15 adult male Swiss albino mice (weighing 35-45g). They were equally divided into three experimental groups. The first group was only given water as control during experimentation period (28days). Both of the second and third groups of mice were daily given a subcutaneous injection of cadmium as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 2mg and 4 mg Cd/Kg body weight respectively. The examination of the histological sections of the second experimental group of mice showed abundant histological changes in the hepatocytes such as increased size, presence of spaces and dense appearance of the cytoplasm, whereas these changes were more abundant in the hepatocytes of the third experimental group of mice in comparison with the second experimental group such as increased size and tubular- shaped hepatocytes, presence of spaces and dense appearance of the cytoplasm.

Keywords

Cadmium --- Liver --- Mice


Article
Evaluation of Pomegranate Peel Powder and Pseudomonas Fluorescens Against Pythium Aphanidermatum The Causal Agentof Cucumber Seedling Damping-Off
تقييم كفاءة مسحوق قشور الرمان و البكتيريا Pseudomonas fluorescens ضد الفطر Pythium aphanidermatum الـمسبب لمـرض موت البادرات في الخيار

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel powder and Pseudomonas fluorescens against Pythium aphanidermatum the causal agent of cucumber seedlings damping-off. Results showed that augmenting of pomegranate peel powder at 2%, P. fluorescens suspension contain 4×107cfu/ml, and the fungicide Previcure N at 0.5 ml/L to culture media (PDA) were inhibited the pathogen growth by 100, 100 and 72.1% respectively. Results of greenhouse experiment indicated that treatment of cucumber seeds with pomegranate peel powder, reduced pre-emergence damping-off percentage to 3.3% compared with 16.6% disease with P. fluorescens and 96.6% in control treatment (pathogen only). No significant differences were observed between fungicide and pomegranate peel powder (p=0.05), while the fungicide was more active than the bacteria in reducing pre-emergence damping-off percentage. Pre-emergence and post-emergence damping-off of seedlings reduced by both pomegranate peel powder and the bacteria compared with control (pathogen only). P.fluorescens increased fresh and dry weights and plant heights, while pomegranate peel powder didn’t affect these growth parameters.


Article
Evaluation of Isolated Compounds Activity from Convolvulus Arvensis Against Algae

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study includes isolation, purification, and identification of algae from different aquatic environments in Baghdad city. Nine unialgal cultures were obtained. These algal cultures included 6 species of blue-green algae (Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis flos-aquae, Oscillatoria limnetica, Nostoc carneum, Westillopesis prolifica, Mastigocluds lamiosus), and 3 species of green algae (Mougeotia sclaris, Scenedesmus dimorphus and Chlorella vulgaris). In addition that aerial parts from Convolvulus arvensis were collected. Terpens, alkaloids and phenols were extracted of mentioned plant, and the antialgal activity of extracts types were evaluated in 3 concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/ml) by wells and diffused in the agar media. Results showed that phenols extracts from C. arvensis were the most effective against isolated algae than other extracts, and terpens extracts were less effective. O. limentica was the most sensitive to attack by extracts than other algae, while N. carneum was lower sensitive, also W. prolifica, M. lamiosus were the most resistance to attack by C. arvensis extracts. Chemical composition of phenols and alkaloids were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and showed that present 10 phenolic compounds, 8 alkaloid compounds in C. arvensis.


Article
The Removal of Zinc, Chromium and Nickel from Industerial Waste-Water Using Banana Peels
إزالة الزنك والكروم والنيكل من مياه الفضلة الصناعية باستخدام قشور الموز

