Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

e mail:

Table of content: 2009 volume:9 issue:1

Article
Finite Element Analysis of Acrylic Denture Produced from Metal Stock Tray

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Aims: To determine stress analysis exerted by denture on the edentulous alveolar bone in the premolar
region represented by stone cast produced from metal stock tray using linear finite element method.
Materials and methods: Metal perforated stock tray was used to produce stone cast that represent the
denture base and the underlying bone using silicone impression material. The dimension of the cross
section of the stone cast was measured using Dimax program, then the data collected was entering Excel
program for making the figures. The dimension of the cross section of the stone cast entering finite
element program and other new auxiliary program prepared specially for this study for finite element
analysis. Results: After the data was analyzed, the results were drawn in figures using surfer 7 program.
High compressive, tensile, deflection, shear and maximum principal stress values were observed
below the point of force application and in the underlying structure with different values and locations
according to the analysis in the mucous membrane and in the underlying bone in the X and Y axes.
Conclusions: By using finite element analysis, the more stress concentration and deflection were found
below the point of force application, in the mucous membrane, at the beginning of the cortical bone and
along the buccal vestibule.

Keywords


Article
Finite Element Analysis of Acrylic Denture Produced From Visible Light Custom Tray

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Abstract

Aim: To determine stress analysis exerted by denture on the edentulous alveolar bone in the premolar
region represented by stone cast produced from visible light custom tray using linear finite element
method. Material and Method: Visible light custom tray (spaced and close fit) was used to produce
stone cast that represent the denture base and the underlying bone using silicone impression material.
The dimension of the cross section of the stone cast was measured using Dimax program, then the data
collected was entering Excel program for making the figures. The dimension of the cross section of the
stone cast entering finite element program and other new auxiliary program prepared specially for this
study for finite element analysis of vertical load of 100 Newton applied on the buccal cup (supporting
cusp) of the second premolar tooth. Result: After the data was analyzed, the results were drawn in
figures using surfer 7 program. High compressive, tensile, deflection, shear and maximum principal
stress values were observed below the point of force application and in the underlying structure with
different values and locations according to the analysis in the mucous membrane and in the underlying
bone in the X and Y axes. Conclusion: By using finite element analysis, the more stress concentration
and deflection were found below the point of force application, in the mucous membrane, at the beginning
of the cortical bone and along the buccal vestibule. The less stress concentration, deflection and
less value of shear and maximum principle stress that distributed over large distance was found by using
visible light cure spaced custom tray

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Article
Validation of Tanaka and Johnston Method on Iraqi Population

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Aims: To validate Tanaka and Johnston's analysis on (50) Iraqi patients (29 females and 21 males)
aged 14–22 years. The patients had normal class I molar relation ship with full permanent dentition.
Materials and Methods: Plaster models of 50 (14–22) years old patients were selected. Mesio–distal
crown diameter for maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth were measured. Statistical descriptive,
probability theory, correlation coefficients between individual and grouped teeth were calculated using
Tanaka and Johnston method. Results: Tanaka and Johnston's analysis tables, equations and approximations
were modified in order to improve the accuracy of the prediction. The correlation coefficients
found between the size of the permanent mandibular central incisors and maxillary first molars (1, 1, 6
and 6) and maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were high (r = 0.62 and r = 0.67, respectively).
New, more accurate prediction tables applicable at earlier ages, and new regression equations
were constructed. In addition, new easier approximations were developed to allow the prediction of the
size of the unerupted maxillary canines and premolars by adding 5.6 mm to the half–widths of teeth 1,
1, 6 and 6. The analogous prediction of the size of unerupted mandibular canines and premolars was
obtained by adding 5.4 mm to the half widths of same teeth 1 ,1 , 6 and 6. Conclusions: The new analysis
prediction tables and new regression equations based on teeth 1 ,1, 6 and 6, which erupt earlier
than teeth used by Tanaka and Johnston, proved even more accurate than both previous equations.