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The current study was designed for using banana peels to remove zinc, chromium and nickel from industrial waste-water. Three forms of these peels (fresh, dried small pieces and powder) were tested under some environmental factors such as pH, temperature and contact time. Current data show that banana peels are capable of removing zinc, chromium and nickel ions at significant capacity. Furthermore, the powder of banana peels had highest capability in removing all zinc, chromium and nickel ions followed by fresh peels whilst dried peels had the lowest bioremoving capacity again for all metals under test. The highest capacity was for chromium then nickel and finally zinc. All these data were significantly (LSD peel forms = 2.761 mg/l, LSD metal ions = 1.756 mg/l) varied. In case of chromium, these figures were 65.0 ± 1.0 mg/l, 54.0 ± 2.0 mg/l and 41.7 ± 1.5 mg/l for powder, fresh and dried peels respectively. Regarding nickel ions, these data were 56.7 ± 1.5 mg/l for peel powder, 47.7 ± 2.2 mg/l for fresh peel and 47.7 ± 2.2 mg/l for dry peel. While for zinc ions, the biosorption capacity was 51.7 ± 0.8 mg/l, 41.0 ± 1.0 mg/l and 34.7 ± 0.9 mg/l for powder, fresh and dry peels respectively. However, some examined factors were found to have significant impacts upon bioremoval capacity of banana peels such as pH, temperature, and contact time where best biosorption capacity was found at pH 4, at temperature 50 Cº and contact time of 1 hour. It is true that banana peels were varied significantly in case of metal ions and increasing examined factor (pH, temperature. And contact time). Regarding pH, the highest bioremoval ability was found at pH 5 for all heavy metals, but with the sequence of Cr, Ni, and Zn and the data were 59.4 ± 0.83 mg/l, 54.0 ± 0.0 mg/l and 39.1 ± 1.86 mg/l respectively. Similar pattern of bioremoval capacity was detected for temperature which was 50 C º where it was 66.7 ± 2.91 mg/l for chromium, 57.7 ± 1.12 mg/l for nickel and 52.0 ± 1.12 mg/l for zinc. However, in case of contact time, the capacity of biosorbing of these metals was again similar to those of pH and temperature factors where it was found to be 74.0 ± 1.76 mg/l , 66.0 ± 2.25 mg/l and 66.0 ± 1.95 mg/l for Cr, Ni, and Zn respectively but at 1 hour contact time.


Article
Evaluation of Chlamydia Pneumoniae IgG in a Sample of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
تقييم أضداد بكتيريا Chlamydia pneumoniae نوع IgG في عينة من مرضى إلتهاب المفاصل الرثوي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Thirty serum samples of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis after screening of rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein and ESR were collected and including in present study to detect the IgG antibody against Chlamydia pneumoniae by ELISA test. The results showed only 2(6%) patients had seropositive of C. pneumoniae, this lead to suggest that C. pneumoniae may be one of the etiological or trigger factor in patients of rheumatoid arthritis.


Article
Effect of Electric Shock on Morphological Traits, Yield, Yield Components and Protein Content of Three Varieties of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.)
تأثير الصعق الكهربائي في الصفات المورفولوجية والحاصل ومكونات الحاصل ونسبة البروتين لثلاثة أصناف من الباقلاء (Vicia faba L.)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

To investigate the effect of electric shock (ES) on morphological variations of faba bean traits, seeds of three varieties of the crop were germinated. When radical was 2-5 mm, seedling were soaked in a 1% NaCl solution for 3h, then transferred to glass container with same solution. Wire with two polar were connected to the container solution and AC current 220 V was switched on for 3,6 and 9 minutes. Seedling then washed and planted at the field in winter 2010-2011,. Factorial Experiment was arranged in randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates were used. Seeds were collected first season of treatments, including the treatment comparison and then planted in the winter season of 2011-2012.The results obtained in the first season causing morphological variations in most of the traits, electric shock for 9 minutes gave less day to flowering was 81.21 days, increase number of pods/plant 23.94 pod , number of seeds / pod 4.23 seed and seeds yield was 3716.42 kg/ha. Shock for 3 minutes early the flowering of plants in the second season was 74.16 days and the number of branches / plant 13.66 Branch ,number of pods / plant 14.5 Pod and gave the highest height of the plant 76.92 and 62.12 cm for both seasons, respectively. While shock for 6 minutes gave the highest seed weight in the second season, which not differ significantly with treatment comparison was also, characterized with superiority in the percentage of protein in the first season (23.1%).The Zaina variety was earlier in flowering (77.91 and 78.87 days) for the first and second seasons respectively, also gave the highest number of pods/ plant 24.91 in the first season, and highest number of seeds/pod 3.98 and 2.83 seed for two seasons and which did not differ significantly from other varieties Aguadulce and Local respectively and exceed seeds yield in the first season was 3433.99 kg / ha. Aguadulce variety was superior in plant height for two seasons77.91 and 62.12 cm, respectively. Local variety , gave highest percentage of protein which did not differ significantly with Aguadulce variety reached to 22.26 and 22.25% respectively, and in the second season showed the highest number of branches / plant 13.5 and number of pods/ plant 14.12 Pod. The interaction between the varieties and shocking treatments were significant, as given in Aguadulce variety for 9 minutes in the first season gave the highest seeds yield was 4261.02 kg / ha, while in the second season Local variety showed the highest seeds yield was 4873 kg/ha in a period of 6 minutes shock also the interaction in the first season with 6-minute period of shock was significant only in the percentage of protein was 23.98 and 23.38% for the varieties Aguadulce and Local respectively, and protein yield of Local variety was 1110.28 kg / ha in the second season. In conclusion different varieties gave different responses to period of ES indicating that one period of ES could not be recommended for all varieties due to differences in response .


Article
Identification of Genomic Markers By RAPD-PCR Primers in Iraq Breast Cancer Patients
التحري الجزيئي عن التغايرات الوراثية في مرضى سرطان الثدي في العراق باستخدام تضاعف الدنا متعدد الاشكال العشوائي لانزيم بلمرة الحامض النووي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used in this study to direct the attention toward increasing the efficiency of early diagnosis of breast cancer in clinical laboratories at Iraq using recent PCR-dependent protocols and investigate DNA polymorphisms in addition to the detection of genomic markers. Blood samples were collected from 12 diagnosed females with breast cancer (malignant) patients, 12 females with breast benign tumor and 12 controls (normal females). DNA was extracted and RAPD-PCR was performed. The results showed unique profiles of amplified DNA fragments produced in genomic DNA of breast tumors by an arbitrary primers of A8, A11, A12, A13, A15 and A18. Out of the 6 primers used, 1 primer produced monomorphic bands namely primer A13. While other 5 primers produced polymorphic bands. Efficiency and discriminatory power of the polymorphic primers ranged from 0.173-0.057 and 9.5-28.5% respectively. Primer A18 produced the highest number of bands (21 bands) and primer A15 produced the largest molecular band (3.204 Kb) while primer A8 and A15 produced the lowest number of bands (11 bands), primer A11 produced the smallest molecular weight band of (0.166 Kb). Primer A11 produced a band of (0.559 Kb) which showed significant frequency of 100% with Breast benign tumor patients and 83.33% with Breast malignant tumor patients in comparison to control individuals which is completely absent. So, the detected DNA polymorphisms by the arbitrary primers might find application in developing efficient RAPD primer for breast cancer early diagnosis in clinical laboratories at Iraq.

Keywords

Breast cancer --- RAPD --- PCR --- Primer --- Polymorphic


Article
Effect of Fiber Volume on The Flexural Strenght of Steel Fiber Reinfored Polyester Resin Composite
تأثير الكسر الحجمي في متانة الالتواء لمتراكبات البولي استير المدعم بالياف الحديد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the flexural properties of steel fiber as a metal fiber and polyester resin as a matrix. The steel fibers were added to polyester resin at the various fiber volume fractions of 5, 10, and 15% steel fiber, and with different fiber orientations such as woven steel fiber type (0-45) ° and woven steel fiber type (0-90) ° indicate. Hand layup processes in these experiments were used to produce specimens test with the curing time of 24 hr. for the composite at room temperature. The results show that the flexural strength and flexural modulus values for 15 % vol.of woven steel fiber composite type (0-90) ° are (210MPa) and (2.29GPa( respectively. The results above indicate that the woven steel fiber (0-90) ° has a better bonding between its fiber and matrix compare to woven steel fiber type (0-45) °.


Article
Composite Resin Coating for The Protection of Surfaces and Metals
استخدام المتراكبات الراتينج في الطلاء لحماية الاسطح والمعادن

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The curing process of epoxy resin was investigated with some additives and fillers such as nano fumed silica with primary particle diameter of 56–58 nanometers, fine ferric oxide with an average particle diameter of 0.4 micrometer, fine calcium carbonate with an average particle diameter of 0.58 micrometer, and plasticizer, a new composite resin has been obtained. Based on present experimental results, the new composite resin shows high impact strength and hardness as well as the ability of the composite withstand to degradation from water way in. Additionally, curing time of composite was reduced to the minimum set time than epoxy resin at different temperature. This new composite resin was used appropriately for coating to protect surfaces and metals in marine ships from corrosion which meet the requirements for certain applications such vehicles body, crude oil tankers, petroleum pipelines services, and other applications.