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Article
Antifungal Effect: Comparison of Commercial Denture Cleansers and Microwave Energy

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Abstract

and comparing this with microwave sterilization technique on heat cured acrylic resin denture base
material which was cured by two different techniques. Materials and Methods: thirty two samples of
heat cured acrylic resin denture base material had been used, half of them was cured by conventional
water bath technique, and the other half by microwave technique. A simple method to measure Candida
biofilm activity using pH change of Stomastat. Modified Sabouraud broth developed and used to evaluate
the efficacy of the following denture cleansers: Chlorhexidine 0.2% and sodium hypochlorite
0.5%, and microwave sterilization on Candida albicans biofilm. The initial number of yeasts inoculated
was correlated with pH value of Stomastat after 24 hours incubation period. Results: The acrylic
resin samples that cured by conventional water bath technique were most effectively disinfected by
chlorhexidine 0.2%. This demonstrated by increasing the pH value of Stomastat significantly than the
control group. The same result was obtained with those samples which were cured by microwave oven.
The initial number of Candida albicans cells in Stomastat was significantly decreased than the control
group after treatment of acrylic samples with denture cleansers and microwave sterilization technique,
while for those samples that cured by microwave technique the least number was obtained after treatment
with chlorhexidine 0.2%. Conclusion: Both of chlorhexidine 0.2% and sodium hypochlorite
0.5% and microwave technique had the ability to disinfect acrylic samples that cured by water bath and
microwave techniques effectively. However, chlorhexidine 0.2% was the most effective one.

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Article
Evaluation of Mandibular Infiltration Compared to Mandibular Block Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

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Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mandibular infiltration compared with
the mandibular block in treating mandibular primary molars in children and to relate it to the type of
treatment performed. Materials and Methods: The study design was case control study. The study
sample consisted of 98 cooperative children of age 3-9 years old. Forty eight children were the study
group (infiltration group). Equal number of children to the study group matched for age and gender
were chosen (block group), they had the same criteria of the study group and required the same type of
treatment. Dental procedure included amalgam restorations, foromcresol pulpotomies, and extractions.
Evaluations of pain for each anesthesia technique and type of treatment were conducted using sounds;
motor and ocular changes indicating pain. Evaluations were made upon probing, during tooth preparation,
coronal pulp removal and extraction. Results: No statistically significant difference was found
between the two anesthetic techniques of pain, when performing amalgam restorations (p>0.05). Mandibular
infiltration was significantly less effective than mandibular block for pulpotomy and extraction
(p<0.05). Conclusions: In this study, the mandibular infiltration was found to be a reliable local anesthetic
technique in amalgam restoration. For pulpotomy and extraction, mandibular infiltration was not
as effective as mandibular block. It is recommended to avoid the mandibular infiltration anesthesia,
whenever possible for pulpotomy or extraction procedure in primary molars

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Article
Sealing Ability of Different Retrograde Filling Materials

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Abstract

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of different concentrations of alcoholic
extract of Olive Leaves solution (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%) in an in vitro.It also to determines
the time required for the most effective concentration of Olive Leaves to start the effect in selected
microorganisms, and to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of most effective concentrations of alcoholic
extract of Olive Leaves solution in an in vivo study as a root canal irrigant. Materials and Methods:
The antimicrobial effect of Olive Leaves (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite,
and normal saline were determined in vitro by using broth microdilution method. The direct exposure
test was used to evaluate the time required for 0.8% of Olive Leaves to start their antimicrobial effect
on the selected microorganisms. In an in vivo study, 36 uniradicular teeth with necrotic pulps were
chosen. The patients were divided randomly into three groups, 12 patients for each group as in the
following: Group I: alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves at 0.8%. Group II: sodium hypochlorite solution
at 2.5% as a positive control. Group III: normal saline as a negative control. Bacteriological samples
were obtained from the canal at the beginning of the first appointment; at the beginning of the second
appointment; at the end of the second appointment; at the beginning of the third appointment using
sterile wet paper point. Results: The Results showed that Olive Leaves at (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%),
and sodium hypochlorite had a significant antimicrobial effect against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
recovered from teeth with necrotic pulps. While the normal saline and 0.1% Olive Leaves had no
significant antimicrobial effect. As for Olive Leaves exract. The best antimicrobial effect was noticed
at 0.8%, which showed a significant difference from other concentrations of Olive Leaves,but no
significant difference from that of sodium hypochlorite. The results of this test showed that 2.5%
sodium hypochlorite and 0.8% Olive Leaves had immediate effect on all selected microorganisms. The
results revealed that 0.8% alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves solution had a significant antimicrobial
effect when utilized clinically as an endodontic irrigant, which was not significantly differ from sodium
hypochlorite but significantly different from normal saline. Conclusions: Olive Leaves alcoholic
extract solution at 0.8% was an effective antimicrobial agent when used as an irrigant in endodontic
treatment of teeth with necrotic pulps.