Article
The Single Particle Level Density Calculations for Using Equidistant Space Model (ESM) and NON-ESM in Fermi Gas Model
حسابات كثافة مستوي الجسيم المنفرد في بأستخدام انموذج المسافات المتساوية وغير المتساوية في انموذج فيرمي الغازي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The single-particle level densities for , at certain exciton number, are calculated in terms of Equidistant Space Model, ESM, and NON-ESM, of Fermi Gas Model. It is found that the single particle level density, g, has no longer a constant value and becomes an energy dependent on the contrary with NON-ESM. The finite depth of the nuclear well and pairing corrections are examined with behavior of the single level density for both models. The particle-hole state density has been calculated, by means of the energy dependence of excited particles and hole level densities, for one and two fermions systems and different exciton number in . The present results are compared between two models with and without the inclusion of the finite well depth correction. NON-ESM system has a major effect in the present calculations at high excitation energies.


Article
Monte Carlo Simulation of the Backscattering Gamma Ray System
محاكاة مونت كارلو لمنظومة أشعة گاما المرتدة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to design program which simulate gamma rays backscattering system. Gamma ray backscattering is very important to get useful information about shielding, absorption and counting problems. Simulation was done of a 661.6 KeV from a collimated point source of 137Cs. When increasing the scattering angle of photon which emerging from Iron target , as the incident gamma beam angles of 15°, 45° and 75°, the results showed that the single scattering count decreases. Whereas, this count increased by increasing the incident angle. In addition, the single scattering peak (count) increases according to the sample thickness until ‘saturation thickness’. Our simulation results are useful to evaluate the optimal configuration of systems using Compton backscattered radiation and to access the feasibility for setting up experimentally this system. Also, it will be used to determine the best conditions under which this method can be applied to testing electron densities or to assess the thickness of sample to locate defects in them


Article
Environmental and Climate Changes and Cultural Response During Mid to Late Holocene at Babylon City- Iraq
التغيرات البيئية والمناخية وتأثيرها على التطور الحضاري خلال وسط االى نهاية الهولوسين في مدينة بابل- العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The study deals with palaeoecology and paleoclimates of Holocene sediments of historical Babylon area on palynological evidence which located at Euphrates river, (100) Km south of Baghdad. Links between environmental and socio- cultural changes are explored in archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data. The increased social and cultural developments as a response of enhanced aridity, driven by population accumulation in environments characterized by the presence of surface water resource. Three palaeoecological zones PZ1, PZ2, and PZ3 are deduced from the pollen diagram which reflect the climatic and ecologic changes throughout parts of the Holocene (5500-7500; 5500- 4000 and 4000-Present yr BP). Cereal grasses appear at the beginning of the PZ3 which indicate the flourishing of cultivation during the Palaeo-Babylonian and Meso-Babylonian periods (3950-2950 yr BP). Cereal grasses pollen (cultivated) distinguished from the wild grass pollen by their morphology and the pore shape and size. Social complexity and cultural development were largely driven by climatic and environmental changes that prevailed the area throughout parts of the Holocene, as a response to the increased aridity which has led to a great progress in the irrigation facilities and building dykes along the cultivated areas and social communities at the site, as well.


Article
Radiations and Extinctions of Maastrichtian Rudist bivalve and Benthic Foraminifera of Aqra Formation Kurdistan Region Northern Iraq
تطور وأنقراض الرودست والفورامنيفيرا القاعية خلال الماسترختيان لتكوين عقرة في أقليم كردستان، شمال العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

During the Maastrichtian, the rudists and benthic foraminifera of Aqra Formation underwent two major radiations, the first beginning in early Early Maastrichtian and peaking in the late Early Maastrichtian, and sconed extending from the early Late Maastrichtian to a late Late Maastrichtian peak.The radiations were punctuated and separated by prominent extinction episodes, fit with global Maastrichtian mass extinction.The high level of rudist, endemism [90%] allows definition of true regional origination and extinction pattern; these may represent global pattern for rudists. Radiation and extinction patterns in the northern Iraq [Kurdistan Region] can be variously related to relative sea level fluctuation and the rate of food and clastic sediments supply.The two Maastrichtian extinctions of Aqra Formation is true extinctions in that they occur during low or zero origination rates among rudists.

Keywords

Rudist --- Extinction --- Radiation --- Maastrichtian --- Aqra --- Kurdistan --- Iraq.


Article
On The Dynamics of Discrete-Time Prey-Predator System with Ratio-Dependent Functional Response
حول ديناميكية نظام الفريسة-المفترس المتقطع ذو دالة الاستجابة الوظيفية النسبية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, a discrete- time ratio-dependent prey- predator model is proposed and analyzed. All possible fixed points have been obtained. The local stability conditions for these fixed points have been established. The global stability of the proposed system is investigated numerically. Bifurcation diagrams as a function of growth rate of the prey species are drawn. It is observed that the proposed system has rich dynamics including chaos.


Article
Using Semi-Analytic Technique for Solving Lane Emden Equations

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper propose the semi - analytic technique using two point osculatory interpolation to construct polynomial solution for solving some well-known classes of Lane-Emden type equations which are linear ordinary differential equations, and disusse the behavior of the solution in the neighborhood of the singular points along with its numerical approximation. Many examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the methods. Finally , we discuss behavior of the solution in the neighborhood of the singularity point which appears to perform satisfactorily for singular problems.


Article
Complex of Lascoux in Partition (4,4,4)
سلسلة لاسكو في التجزئة (4,4,4)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper the diagrams and divided power of the place polarization , with its capelli identities have been used, to study the complex of Lascoux in case of the partition (4,4,4).


Article
Unsteady Heat Transfer Analysis on The MHD Flow of A Second Grade Fluid in A Channel with Porous Medium
الجريان اللا مستقر و تحليل انتقال الحرارة في حقل مغناطيسي لمائع من الرتبة الثانية في قناة ذات وسط مسامي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyzed unsteady heat transfer for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a second grade fluid in a channel with porous medium. The equations which was used to describe the flow are the momentum and energy, these equations were written to get thier non dimentional form. Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is employed to obtain a semi-analytical solutions for velocity and heat transfer fields. The effect of each dimensionless parameter upon the velocity and temperature distributions is analyzed and shown graphically by using MATHEMATICA package.


Article
Lie and Jordan Structure in Prime Γ- rings with Γ-centralizing Derivations
تركيبه لي و جوردان في الحلقات الاوليه من النمط -Γ مع المشتقات المركزيه من النمط –Γ

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Let be a prime Γ-ring satisfying for all and with center Z, and U be a Lie (Jordan) ideal. A mapping is called Γ- centralizing if for all and .In this paper , we studied Lie and Jordan ideal in a prime Γ - ring M together with Γ -centralizing derivations on U.


Article
Derivable Maps of Prime Rings
المشتقات الضربية على الحلقات الاوليه

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Our active aim in this paper is to prove the following Let Ŕ be a ring having an idempotent element . Suppose that is a subring of Ŕ which satisfies: and . implies . implies and hence implies . implies . If is a derivable map of satisfying Then is additive. This extend Daif's result to the case need not contain any non-zero idempotent element.


Article
ON CLS- MODULES
حول المقاسات من النمط CLS-

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Let R be a commutative ring with identity and let M be a unital left R-module. A.Tercan introduced the following concept.An R-module M is called a CLS-module if every y-closed submodule is a direct summand .The main purpose of this work is to develop the properties of y-closed submodules.


Article
Effective Digital Image Colors Reduction/Quantization Method
طريقة فعالة لتكميم/تخفيض ألوان الصور الرقمية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In the current research work, a method to reduce the color levels of the pixels within digital images was proposed. The recent strategy was based on self organization map neural network method (SOM). The efficiency of recent method was compared with the well known logarithmic methods like Floyd-Steinberg (Halftone) dithering and Octtrees (Quadtrees) methods. Experimental results have shown that by adjusting the sampling factor can produce higher-quality images with no much longer run times, or some better quality with shorter running times than existing methods. This observation refutes the repeated neural networks is necessarily slow but have best results. The generated quantization map can be exploited for color image compression, classification, or to edit the color palette for different image graphical applications.