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Article
Evaluation of Toothbrush Wear on Toothbrushing Efficiency

Authors: Rayia Jasim AL-Naimi
Pages: 51-56
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Aim of the study: is to assess the influence of toothbrush wear on plaque index (PI) and gingival (GI)
index. Materials and Methods: twenty dental students participated, before the beginning of the study,
all the students received a prophylactic scaling and polishing by the operator, the PI and GI were recorded
at the starting point T0, each student received an identical toothbrush and toothpaste and were
instructed to brush twice daily, after one month at T1, the students were randomly divided in to two
groups, group no. 1 used the same brush provided at T1, while group no. 2 substituted the toothbrush at
each monthly examination. Recalls were scheduled after one (T1), two (T2) and three months (T3), the
plaque and (PI) gingival index (GI) of Loe and Sillness, in addition to Rawls et al index of wear for
toothbrush were measured at each monthly examination. Results: showed that from T0 to T3 that the
PI and GI were increasing with statistically significant difference in between each group. In comparing
between the two groups PI showed a significant difference at T2 and T3, and although mean values of
GI in group not changing toothbrushes were slightly higher, significant difference was observed at T3
only. The WI had a statistically significant difference as toothbrush bristles deteriorated, and there was
a positive relationship between the PI and WI in the group of students that did not change their
toothbrush because as the toothbrush bristles splayed and deteriorated, the plaque values increased.
Conclusion: it can be therefore concluded from the results obtained in this study, that the capacity to
remove dental plaque is much related to toothbrush wear.

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Article
Evaluation of Some Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material(An In Vitro Study)

Authors: Luma M Al–Nema --- Tarik Kassab Bashi
Pages: 57-65
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Aims: To evaluate the effect of thickness of acrylic denture base resin on the transverse strength, also to evaluate the effect of metal and fiber reinforcements on the fracture resistance of denture base resin by four mechanical tests: Transverse strength; Charpy impact strength; Tensile strength and Rockwell Indentation Hardness. Materials and methods : Heat–cured resin, and three types of reinforcing metals were used which were: The cobalt–chromium alloy mesh, stainless steel wire and nickel alloy plate. Three forms of glass fiber also were used: Random, woven, and aligned unidirectional. The effect of these reinforcing materials on the mechanical properties of heat–cured resin had been evaluated by measuring the transverse strength by the Instron testing machine, tensile strength by the Textile tensile strength Tester, the impact strength by the Charpy type impact Tester and finally the hardness by the Rockwell hardness tester. Three hundred samples were prepared in this study. Results: Revealed a statistically significant effect of thickness on the transverse strength of heat–cured resin. Results also showed that all forms of fiber and metal reinforcements had a significant effect on the transverse strength, tensile strength , impact strength and hardness of denture base resin. Conclusions: The thickness significantly increased the transverse strength of denture base resin. All forms of metal and glass fiber reinforcement significantly improved the transverse strength, impact strength and tensile strength of denture base resin. All forms of metal and fiber reinforcement acted to reduce the hardness of denture base resin


Article
The Effect Of Different Curing Times on The Hardness, Fracture Resistance And Color Change of Visible Light Cured Denture Base Resin

Authors: Mohammed M Sadoon
Pages: 66-70
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Aim: To evaluate the effect of the organic acid solution on color stability of the facing heat-cured acrylic resin. Materials and methods: Two heat-cured facing acrylic resins were used in this study. Sixty four rectangular shape specimens were prepared to evaluate the color changes of the heat-cured acrylic resin after immersion in three organic acids (acetic, citric and lactic acids). The specimens were divided into two groups according to tested resin materials, and then subdivided into four tested groups according to immersion solution, eight specimens for each subgroup. The assessment of color property (opacity) done by using ultra-violet visible spectrophotometer at wavelength 345 nm. Mean values were compared statistically with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan , s multiple range test to determine the significant difference among the tested groups at (p<0.05) level of significance. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference of the means value of the color change among the four tested groups for both tested materials for two different immersion periods,but there is no significant difference of color change between tested materials. Specimens immersed in acetic acid have a higher value than that immersed in other organic acids. Conclusion: The result of this study show that immersion in organic acids for different immersion periods had a significant effect on color stability of the facing heat-cured acrylic resin cured acrylic resin .


Article
The Bond Strength of the Bonded Bracket to Enamel Surface Treated with Acid and Microetcher

Authors: Hussain A Obaidi --- Muzahim H Hanna
Pages: 71-82
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Aims: To evaluate shear and tensile bond strengths of the bonded brackets to the enamel surfaces treated with acid and microetcher. Materials and methods: The sample include 30 intact extracted upper left first premolars, the teeth were collected from orthodontics clinic and private clinics. The sample was grouped into three groups (10 teeth for each group), which were: acid etched, microetched at 5mm distance, and microetched at 10mm distance.. Stainless steel brackets (Roth System) were bonded to the buccal enamel surfaces utilizing light cure composite (transbondTM XT) according to the manufacturer instructions. All the groups were thermocycled, the temperature range is 5 + 3 ºC to 50 + 3 ºC with a 30 seconds dwell time in each bath. The shear and tensile bond strengths of the bonded bracket were measured by using the shear and tensile Universal testing machine. The results were analyzed statistically; that include: Descriptive, ANOVA and Duncan’s testes at p≤ 0.05 significant level. Results: It was reveled that the shear and tensile bond strength values of the bonded brackets to enamel treated with the acid were greater significantly than that treated with microetcher. Conclusions: The acid agent is considered the most practical conditioner to the enamel to achieve strong shear and tensile bond strengths.

Keywords

Shear --- tensile --- acid etch --- microetcher


Article
An in Vitro Comparison of Root Canal Length Measurements in Primary Teeth

Authors: Aghareed Gh. Mohammed
Pages: 77-82
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Aims: The current study aims at comparing the accuracy of root canal lengths in primary teeth determined by tactile sense, conventional radiography and electronic apex locator(EAL) Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 30 extracted, single-rooted primary teeth . A comparison was conducted between the root canal length measurements obtained by tactile sensation ,conventional radiography and electronic apex locator (EAL), using the actual root canal length as a standardization to compare the above methods. Root canal length measurements were completed with size15-K file in actual-standard and measuring methods. The accuracy of the three systems to determine the root-canal length were evaluated by measuring the distance from the tip of the file to the apex. Results: Statistical results revealed that the EAL was the most accurate method of measurement with the lowest value of standard deviation (0.88±1.41) when compared with the remaining two methods, followed by the conventional radiography while the tactile sense method can be considered the least accurate one since, a significant difference at p<0.05 was founded between this method (15.80±2.71) from the actual root canal length (16.13±2.32) as well as when compared with the other two methods. Conclusions: The use of radiographs during pediatric therapy should be considered carefully. The diagnostic value is often limited and the exposure of children to X- rays should also be limited. Results from this study indicated that the sole use of tactile method is generally depreciated because of it's non reliability. An electronic apex locator method have been proved to be the technique of choice in determining the root canal length in primary teeth.


Article
The Effect of in-office Tooth Whitening on the Microhardness of Esthetic Restoration (An invitro Study).

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Aims: To determine if the composite resin restoration need to be replaced after power bleaching at
different times.Materials and methods: Three composite resins (a flowable, a conventional and
ceramic composite) were used for this study. Transparent discs with 2mm thickness with a hole of
5mm diameter were used for the production of composite samples, six samples were made for each
type of composite with a total of 18 samples were used. The bleaching procedure was followed on the
top surface of each sample. For each sample a newly fresh material were mixed (lase peroxide sensy
gel) and applied over the prepared sample. Bleaching took place for 15, 30 and 45 minutes according to
the manufacturer instructions. For the microhardness measurements, a Vickers microhardness tester
(Wolpert, Germany) was used, with a 200g load. Five microhardness measurements were obtained on
the top surface of each sample on the following time periods: before bleaching, after 15 min., after 30
min. and after 45 min. of bleaching. Data were analyzed using T-test, a value of p≤0.05 was considered
significant followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The results showed a significant
increase in the microhardness of all the three types of composite resins after bleaching with a different
time when compared to the control.Conclusion The bleaching agent that was tested has a significant
increase of the microhardness of the composite resins and there is no sufficient reason to indicate the
replacement of restorations.

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Article
Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer in Mosul City in 2005

Authors: Ayad H Al-Ramadhani --- Hadeel S Alazzawi
Pages: 90-93
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Aim: To evaluate oral cancer status in Mosul during 2005 that will help planning research, prevention,
and treatment measures. Materials and Methods: Data on oral cancer cases treated in Mosul city
hospitals during 2005 were collected. These cases included patients who were residents in Mosul city
only. The study covers the site, clinical presentation, histopathological, and methods of treatment of
fore mentioned malignancy. Results: Thirty one new cases diagnosed in Mosul hospitals were
included in this study. The Male to female ratio was 2.4:1. About 58% of patients were over sixty years
of age. The most common site affected the lip (22.6%). Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was
the most common representing 64.5% of cases examined. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes was
present in 74.2% of cases. Conclusion: In Mosul, oral cancer is rare. The cases of this study were
detected in advanced stages affecting the choice of therapy and making prognosis much worse

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Article
The Effect of Some Coating Materials on the amount of Leaching Monomer from Poly Methyl Methacrylate Denture Base

Authors: Monia MN Kandil --- Nadia T Jaffer
Pages: 94-104
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Aims: to evaluate the effect of three coating materials on the amount of residual monomer leaching from
acrylic resin denture base. Materials and methods: twenty specimens of a heat–cured acrylic resin denture
base were prepared at dimensions of 30 x 10 x 1.5 mm length, width and thickness; respectively. These
specimens were divided into four groups: control (in which the denture base left uncoated), monopoly
coated, grape seeds oil coated and olive oil coated groups. For monomer leaching analysis, each specimen
was put in a glass tube containing 10 ml of deionized water that was changed daily. Monomer levels were
measured by spectrophotometer at 254 nm, every 24 hour for 7 days analytic period. The results were expressed
as a percentage of leached monomer mass with respect to the weight of specimen. Results: statistical
analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the percentage of residual monomer leaching
in uncoated and monopoly coated groups; and insignificant difference in grape and olive oils coated
groups. However, there was a daily decrease in monomer leaching for all groups. Grape and olive oils
coated groups, showed lower leached residual monomer during the whole experimental period than the
uncoated and monopoly coated specimens, the daily reduction of monomer leaching was sharp in the uncoated
(control) and monopoly coated groups, and it was gradual and slow in oils coated groups. Conclusions:
the using of natural oils (grape and olive oils), was more beneficial in reduction of residual monomer
leaching, than the resin coating materials (monopoly) in comparison to uncoated acrylic resin denture base.
Key words: Acrylic resin denture base, monomer leaching, coating materials, monopoly, natural oils.

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Article
The Antimicrobial Effect of Honey as Intracanal Medicament (A Comparative Study)

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Aims: The current study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of honey as a root canal medicament,
and to make a sort of comparison with the currently used root canal medicament (formocresol).
Materials and Methods: Fifty two uniradicular teeth were chosen. Microbiological sample was
obtained from the root canal at the beginning of the first appointment, instrumentation and irrigation of
the root canal followed by good dryness for the root canal, application of intra canal medicament depending
on the patient group, temporary dressing for the tooth, the samples were then transferred for
microbiological study.At the beginning of the second appointment (2-3 days later), the tooth was isolated,
the temporary dressing was removed and the microbiological samples of the root canal contents
were taken and complete the same sequence in the same manner as previously mentioned with the first
appointment. The sample transferred for microbiological study .The same procedure was done at the
beginning of the third appointment (2-3 days later) from the second appointment, the microbiological
study was done in the Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Dental Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry,
University of Mousl. Results: Comparing the antimicrobial effect between solutions of honey,
formocresol, there is no significant differences between these materials when used as root canal medicament.
Conclusion: This current study revealed that (H4 20% V/V) honey solution has antimicrobial
effect when used as intracanal medicament.

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Article
Knowledge, Attitude and Health Behavior of Dental Students towards HIV Patients

Authors: Ghada D Al–Saygh --- Rayia J Al–Naimi
Pages: 110-119
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Aim: To investigate a group of Iraqi dental students knowledge about HIV infection, attitudes towards
treating HIV/AIDS patients and behavior practices. Materials and Methods: The study population
consisted of 220 dental students from University of Mosul, College of Dentistry who were treating
patients in the clinics of the College. The survey instrument was a self–administered questionnaire.
Results General and knowledge of the oral and other conditions related to AIDS patient was low, students
attitude towards treating HIV patient was low (167) refused to treat such patient with a highly
significant difference, most of the students (160) were willing to treat HBV (hepatitis B patient ) compared
to only 60 that agreed to treat HIV patient , (32.7%), of the student had experienced a needle
stick injury, (65.9%) of the students stated that an AIDS patient should be referred to a supporting
group to provide him with dental treatment. A significant difference in the number and percentage of
students that knew they needed to undertake precautionary measures in treating patients which was 213
compared to 7 students only. The three types of barrier technique during routine work was not undertaken
by any of the students, 213 students i.e. (96.4%) required more knowledge concerning infection
control, cross infection, modes of transmission of the disease. Conclusions: These findings clearly
highlights the importance of the teaching emphasis of dental educators on the disease, it is vital that
universal precautions also should be adopted through faculty policy and reinforced at an early level of
study, so that the barrier techniques become a protocol and a norm in their daily practices as clinicians.
Because of certain inadequacies in knowledge and infection control practices among respondents, a
curriculum focusing on the management of HIV/AIDS, including infection for all blood borne diseases
is recommended.

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Article
Evaluation of Dental Caries Prevalence among Kindergartens’ Children in Mosul City Center

Authors: Karam H Jazrawi
Pages: 120-130
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Aims: This study aims to determine dental caries prevalence and pattern in preschool children in Mosul City Center, and to evaluate caries according to d1–d3 criteria, which have not been widely adopted for caries diagnosis in the primary dentition. Materials and Methods: Examination was conducted on 762 preschool children aged 4–5 years old selected randomly from 20 kindergartens in Mosul City Center from different socioeconomic and education levels. Caries was recorded in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index, and the d1–d3 scale. The criteria for caries diagnosis included non–cavitated (d1 and d2)lesions and cavitated (d3) lesions.Results: Dental caries was recorded to be high (mean dmft for the total sample= 6.82), with only 16.87% of children were caries free. Distribution of caries (dt component) was slightly higher in the upper arch and the left side, with the second molars were recorded to be the most affected and the canines to be the least. The d1–d3 criteria of caries for the total sample clearly showed that d2 lesions were the most common (47.24%), followed by d3 and d1 lesions (33.33% and 19.43% espectively). Conclusions: The high rate of dental caries recorded in this study for this young age has strongly emphasized the necessity of community–based preventive programs and professional care that should begin in the early childhood life. Also, the benefits of d1–d3 diagnostic criteria cannot be neglected


Article
The Mechanical Properties of the Extra Hard Spring Arch Wire Subjected to the Artificial Saliva

Authors: Sarmad S Al–Qassar --- Hussain A Obaidi
Pages: 131-135
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Aims: To evaluate and compare the value of the mechanical properties of the extra hard spring stainless
steel arch wire immersed in artificial saliva. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 40
extra hard spring stainless steel arch wires (Remanium, 0.016″ × 0.016″, Dentarum, Germany) divided
into; control wires group and experimental group (ten wires for each group). The experimental group
was immersed in artificial saliva (PH 6.75+ 0.015) ) and incubated at 37 for one, two and four weeks
respectively. The curve of tensile strength for the control and experimental groups was performed using
the tensile testing machine. The mechanical properties of the arch wire have been derived. The results
were analyzed using the statistics of descriptive, Anova and Duncan’s Multiple Range Analysis
tests. Results: The results showed that the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, elastic
modulus, springiness (springback) ,elastic limit, plastic limit (ductility) of the extra spring hard stainless
steel arch wire significantly decrease as the immersion time in artificial saliva increase when compared
with the control group. Conclusions: It is recommended not utilize the extra spring hard stainless
steel arch wire for long periods during orthodontic treatments.

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Article
The Antimicrobial Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Olive Leaves as a Root Canal Irrigant.

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Aims: The study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of different concentrations of alcoholic
extract of Olive Leaves solution (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%) in an in vitro.It also to determines
the time required for the most effective concentration of Olive Leaves to start the effect in selected
microorganisms, and to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of most effective concentrations of alcoholic
extract of Olive Leaves solution in an in vivo study as a root canal irrigant. Materials and Methods:
The antimicrobial effect of Olive Leaves (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite,
and normal saline were determined in vitro by using broth microdilution method. The direct exposure
test was used to evaluate the time required for 0.8% of Olive Leaves to start their antimicrobial effect
on the selected microorganisms. In an in vivo study, 36 uniradicular teeth with necrotic pulps were
chosen. The patients were divided randomly into three groups, 12 patients for each group as in the
following: Group I: alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves at 0.8%. Group II: sodium hypochlorite solution
at 2.5% as a positive control. Group III: normal saline as a negative control. Bacteriological samples
were obtained from the canal at the beginning of the first appointment; at the beginning of the second
appointment; at the end of the second appointment; at the beginning of the third appointment using
sterile wet paper point. Results: The Results showed that Olive Leaves at (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%),
and sodium hypochlorite had a significant antimicrobial effect against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
recovered from teeth with necrotic pulps. While the normal saline and 0.1% Olive Leaves had no
significant antimicrobial effect. As for Olive Leaves exract. The best antimicrobial effect was noticed
at 0.8%, which showed a significant difference from other concentrations of Olive Leaves,but no
significant difference from that of sodium hypochlorite. The results of this test showed that 2.5%
sodium hypochlorite and 0.8% Olive Leaves had immediate effect on all selected microorganisms. The
results revealed that 0.8% alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves solution had a significant antimicrobial
effect when utilized clinically as an endodontic irrigant, which was not significantly differ from sodium
hypochlorite but significantly different from normal saline. Conclusions: Olive Leaves alcoholic
extract solution at 0.8% was an effective antimicrobial agent when used as an irrigant in endodontic
treatment of teeth with necrotic pulps.

Keywords


Article
The Skeletal and Soft Tissue Facial Profile in Adolescent and Adult

Authors: Saba H Al-Zubaidi
Pages: 149-155
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Aims: To evaluate the norms for several cephalometric soft tissue measurements and to investigate
differences in the mean values of these measurement between two age groups (11–14 and 18–25) and
between two gender. Materials and Methods: The adolescent sample consists from 30 subjects (15 for
each gender) with age range from 11 –14 years. The adult sample consists from 30 subjects (15 for
each gender) with age range 18–25 years. The two groups satisfying the criteria of balance facial profile,
class I molar relation ship and normal over bite–over jet relation ship. Ten skeletal and soft tissue
measurements were obtained from tracing lateral cephalometric radiograph. The data was analyzed
using descriptive statistic and student t– test. Results: During adolescence, no significant differences
were found between males and females. During adulthood, the males having higher values for all measurements
(except nasolabial and mentolabial angles) but statistically not significant. From adolescent
to adult males, the angles of facial convexity, Z– angle in addition to lower lip length and nasal depth
are significantly different with the adult male having the higher value. For females, the lower lip length
and nasal depth significantly higher in the adult period. Conclusions: The adult males having relatively
straighter facial profile. In addition, Z– angle also greater in the adult males than during adolescence.
For both genders, the nasal depth and the vertical height of lower lip were significantly greater in
adults.

Keywords

Table of content: volume:9 issue:1