Article
Gap-Filling Restoration Methods for ETM+ Sensor Images
طرق ترميم لملئ ثغرات صور المتحسس +ETM

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) onboard the Landsat-7 remotely sensor satellite was launched on 15 April 1999. On May 31, 2003, image acquisition via the ETM+ was greatly impacted by the failure of the system’s Scan Line Corrector (SLC). Consequently, the ETM+ has lost approximately 22% of the data due to the increased scan gap. In this work, several gap-filling methods will be proposed to restore the ETM+ image malfunctions. Some of the proposed methods will be carried by estimating the missed pixel’s values from the same image pixel’s neighborhood, while others will utilize the pixel values extracted from different temporal scene acquired in different time. Mean average filter, median filter, midpoint filter, and several interpolations (e.g. 1D-nearest neighbor, 1D-linear, and 1D-cubic-spline interpolations) techniques will be utilized to estimate the missed pixel’s values from the same malfunction scene and from different temporally radiance corrected scene. Additionally, the Linear Local Histogram Matching (LLHM) technique will be implemented to fill the gaps by gain-bias method and by gray-level normalization methods, using the whole image values first, and a window’s values second.


Article
Using of Remote Sensing Technique to Monitor The Status of The Plant and Change Detection for Three Different Periods in Western Region in Baghdad/ Iraq
استعمال تقانة الاستشعار عن بعد لمراقبة الحالة النباتية وكشف التغيير لثلاث فترات زمنية مختلفة لمنطقة غربي بغداد/العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Data of multispectral satellite image (Landsat- 5 and Landsat-7) was used to monitoring the case of study area in the agricultural (extension and plant density), using ArcGIS program by the method of analysis (Soil adjusted vegetative Index). The data covers the selected area at west of Baghdad Government with a part of the Anbar and Karbala Government. Satellite image taken during the years 1990, 2001 and 2007. The scene of Satellite Image is consists of seven of spectral band for each satellite, Landsat-5(TM) thematic mapper for the year 1990, as well as satellite Landsat-7 (ETM+) Enhancement thematic mapper for the year 2001 and 2007. The results showed that in the period from 1990 to 2001 decreased land area exposed (bare) and increased the space of land covered by vegetation in percentage (31.06%), while this was a slight increase in the period between 2001 to 2007 in percentage (17.22%).


Article
Describing the Wavefront Aberrations of the Hexagonal Aperture Using Modified Zernike Polynomials
وصف جبهة الموجة المشوهة لفتحة سداسية باستخدام متعددة حدود زرنايك

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The concept of the optical telescope is the primary mirror design, the Next Generation Segmented Optical Telescope (NGST) with hexagonal segment of spherical primary mirror can provide a 3 arc minutes field of view. Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) in the 100m dimension would have such unprecedented scientific effectiveness that their construction would constitute a milestone comparable to that of the invention of the telescope itself and provide a truly revolutionary insight into the universe. The scientific case and the conceptual feasibility of giant filled aperture telescopes was our interested. Investigating the requirements of these imply for possible technical options in the case of a 100m telescope. For this telescope the considerable interest is the correction of the optical aberrations for the coming wavefront, the modified Zernike polynomials for hexagonal aperture were used to describe the wavefront aberrations and to predict the initial state for the adaptive optics corrections.


Article
Striking Perturbations of Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) During Earthquake
الاضطرابات الحاصلة في طبقة الايونوسفير للمحتوى الالكتروني TEC اثناء الزلزال

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

To study the striking perturbations of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) before, during, and after the earthquake (M≥5) for earlier prediction to avoid calamities, ionospheric TEC data are taken by using red shift technique from two-frequencies GPS signals.. Tohoku earthquake on 11th March 2011 is chosen as case of our study (A magnitude M9.0 earthquake reported by the US Geological Survey gives its origin time at 05:46:23 UTC; the epicenter was located at 38.322oN, 142.369oE of the east coast of Honshu). The study was made 15 days before and 15 days after earthquake occurred over Japan at four different geographic positions, Kokubunji (35.7oN, 139.5oE), Wakkanai (45.2oN, 141.8oE), Yamagawa (31.2oN, 130.6oE) and Okinawa (26.7oN, 128.2oE). Observations TEC values compared with predicted TEC values by using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2007) model to study the accuracy of model during the earthquake. Finally absolute error calculated between observed TEC (Obs.) values and predicted (Pre.) values before and after correction for 24 hours, which is reveals fewer errors after correction.

Table of content: volume: issue: