Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume: issue:203

Article
قراءة في ملفة الدكتور حسين أمين الشخصية عطاء علمي ثر ما بعد التقاعد الوظيفي 1978- 2009

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Abstract Professor Dr. Hussein Ameen is of the symbols of Iraqi Mistoric School who derifer himself to the study of Arabic Islamic history heritage and civilization. So he produced many srudies, research papers and had a number of participation, coaferences and different scientific seminaes inside and outside Iraq. This study sheds some light on his scirntific and intellectual activities after his retirement from 1978-2009.

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Article
Models of Generative Grammar

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The publication of the Chomsky’s Syntactic Structure in 1957 introduced the theory of Generative Grammar. It marked the start of a great revolution in Linguistics. Generative grammar refers to a particular approach to the study of syntax. It is an explicit description of the ideal speaker – hearers intuition. The theory centers on a very simple but essential observation (the native speaker of any language is able to produce and understand utterances he has never heard before).It attempts to give a set of rules that will correctly predict which combinations of words will form grammatical sentences. Generative Grammar aims at describing the native speaker's tacit grammatical knowledge, which reflects his infinite productive capacity, by a system of rules that specify all of the well-formed or grammatical, sentences of a language . The hypothesis of generative grammar is that, language is a structure of the human mind. Its goal is to make a complete model of this inner language Chomsky has argued that the properties of a generative grammar arise from an "innate" universal grammar, it could be used to describe all human languages. Chomsky believed that there would be considerable similarities between languages' deep structures, and that these structures would reveal properties, common to all languages, which were concealed by their surface structures. Generative Grammar, since its inception in 1950s, has been constantly and dynamically developing and has had a profound influence on linguistics. Its tremendous affects are still being worked out. Chomsky himself and so many linguists throughout the world have been contributing in these developments. It has undergone numerous revisions.

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Article
Women’s Friendship in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple
صداقة النساء في رواية اللون البنفسجي لآلس ووكر

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Alice Malsenior Walker is an African-American novelist, poet, short story writer, essayist, biographer, and activist. She writes at length on the social issues of race and gender, and is most known for her famous novel The Color Purple, for which she wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. The aim of this paper is to examine women friendship and to trace the effect of friendship among the characters in the novel.

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Article
آفاق الحداثة في فكر الإمام محمد باقر الصدر

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I Started my research with an introduction in which I Shade the light on the Scientific character of the Islamic thinker Muhammed Bakir Al-sadr which involved many aspects of creations and renewing meanings in the different fields of the human and Islamic knowledge . I divided this study in three researches : The first research : I Shade the light on the meaning of modernism in Language and tradition, and these definitions reached me to aresult that the western modernism is proportiond while the Quranic Modernism is absulute and continuous. The Second research : I dealt with the openion of the Islamic thinker Muhammed Baker Al- Sadr in " Modernism" and its concepts, and mentiond the great difference between the positive modernism that depends the human source, and the Islamic Modernism that depends the divine source. The third research : then I shade the light on the samples of Modernism in the thought of the Islamic thinker Muhammed Bakir Al- Sadr, Idealt with five practical Samples: Modernism in the science of Osul, Modernism in the Tafseer of the holly Quran, Modernism in his analysis for the economic doctrine in Islam, Modernism in his analysis of the events of Islamic history, and at last modernism in the asp

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Article
An Acoustic Phonetic Study of Close Juncture
دراسة فيزيائية صوتية للوقف المغلق

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The theoretical and acoustic approach of this research has reached the following conclusions: -Close juncture has a reality that can be described in physical terms. -Junctural phenomena are differences in the grouping of phonemes into syllables. -Juncture is remarkably correlated with word boundaries. -The correlation of juncture with morpheme boundaries is determined by the coincidence of word boundaries with morpheme boundaries. - There is a potential juncture at word boundaries which may not be realized when uttering the sequence of sounds. -When there is no phonetic manifestation present, we can say that there is no juncture. -A given ordered set of phonemes may constitute a bounded sequence. -Each bounded sequence starts and ends with a marginal allophone. -Within the hierarchical phonological structure of the language, the bounded sequence appears as a higher- level unit than the phoneme. -A distribution of a sequence of segmental phonemes between different bounded sequences is possible when the phoneme sequence in question may occur as final and initial sounds as the acoustic analysis of the pair night-rate and nitrate shows; where a medial allophone of l t l in night-rate and in nitrate, the medial allophone of l aI l is followed by the initial allophone of l tr l. -The acoustic analysis shows that some pairs like aboard and a broad are not differentiated phonetically, although they are different morphologically and lexically as both contain a sequence of a non- final allophone l l followed by an initial allophone of l b l. -To determine whether a juncture has occurred, two factors must be taken into consideration; the nature of the segmental allophones and the intensity and duration pattern of phonemes. -Initial voiced stops are considerably longer than initial voiceless stops and the voicing within the voiced stop decreases before the plosive release. -Initial allophones of fricatives are longer than medial allophones and the intensity within the production of an initial allophone of a continuant increases and it decreases during a final allophone. -Initial allophones of nasals are usually longer than medial ones and the length of the final nasal depends on the occurrence of a vowel ,i.e. the nasal is longer after a short vowel. -Initial l w l is voiced and it is devoiced when it follows an initial stop because of aspiration. -When l l l occurs medially, it resembles a medial l n l in intensity and duration. -There is a kind of lengthening concerning final vowels which decays gradually in energy.

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Article
Alemalah Obstacles
موانـــــــــــــــع الإمالـــــــــــــة

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After an analytical and accurate study in the obstacles of Alemalah، the researcher found that the Arab speech is far from the use of Alemalah. While the language of Alhijazeen is called (Alfatah and Alnasb)، the language of Najed is considered as a language of Alemalah and also called Alkasr، Albatah، and Aledhja'a. It divided into two kinds: 1- Alemalah of a letter to letter that is Alemalah of Alalf towards Alya’a if Alya’a is static and is preceded by opened. Accordingly، if it is veered towards Alya’a، it would veer towards Alfatah to Alkasr. 2- Alemalah of Alfatah to Alkasr if it does not follow by Alalf. The purpose of using Alemalah among Arab is for parataxis، proportionality، and the participation between the voices in order to make alacrity.It is a vocal method within Arab speech. The three letters of Alemalah are: Alalf، Alra'a، and Ha'a Altaeneeth. It has been called like that because of the use of these three letters. Arab grammarians indicated some reasons which stand behind the use of Alemalah and most of them mentioned to six reasons. Moreover، they indicated some obstacles which prevent these reasons based on eight conditions. These conditions are the seven letter of supereminence (Alta'a، alda'a، Aldhad، Alssad، Alkha'a، lexicographical Ghein، Alqaaf، and Alra'a which are not maqsura. Finally، Alemalah will not involve if it has prevented by origin as it indicated throughout the research.

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Article
Misogyny in Strindberg's Comrades

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This study aims to explore the concept of misogyny in August Strindberg's play Comrades. Comrades is a play that is bearing a satirical title. It is a comedy about marriage in a situation similar to that in Strindberg's most famous play The Father; husband and wife are shown in a sharper antithesis of character; a man of pure character and ability foiled by a woman who in all respects is his inferior, yet arrogantly determined to dominate him.

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Article
A Pragmatic Analysis of Polite Forms in English and Arabic A Contrastive Study

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This study aims to make a pragmatic analysis of some selected polite forms in English and Arabic. The data for the study consist of a number of exchange unites of discourse which have similar functions in the two languages. The framework for analysis takes into account the model presented by Brown and Levinson (1987). It is noted that English deferential behavior adheres to Brown and Levinson’s model of politeness whereas Arabic deferential behavior does not seem to adhere to this model. The results show that both English and Arabic speakers use a combination of politeness strategies to defer to hearers, but the difference lies in the fact that formal and informal situations and kind of relationships play a great role in the British interaction system, whereas no such role is evident in the Arabic interaction system.

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Article
D. Abdul Ilah Ahmed and approaching modernist (BOOK of fiction in Iraq in the fate of cash)
د.عبد الإله أحمد والمقترب الحداثي (كتاب الأدب القصصي في العراق في مآل النقد)

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The aim of this study stand on the fact that the cash position of Professor Dr. Abdul Ilah Ahmed of approaches to monetary modernist, which had flowed into us in the seventies and early eighties of the second millennium by shining a light on the critical approach which Artzmh for himself in the Closed marked (fiction in Iraq since the Second World War intellectual trends and values of art). With regard to how near or after the critic Abdul Ilah Ahmed for these approaches, we can say that he was distancing himself mostly fought; pretext that these statements and concepts monetary modernist must be taken of its assets to had announced through translation, in which he thinks can not be relied upon often.

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Article
Binary Opposition in Robert Frost’s Poetry A Structuralist Reading Strategy
المتناقضات الثنائية في شعر روبرت فروست دراسة بنيوية

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The emergence of literary structuralism during the second half of the twentieth century was so influential, as far as literary studies are concerned. It leads to the development of various analytical, systematic approaches; the most important of these approaches is the thematic binary opposition that can be seen as a system of differences between opposing ideas that feed each other in a cultural framework. Binary opposition is concerned with the way that meaning is interpreted. In this study, the thematic binary opposition is used to explain why some of the themes of Robert Frost (1874-1963) are described as being dualistic. To do so, the study discusses two poems related to two different periods and volumes. These poems are “Mending Wall,” and “Desert Places.” Each one has its own theme that represents an opposite to the theme of the other poem. The juxtaposition of these two antonymous themes might be helpful in explaining the contradictions in the literary life of the poet.


Article
The land, the Mother, and the Crisis of Identity in Louise Erdrich's Tracks
الأرض, الأم, وأزمة الهوية في رواية لويس أردرج

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The research discusses the relationship between the loss of the native land of the native Americans and the loss of the values of motherhood represented by the character of Fleur, the heroine of Tracks .The loss of her rich land of timber and other valuable herbs which is considered as a source of personal pride as well as a source of food as a result of the unjust laws of the government of the United States, forces Fleur to abandon her only child believing that her loss of homeland is a loss of all the other values especially ,motherhood which is connected with the land. The fracture which happens in the relationship of motherchild results in a cultural alienation especially on the part of the child who begins to scorn and hate her mother and refuses to call her “mother”. A lot of native children become like this child because they have lost the natural connections with their mothers which results in a great change in the real, traditional meaning of “motherhood”, as a result this generation have lost part of its cultural and social heritage and begun to live in a state of alienation or no belonging.

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Article
Altbara hair Mutanabi (d. 354 AH)
التصريع في شعر المتنبي (ت 354هـ) « دراسة تحليلية »

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The research deals with the phenomenon of its effectiveness in upholding the voice side of the early poetry, has taken Al-Mutanabbi hair (d. 354 AH) as a model. This technique musical types meant study Btfeselha It is based upon the division (Ibn Al Atheer d. 637 AH) in his book (ideals stepper in literature writer and poet), types collected itself in the Study entitled: (types Altbara in Al-Mutanabi hair) and after sealing section study, Go to the search treating this phenomenon They come in misplaced in the verses than the first house of the text, carries the title: (internal Altbara in Mutanabi hair). And what was Altbara expire on generating internal rhythm deliberately to study the potential is combined with other rhythmic phenomena accompanied, and contributed to strengthening the voice harmony in the Study entitled (Altbara and effectiveness rhythmic Al-Mutanabi hair). And has previously been treated pave ensure study lesson concept Altbara in language and literature, and Conclusion The results were presented, then the list of approved sources and references.

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Article
The Comic Elements in William Faulkner's The Reivers

Authors: Inst. Dr. Saffeen Nu'man Arif
Pages: 113-126
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Undoubtedly, the American novelist William Faulkner (1897-1962) occupies a unique position, among other American literary figures, as one of the pioneers of modern American novel. For decades, the works of Faulkner have inspired as many attempts by critics to study, analyze, and evaluate them as the number of potential interpretations that studying each work may still yield. As Faulkner's novels, like any other literary work, can be viewed from different angles or perspectives, the goal of this paper is to shed some light on one of the readings of his last novel, The Reivers (1962), as a comedy whose purpose is to ridicule the manners and follies of certain classes in Faulkner's native land, namely, the American Deep South. It also attempts to show Faulkner's masterful approach of his topic and his capacity to handle it in such a way as to convey his vision, which indeed has to do with his favorite subject; that is, the human heart and its problems.

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Article
بناء برنامج للغة الانكليزية لإغراض خاصة لطلبة العراقيين في كليات التربية الرياضية

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The research is an attempt to construct an ESP programme for students at College of Physical Education. The proposed programme is supposed to help the students to practice English through vocabulary and dictation by using pictures and spaces to write and clean the words which give the students more interest and some autonomy to practice English. To fulfill the aim of the research written test is applied to identify the weakness of the students also a closed questionnaire is adopted to collect the information of students’ needs according to Nunan’s model (1985). The questionnaire has adopted (100) students’ need from second year stage at College of Physical Education for Women at the academic year 2010-2011.The programme has applied from 1/12/2010-1/1/2011. Finally, the last version of the programme has modified and changed as a result of applying it. Colleges of Physical Education have recommended to use this programme for developing vocabulary and dictation skills in teaching English.

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Article
Summary of the research: In the ame of Allah most gracious most merciful
الأحكام التي يخالف الأعمى فيها البصير

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This research is in the ruling which the blind differs from the unblind. It consists of twenty of jurisprudential case stating in writing them the four famous ideology and others, if there were a difference, to reason out for each ideology probable what the evidence support. Arrange these cases on arrangement of the Book of "MenhajAltalbeen" for Yahia Ben SharafAlddeenAlnawawi. First case is in puirtyin diligence of the blind in utensils which some of them consisting of pure water and others which consisting of impure water. Ben Hanbel no diligence in the utensils for blind and unblind. The second to the eighth are related to prayer and pilgrimage, the second is the performance of the blind for ''Adan'' for the prayer,the third is in his trying in the direction, the fourth is in his Imam in prayer, the fifth is in the matter of the prayer of Juma'a on him, the sixth is in washing of the blind for the dead, the seventh is in the matter of his performance of Alms, the eighth is in the matter of pilgrimage on him, if he cannot get a guide, the ninth is in the sale and purchase of the blind, tenth is in the custody of the blind on others, eleventh is in the matterof the marry of the blind to other, twelfth is in the matter of punishment the sound eye with the blind eye, thirteenth is no necessity of jihad on the blind, fourteenth is his disable in undertaking succession, fifteenth is in permissibility of undertaking of judiciary, sixteenth is in the matter of his witness, seventeenth is in the matter of tribute on the blind, eighteenth is in the matter of cleverness of the blind, nineteenth is in the hunting of the blind, and the twenty case is in the liberation of the blind instead of the atonement.

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Article
О ПОНЯТИИ УСТАРЕВШЕЙ ЛЕКСИКИ В РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
حول مفهوم المفردات القديمة في اللغة الروسية

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Русский литературный язык к исходу XIX века - началу XX века приобрел все качества достаточно нормализованного, многожанрового и стилистически многообразного, то есть стилистически свободного языка. В нем наблюдается большая дробность социально-речевых разновидностей: мещанская, купеческая, городская, диалектная, церковно-славянская. Все эти разновидности речи присутствуют на страницах книг А.П. Чехова. Все лексически устаревшие слова распадаются на две большие группы: 1. Лексические историзмы. 2. Лексические архаизмы.

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the tone of the tribe Kinana - linguistic study –
لهجة قبيلة كنانة « دراسة لغوية »

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Kenana of nomadic tribes, which it took linguists language, as mentioned Farabi T. (339) e, within tribes eloquent when he said: ((and hardest Tohacha and staleness and them away pliable and Ankieda are measured and Tamim and lion then Havel and some Kenana and some Dima)) (), wanted this eloquent tongues, far from the melody and العجمة to say, so take them Arab tongue. As well as that of the study of ancient Arabic dialects, enables a researcher of phenomena Allahjah response to contemporary ancient Arab tribes that belong to it, so that contemporary dialects are merely an extension neighborhood of ancient Arabic dialects. Which proves Kenana feet in classical Arabic, is that they had the privilege of having a Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) to the noble. So the whole chosen (tone tribe Kinana) to be the subject of my research, I have found that straightening search requires dividing the boot three sections: (boot): the definition of tribe Kinana and lineage, and Vsaanha, and the pride of the Prophet (peace be upon him) affiliation to, and status Social. (Section I): A view of the level of voice, and included (Section II): morphological level, and either (Section III): was the presentation of the level of grammar, topping study Introduction, Takhtmha conclusion included the findings of research t

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השפעת שנויההפסק בחלוקת ההטעמה על החלוקה הפסוקית במשפט המקראי בין מערכת הנקוד הבבלית לבין מערכת הנקוד הטברנית
اثر اختلاف الوقف في تقسيم النبر على التوزيع المقطعي في الجملة التوراتية بين نظام الصوت البابلي ونظام الصوت الطبراني

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משפטי דיבור- ותפישה מורכבים מפסוקית דיבור,תפישה הכוללת פועל- תפישה ומשלימיו ומפסוקית תוכן משלימה . בחלוקה על פי רכיבים מיידיים, יש לצפות כי החלוקה תפריד בין פסוקית הדיבור-תפישה ,ובין פסוקית התוכן בשלומתה . אולם כחלוקת פסוקים(1) כאשר פסוקית התוכן המשלימה היא מאוחה או מורכבת ,לעתים קרובות מצרפת חלוקת הטעמים במערכת הטברנית את החלק הראשון של פסוקית התוכן המשלימה אל פסוקית הדבור-תפישה , ומפרידה בינם ובין המשכת פסוקית התוכן(2). כאשר הפסוקית המשלימה היא פשוטה,יש לרוב זהות בין חלוקת הטעמים ובין החלוקה על פי רכיבים מיידיים(3)

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Aspects of Racism in August Wilson,s The Piano Lesson
جوانب التمييز العنصري في مسرحية أوجست ويلسن: درس البيانو - بحث مستل

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This paper discusses the African American playwright August Wilson's play The Piano Lesson the incidents of which take place in the dramatist's birth city .The play tackles the the history and culture of African Americans in America.It also shows the suffering of the blacks' families under the oppression of racial discrimination in the United States.

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صـورة المصـلوب في الشعر العباسي بـيـن الفانتازيا والحقيقة

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Crucified was not known in the Arab ,the first is the pharaoh who knew him , screens of the Israel ,who not believe in his religion . The image of the crucified ugly image what is going in person of physical situation such as runny alsidi of his body , his lips omt . The cautions poets to this picture and looked at them through some of this perspective came in the ugly image of the same healing of the beholder as he has been through the experience is a happy . There are those who have been through the experience is painful because he loved this person and the pain ,poet expressing psychological distress and this happened in the famous poem Anbari ,known that the minister was crucified fantasy has gone through several stages is set for its beauty and various other images and concluded from the results of research: poet have used different methods ,they tried the parts image of the crucified to the attention of the recipient for this image that generate a variety of sense when he see.

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التَّدَاْخُلُ الصَّرْفِيُّ

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The ratio of overlap between morphological concerned who meet in some individuals, and get separated from each other in personnel own, people between the meaning of the source, and the meaning of the Assembly. And interferes two types Abvian who are you two morphological overlap ratio, so the intervention of some members of the first category in the second class, and the intervention of some members of the second class in the first category. The morphological features overlap ratio of the morphological contrast ratio, and the proportion of Commons that it is among the morphological morphological varieties only, and can not be located between the morphological examples. The images overlap due to morphological the morphological contrast ratio, or due to the proportion of Commons morphological; so do not depend on the proportion of overlapping morphological differentiation between morphological examples, but to differentiate between morphological varieties only. The semantic overlap morphological classification, based on the classification of morphological varieties according to morphological signs that indicate, on the basis of to the Semantic morphological structure, and disclosure of meeting places, and places of separation. The morphological overlap fact morphological jurisdiction, so that specializes every morphological Used formula him about the significance of the meaning of morphological, is not shared in the full significance post any other banking formula. On the basis of this competence is semantic classification, so that overlap morphological varieties in many pictures. Without jurisdiction morphological morphological classification was nominally interventional Tagged. The designees relied on morphological overlap in revenue morphological examples, if someone wanted to represent to do more, for example, do not care whether the past or present act or do something, do not care if it was built for an active or based effect.

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تمـَّام حسـَّان في معيـار النقـد اللسانيّ

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the arguments of Dr. Tamam Hassan had reduced linguistic knowledge areas, which sometimes was a subject to acceptance and subject to criticism at the other times, These proposals consider it the standard of questioning and reasoning has been confronted by a range of views which formed an incubator set out research in tracking critical views recorded on the theory of language of Hassan critical attempts came mixed with inferences based on premises owners to cognitive. It was not usually to the research to follow the criticism to the work of Hassan as it was than stand on the pillars of the reservations concerning this and try to reach the doorstep

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لمحات من فكر (هاشم طه شلاش) اللغوي

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General view from think:(hasham taha shalash) linguistics. In this introduction reason choose the search to pave in this life history general life (hasham taha shalash) themes are five: first one: it was meter measures verbs it's meaning in: (hasham taha shalash) second have in ensuring letter held evidence for. (ibn Whusham AL anssary). In third have view in book dictionary kadssia (in languge and sciences and subjects). In fourth I explain this says about doctors letter in title (AL zubady) in his book methodical that his (Grown ). The last one it was about. The methodical book that produce (hasham taha shalash) was (well – mannered in dispose of scithr's after that (termination) was aresults General view from think (hasham taha shalash) linguistics

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تغيير الألفاظ وأثره في الحكم الشرعي (دراسة مقارنة)

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Abstract for the following research((The change in Expressions and their Effect on egitimate Rule))Thanke for Al-Mighty God and the best prayers for our master Muhammad, the messanger of mercy, and for all his companions after my searching in ((The change in Expressions and their Effed on the legitimate rule )) and after offering this subject, I can present the summary for its important items: - The change in the expression cannot affect the rule because the dependenc is on the meaning and intention so , the rule will be the same even if the expression is varied . - The prohibition of usury regardiess of carrying the name of rete or bank payments - The prohibition of bribery even if it is named as a gift . the receiver of bribery is damned according to our prophet s saying .

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التفاعل النصّي مع القرآن الكريم في خطبة السيدة الزهراء( عليها السلام )

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this study seeks to monitor trends in the interaction with Nasusi the Holy Quran in a speech by Ms. Zahra peace, and stand on thesignificance of the new production mechanisms and direct, and determine the properties of this interaction Nasusi with the Koran. The first trend: representing the interaction of the structural states ofthe Qur'an The second trend: Nasusi singled to interact with the Koranic words The third trend: Treat Nasusi interaction with the characters Quranic A fourth trend: a Nasusi in the interaction with the Qur'anic ideas. But to be preceded by a very useful, but need study, we dealt with the conceptof theterm and rooting historical knowledge and his criticswhen Arabs and Westerners, as well as highlighting the problems ofthis term, multi-Mvhomath and itsimplications in modern criticalstudies. We finished the study and the conclusion we recorded the most important results of research it, and a list of references and sourcesthat have benefited from the study, as well as the summary in English.

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الاختيارات الفقهية للإمام الرومي في فقه الأسرة والمعاملات المالية دراسة مقارنة

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1- Imam Al-Roomy is regarded as one of the renowned scholars who lived with the Umayyad caliphate and some of the Abbasid in the rule of Abu Jafaar (136-158 A.H.) 2- Efficient is regarded on the side of men not women because it is recommendable for the meaning of marriage. 3- The dowry of women is feasible in all the money much or few. 4- Those who prohibit the temporary marriage or muta'a are the groups of scholars including imam Al-roomy. 5- There is no disagreement among the scholars that those who refute to support their wives before 4 months. 6- The husband should not take more than the dowry he has given in separation. 7- The testimony on sale has an importance for being the nearest for clash and the more distanced for the ingratitude. Therefore, some scholars say that it is a must. 8- The contractors condone the selling in the section of "selling" unless some change occurs. 9- It is not allowed to sell loyalty or a gift for the prohibition of Mohammed (PBUH) because the gift is a contract. 10- The buyer could postpone the price to a definite time. When the agent is attributable to the agent to delay.

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أساليب الأداء البياني والبديعي في شعر مجنون ليلى

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After these leaflets, which I hope that I have surrounded aspects Find all say that the poet was Mkthera from Budaiya, both verbal and moral Maybe he found the outlet for Bouh everything joins it after the abandonment and that's what trailed examples which we published during search as we can say that the research concluded Results the most important are: - 1. More than use tools CAF and if the analogy and are most common in his office has used the analogy-based sender Male tool 2. Hired one type of the many kinds of metaphors which tools which are based on delete Almhbh and keep everything related 3. Mixing between stylistic analogy and metaphor in most of his methods Alknaúah 4. More than the use of verbal repetition and style because of its technical impact and defended myself to declare itself this fact and was a repetition of the tool and the word and phrase common sentence for him. 5. More than use Alibdieih methods because of their impact in enriching verses sing love music Court Leila. 6. Poet interaction with his environment led him to use the images inspired by his environment

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موسيقى النص الشعري لصور الثبات والمواجهة الإيجابية للحرب في الشعر الجاهلي

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Literature Abstract Perhaps the war was one of the most social issues faced by the poets intention and the power of the will and that the poet has shown his ability and persistence of the war through pride himself or through his dialogue with Aazlth or with the woman he said through his strength and hardness in the war as well as the willingness of horse Musbandhwalta is a mirror reflecting the Haaroukd coincided clips consistency in Aharbaaly that does not have the sea long center Alsaddarhozlk for its ability to follow – up minutes the picture and absorbed , Vataiwal field poet , the real show in which technical capacity , and the poet in the case of stability in the war intentionally rhymes that reduce the severity of printing and make it in the case of calm and surrender to something far from the bustle and excitement .

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دلالة اللون في الشعر النسوي العراقي المعاصر

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The world of colours is considered to be the nearest world to the woman (poetess); who touched through her creativity of expression what might fill her passionate senses with emotions. Therefore, she is connected to the symbolism of the colours psychologically. That is why she is able to paint poetic senses comprehending her colourful suffering with personal and general issues.Her coloured lines revealed the tenderness of the Iraqi poetess and her beautiful dealing with colours and its significance, especially green and red which are the nearest colours emotionally to the current Iraqi poetess in handling sentimental matters.

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اثر اللغة العربية في اسهامات اليهود والنصارى في الاندلس أثناء عهدي الخلافة والطوائف (دراسة تاريخية)

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This study explores the importance of Arabic language and the extent of its influence in the land of Andalusia, especially as this effect has been focused largely on the activity of scientists from the dhimmi Jews and Christians in various areas of social, political and economic life. It seems that the great effect of this language was obvious and cannot be ignored, where it was the means by which surpassed its impact on all communities have competed all languages that existed in Andalusia and thus reflected appositive impact on the production of scientific knowledge and scientists when the people of disclosure, particularly in the field of translation and synthesis as well as the field of literature and poetry. Also cannot forget that they fully realized that there is no way to upgrade the managerial positions, unless learn and master the language sciences, therefore it is a great way to get closer and intelligent of their rulers. So quick and in a manner beyond perceptions of mastery to achieve through their aspirations of self.

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الخدمات العامة في الأندلس (92 - 316هـ )/(709- 929م)

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This study is primarily cultural study was designed to highlight an important aspect may be enjoyed by the Arab-Islamic civilization in the land of Andalusia, an aspect of public services witnessed by the country under Islamic Arab rule has helped us reach this study was to group the results, including: 1. It seemed to the attention of Muslims Pajuanb service since the Islamic conquest of Andalusia represented by Pauli features of the cities of the Islamic mosques are open to experiencing other aspects later Kalguenatr and fences. 2. You have received this aspect carefully governors appointed by the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus, and that was a period of governors period of wars and battles to open other parts of Europe, especially France, Aln attention to the service, and on I said banker explains that jihad by the governors had the owner to do some business service to the community. 3. The services in the land of Andalusia has been characterized certain aspects of which were of the nature of the political situation and social impact on the attention of the governors and princes of, and those aspects of interest in the field of immunization for the cities of Andalusia different and that although the nature defensive Alaanha served population in the area is very important which is to provide safety for them. 4. We have the most prominent research show that services were not confined to aspects of urban but also included other aspects of no less importance than other services, we mean by social services that was religious services, which included taking into account the circumstances and conditions of the parish by contributing to the interdependence of material and moral support by the state or between members society. 5. It was to enter Abdul Rahman home to Andalusia importance in terms of the change that happened to Andalusia as it became the Emirate of independence from the Abbasid Caliphate in the East, and this has had a major impact in the physical movement witnessed by the country of Andalusia and especially Cordoba, which became the capital of the Umayyad dynasty in Andalusia. 6. side is regulated by some state agencies, including the control, which was supervised by the injury is important in maintaining the rights and duties of the parish in the health aspects of service, whether or control the public interest, especially the markets. 7. have passed Andalusia many famines which were the most important causes of natural factors and this certainly affected the population as he had delivered to the State how to deal with this disaster and this Maibrzh Search by standing on the role of the power of the governors and princes in how to deal with these circumstances and try to overcome through the provision of food or famine task time distribution of funds to aid those in need at the time of price rises and other necessities.

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مجلس القضاء في العهد العباسي

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The judiciary is the shape and the true and Friendship, which is measured by the development of nations, being a corner is important of the pillars of the state in the establishment and application of justice and equality among the people ,Also The Judicial Council is the meaning and manifestations of that image , through its components remarkable individuals , substance and faith of lord and dignity mundane , All together hare given the consistency vision between Justice of God Almighty and the need of creatures , Then Islam overflow from the spring of goodness and legislated the security of safety on individuals .

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الحســين بن أحمــد بن محمــد الســلامي المتوفى بعد سنة (344هـ -955م)

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Baihaq is considered one of the most important and salient cities in Khurassan in general and Naisabour in particular .It covers a quarter of the total area of Naisabour .This city had witnessed an outstanding cultural activity throughout the Islamic world.Baihaq had been well-open to other societies which made it a source of science and knowledge .Such a feature had attracted enormous number of famous thinkers, scholars, and writers from different fields of knowledge .Other scholars had received and pursued their education and became best guides to other people in their fields of sciences .One of such scholars is Abu Ali Al-Hussein Al-Salami who was one of the prominent figures of Khurassan in general and Naisabour in particular in being a unique scholar in knowledge and literature .He possessed a humble personality whose contributions had enriched the field of knowledge which were got benefitted by many students .He was educated under several teachers and many students had been educated under his supervision. His scientific classifications had a clear denotation of his skillfulness and a source of many historians and scholars .

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مدينة مشكان سابير دراسة في الموقع والطبيعة السياسية والأدوار الحضارية

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It was and still the kernel city in Mesopotamia which, arounded about it many of socioeconomic activity in Iraq Civilization, and if there are Cities like (ur, Aredo, Lakash, Babylon and Ashur), knowing creation as acapital For kingdoun and ancient imperial, Thnere are another cities, although not capi lals or pokitical or militarism cultural but they are play agreat diplomatic and economically role in the ancieut history oF Irag, like ( AlDear, Meshan , lark , moat Baal , and Mushkan sabeery). Mshkan City regards one of these for gotten cities, while this searcrh tries to follow the in fluence of the role which this city play it, since wen in formed the third thousandth Bc. About the diplomatic, militarism , religious and sociability uniforms.

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دور منظمات المجتمع المدني في تعزيز البناء الديمقراطي في العراق

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The concept of civil society is one of the relatively modern concepts which emerged clearly on the politics and social sciences, especially in European countries with the beginning of the eighties of the last century as the most important mechanisms and modern methods that govern the relationship between the state and society according to the democratic system based on the basis respect, tolerance and cooperation, renounce violence and social exclusion and marginalization and political between the state and society. The importance of this research by approaching the most important foundations of the contemporary state-building in Iraq after 2003, a trilogy (civil society, democracy, human rights), and these main themes, which have become indispensable today in countries progress and its growth . The importance of the research hypothesis is (democratic progress and the process of building civil society are interrelated, and cannot be any of them to succeed without the other, because there is not a real democracy without a strong civil society and effectively), is therefore the most important functions of democracy in Iraq at a present time are working to establish the rules of sober civil society within Iraqi society.

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الفلسفة النقدية لكانط طبيعتها وتطبيقاتها

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This paper deals with "critical philosophy" of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804), the criticism of metaphysical knowledge problems three: God, self, world, in his book "Critique of pure reason." Kant said in his philosophy on rational knowledge and experimental, and use the mind to find a "scientific metaphysics" instead of traditional metaphysics. The critique of the metaphysics of ethics in line with the tendency of mental philosophy. He disagree with the idea of the old theories of good and happiness, and stressed the idea of "duty", and thus have revolutionized the field of ethics. Explained his ideas of moral in his book "Critique of Practical Reason." Circle is not complete only when cash has aesthetic judgment criticism in his book "Cash Queen of governance", Kant wanted to subject monetary judgment for the beauty of the principles of mentality, and also access to the status of the aesthetic judgment of science. Aesthetic sense and have no a priori, and it depends on the rule of harmony between perception and imagination, and it produces a sense of pleasure. The critical approach taken by Kant has had a significant impact on the philosophy to this day.

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الكوارث الطبيعية والوبائية والظواهر الفلكية في العراق من خلال كتاب المنتظم لابن الجوزي 512هـ/1118م - 574هـ/1178م

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Was the Abbasid state in ages late to natural events affected big on them and on society, from flooding due to the increase of the Tigris and Euphrates, exposing crops to damage and destruction as well as the destruction of homes and displaced people, as well as the loss of furniture and belongings, and this led to the occurrence of diseases and epidemics lethal, as well as the devastating earthquakes which have a considerable damage, as well as storm winds that devastated the people and there have been various types of diseases and was the most deadly plague, which led to the death of people in large numbers, including the death houses and streets. As well as the sky was Iraq, including Baghdad, to the emergence of astronomical phenomena, including the Moon and will eclipse of the sun, as well as the emergence of planets, some of which fall to the ground causing damage, as well as lightening the Holocaust, leaving behind massive destruction, with the flight of people from their homes. And the regular book (for Ibn Jawzi) contains adequate information about these events in detail and accurate. This has been divided into three pure research: - First search: natural events, floods E and high water levels in the Tigris and Euphrates, "as well as the devastating earthquakes that occur in Iraq, particularly Baghdad, leaving behind massive destruction E as well as the occurrence of dust storms and strong winds, take off the trees and the exposure of this section to rainfall the snow and cold, which is called in modern present "hailstone". The second research: wrap to expose the devastating lethal epidemics in Iraq, including the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, plague and others. Turning to the third research in astronomical phenomena that occur in the skies of Iraq, including Baghdad from the lunar and solar eclipses and the appearance of the planets and the fall of some of them.

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أثر أسلوب تحليل النص الأصلي في تحصيل طالبات الصف الثاني المتوسط في مادة السيرة النبوية

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The research aims to knowing the Effect of Original text style in the achievement the female student of second year on intermediate school for the subject of prophetic career martial . Where's the studying sample frame ( 60 ) students ( female ) from intermediate school. Second year class , in folder (30) student (female) in empirical group which is studied by wing original text analysis style and (30) student (female) on controlling group which is student on traditional style . the rotations (the time age and the deices of Islamic education inertial for previous study year , the researcher forms (30) a titudcal aims and prepares tropical plans for tow research group a cording the original text analyses style and traditional style , she prepares post – test for measuring the final student task. Items numbers (20) she examines it's credibility and stability.

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أثر أنموذج كارين في تحصيل مفاهيم مادة الديمقراطية عند طلبة كلية التربية

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The impact of carin’s model on the educational attainment scores of the students in the subject of Concepts of Democracy at Faculty of Education The research aims to study and establish the impact of carin’s model on the educational attainment scores for students taught (Concepts of Democracy) at Faculty of Education, Baghdad University. In order to achieve the aim of the study, the researcher used the null hypothesis " assuming that there is no significant statistical difference ie at significance level of 0.05 between the subsequent educational attainment scores between the experimental/study group of students that are taught the concepts of democracy subject according to carin’s model and the average scores of the control group that taught according to the traditional method of delivering the subject. The researcher selected the students from the Department of Kurdish language, Ibn-Rushd Faculty of Education, Baghdad University to be a random sample for his study. A total of 61 were selected, and they were divided into 2 groups/classes .The study/experimental group of a total of 30 students were taught according to carin model, While the control group represented by 31 students and they were taught by using the traditional teaching method at a different students group/class.The researcher established the internal and external validity of the evaluation by identifying the confounding factors of the study design, identifying factors that can affect the variables. The researcher prepared a teaching plan consisting of (15) subjects/topics, and a test was prepared consisting of (30) items /questions. The test consisted of objective questions including, multiple-choice questions and complete the blanks type of questions. The researcher used appropriate statistical methods to complete the analysis of his study. The exam results to tests the understanding of the concepts of democracy, revealed superiority of the students of the experimental/study group who studied using carin’s model over the students in the control group who studied in the traditional way. And in the light of the result of this research, the researcher concluded the following: 1 – superiority of carin’s model of teaching over the traditional method of teaching after an objective test to assess the educational attainment scores in the taught subject of concepts of democracy . 2-the teaching design according to modern models, proved to be effective in teaching different materials. In the light of the outcome of the search and the above conclusions, the researcher recommends the following: 1- using carin’s model in teaching democracy in the colleges of education, as it achieves the main objectives of the subject, such as acquiring the necessary concepts and improving students educational attainment as per the designed objective test results. 2 – setting up training courses for university teachers/lecturer to train them to use carin’s model and help them to apply this model in their teaching.

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أثر طريقة المناقشة الجماعية في تحصيل طالبات الصف الرابع الإعدادي في مادة التربية الإسلامية

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The research aims to know the effect of using the collective discussion of the fourth preparatory schoolgirls in Islamic teaching material. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the researcher puts forwards the following hypothesis "there is no differences of statistical significant between the educational average of schoolgirls' marks, who study using the collective discussion and the marks average for the schools' education who study using the classical method in the far-test in Islamic teaching material . . The researcher chose Al-ZHRAA preparatory schoolgirls intentionally far from other secondary and preparatory schools siting within Sadir city sector related to the general directorate for Baghdad/1st Rusafa. Two sections of the fourth stage were chosen randomly among six sections to be the research sample reaching finally (67) girls, actual (33) girls for the experimental group and (34) for the control group. The two experimental and control groups were compensated and gratified statistically according to the following variable (former information, marks of the Islamic teaching for first term of the 2009-2010 academic year, age counted by months, parent's education, after defining the scientific material containing the subjects of the Islamic teaching text decided for students of the fourth year . The researcher formed the bahvioural aims for subjects and were (125) ones. Hen designed the teaching bags containing several alternatives (typed material, recorded television programs upon CD, audio recordings). In fact one teaching bag for every subject of the six decided subjects to be taught through the experimental span. The researcher prepared model plan for the decided subjects to be taught in the experiment. These procedures were showed to group of experts and specialists to acknowledge their validity. The researcher studied the two groups of the research through the experiment span ، And after finishing the experiment, the researcher applied the far-statistical test upon schoolgirls of the two groups and used the following statistical methods: Ki (K2) square, T-test, Person correlation coefficient, Spearman Brown equation, difficulty coefficient , distinction equation. After analyzing the results statistically, the researcher reached to the schoolgirls preeminence upon the experimental group, who studied using the collective discussion upon the collective discussion , who studied using the classical method. The difference of statistical significance was upon the (0.05) level. In the light of these results the researcher recommends the following:- 1 - Adoption of the collective discussion method in teaching Islamic education, because of the impact of an actor in the collection of fourth grade students of preparatory. 2 -. Include a book of Islamic education a thing of the modernteaching methods, installed so the teachers to use them. 3 - Encourage the establishment of specialized educational training courses for teachers of Islamic Education .

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أثر أسلوب العصف الذهني في تحصيل طلبة كلية التربية/ ابن رشد/ قسم اللغة الكردية في مادة التعبير الكردي

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This study aims at explaining the effect of the brainstorming style achievement of the Kurdish Department students. Kurdish Department was the field of the experiment. Study sample consisted of (44 ) students, (22) Boys and Girls student in experimental groups that studied by using Brainstorming style, and ( 22 ) Boy and Girl student in control groups That Studied by using traditional method ( Lecture). The researcher determined the scientific subject that’s student studied ( research sample ) which are : 1-Time 2- Road Morals 3- Safety Police duty 4- Speech Morals 5- Halbja event 6- Trust and honesty. The researcher prepared Teaching plan for both groups and himself studied them (experimental and control ) groups , and prepared dimensional test to measure second stage achievement study sample in (Kurdish Expression) consisted of ( 30 ) items, and made sure from reliability and validity after consulting the professionals and specialized in Kurdish Language and Methods teaching. The researcher applied ( T.Test ) on both independent groups , and after analyzing the data, the researcher concluded that the experimental groups student scored higher. Finally the researcher recommended to adopt Brainstorming style in teaching Expression. and suggested to (make assessment study for curriculum and for text book in Kurdish language department for all stages to improving them).

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Article
Stressful Events and its Relation with the self efficacy in secondary schools students
الأحداث الضاغطة وعلاقتها بفاعلية الذات لدى طلبة المرحلة الإعدادية

Authors: باسم رسول كريم
Pages: 873-905
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The pressure Events considered as a huge dangerous on the health of a human and his balance as well as terrorized psychological identity as are sult for a negative effect as weakness ability for adaptation and a weakness the level of performance, handicapped for practicing his work and reducing motivation and ability for performance, consciousness psychological a hardness pressure . The life situations and psychological and crises and hardness experiences that led to a higher average for suffering a psychological disorders for the persons in general . The pressure experiences from wars, economical crises considered as areas ring factors for refusing and the human life became in fulfillment for the situation and Events as a stimuli as well as considered hardness or happy or normality but it make him in all matters in a situation was difficult to avoid these pressures. The crises and events explore a psychological identity on the self as a bereavement, sacrificing versus may exploring conscious ness fear and anxiety . The wars and economic crises through the insurance of the world researches make floor in made of a society for a violence that has a negative reflexes for achievement motive . Bandura indicated even though (1982) Increasing self efficacy that led to increasing the person ability to facing the pressures and situations terrorized . The self efficacy not determine of with the especial situation that not considered as total for personality. The efficacy determined with the limited effort that the person suffered formal and the long of time that the persons facing their obstacles. The problem of the current Research was in answering to the following question : Is there any correlation relation between the pressure Events and self efficacy? The aims of the research are : 1. Identifying the pressure events for the students in preparatory schools. 2. Identifying the differences with the statistical significant according to the variables (gender male – female) and specialist (human – scientific). 3. Identifying the self efficacy for students in preparatory schools. 4. Identifying the differences with the statistical significant according to the gender (male- female) and specialists (human-scientific) 5. Identifying the nature of correlation relationship between the pressure events and self efficacy according to the variables gender (male-female) and specialists (human – scientific) for students in preparatory schools. For investigating the aims of the current research the researcher was built a scale on self efficacy and adopted a scale for pressure Events by AL-simiri & Abu Nadhmi (2007) the researcher investigated for a psychometric characteristics then investing for the validity by two ways, one of them face validity and constructing validity by exposed the scales for many exports in Education and psychology, the constructing validity depended on finding correlation between the item and the total degree for the field and the correlation between the item and the total degree for the scale, then the researcher investigated for the reliability by two ways, test & Retest method and Alpha-Chronbach, then the researcher used a statistical tool such as (person correlation coefficient. T. test for one sample T. test for two in dependent samples Analysis of two variance. Shieva equal and Alpha-Chronbach, the researcher manipulated data statistically by using (SPPS) program. For achieving aims of the Research the researcher constructed scale of theory then adopted scale of pressure events by using scale for (Alsimiri & Abu Nadhm , 2007) then revealed the validity by exposing the scales on experts in psychology, evolution and measurement, and the constructed validity item score and total score for scale then revealed consistency by Test & Retest method, the coefficient of consistent was been (0.75) for security field, economic field (0.76) and psychological field (0.78), the academic field (0.71) and family field (0.73) social field (0.79) and health field (0.75) , the coefficient of consistent by Alph-Chronbach in security field (0.79) in economic field (0.75) , psychological field (0.81) in academic files (0.78) in family field (0.80) in social field (0.85) in health field (0.82) . The coefficient of consistent for scale of self efficacy in test Retest method was been (0.81) . mean while coefficient of consistent in Alpha-Chronbach was been (0.83). The researcher was applied the scales on sample of the research was been (300) students in reparatory stage after investigation for the psychometric characteristics. The results show as follows : 1. The stress Events is available with the students in the reparatory schools. 2. The students have loses self Efficiency in the preparatory schools the mean was (0.184) less than hypothesis mean for the all sample was (92.5). 3. There are no differences with the statistical significance between pressure Events and self efficiency in the (secret field) according to variables to the Gender and especialisation . 4. There are no differences with the statistical significance between the pressure Events and self efficiency according to variables gender & especialisation. 5. There are no differences with the statistical significance between the pressure events(social field) and self efficiency according to variables gender and especialisation. 6. There are no differences with the statistical significance between the pressure Events (psychological field) and self efficiency according to variables (gender & especialisation) male & female (human & scientific) . 7. There are no differences with the statistical significance between the pressure events (studying field) and self efficiency according to variables gender (male & female) & especialisation (human & scientific). 8. There are no differences with the statistical significance between the pressure events (family field) and self efficiency according to variables gender (male & female) and especialisation (human, scientific). 9. There are no differences with the statistical significance between the pressure Events (health field) and self Efficiency according to variables gender (male & female) and especialisation (human & scientific) . 10. There apposite relation between the pressure Events and self efficiency. The current research reached to many conclusions, recommend a lions and suggestion.

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اثر أساليب التكيف المعرفية والسلوكية في خفض الإعراض العصابية لدى مرضى القلب

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The psychological factors represent an important role in increasing the risks of having cardiac diseases as a result of the union between the genetic and environmental factors. Moreover, in the present time, the familiar neuroses symptoms represent a great percent in the society in members different ages with their negative effects on individuals . The importance of this study appears in reducing the disorders symptoms and increasing the personal skills in facing psychological stresses. As for the aim of this study, it is concerned with knowing the effect of behavioral, cognitive adaptive styles:-(re-interpreting the pain feeling, adopting with self- case and pleasing and wishing in reducing neuroses symptoms of cardiac patients through the following hypotheses:- - There are no significant statistical differences among the ranks of grades of the individuals of the three experimental groups:(re-interpreting the pain feeling ,adopting with self case and pleasing and wishing)and the controlled group in the post-test of the scale of neuroses symptoms scale. - There are no significant statistical differences among the ranks of grades of the individuals of the first experimental groups:(re-interpreting of pain feeling style) in the pre post-test of the scale of neuroses symptoms scale. - There are no significant statistical differences among the ranks of grades of the individuals of the second experimental groups:( adopting with self case style) in the pre post-test of the scale of neuroses symptoms scale. - There are no significant statistical differences among the ranks of grades of the individuals of the third experimental groups:( pleasing and wishing style) in the pre post-test of the scale of neuroses symptoms scale. To achieve the aim and hypotheses of the research ,it is required to apply a therapal program of (8) sessions for every style in(8) sessions for each of the three styles on cardiac patients who are clinically diagnosed in "Baghdad Educational Hospital" and who show high digress on the neuroses symptoms scale neuroses symptoms scale which is pre pared for this purpose by the researcher they are distributed four groups (8) for each group by using the suitable statistical means on the research sample which is (32) .The results show that the behavioral cognitive adaptive styles have an effects on reducing the cardiac patients symposia and there are no significant statistical differences among the three styles in the intensity of effect where all the three groups get benefit from the styles in reducing the symptoms in comparison with the controlled group.The results are interpreted and discussed by the researcher according to(Ayron Beck) theory adopted in this study .The researcher has arrived at a number of conclusions and recommendations like the necessity of Using the neuroses symptoms scale by the psychological health centers of ministry of health and also the program .A number of suggestions has reached upon by the researcher.

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بناء اختبار تحصيلي محكي المرجع في مادة علم نفس الخواص لطلبة أقسام العلوم التربوية والنفسية

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The current research problem is determined by the absence of a Criterion-Referenced Test Achievement in Psychology of Properties for students of Educational and Psychological Sciences at Faculties of Education which is based on the Theory of latent features and Measurement Models specifically ( Rash Model ) that has accuracy in measuring the individuals' educational and psychological characteristics through the liberation from the individual's ability to the test items and vice versa. 1- the items of the test data were subjected to a factor analysis according to the basic components which showed that the items of the test measure one general factor except ( 22 ) item were excluded from the test. 2- In order to match the test items with the model according to the value of Chi square in terms of ( 0.05 ) and a freedom degree of ( 19 ) ,the results showed that Chi square of ( 13 ) item had statistical function therefore they were excluded from the test. 3- the distinction factor of the test approaching ( 1 ) as the value of the distinction factor was within the acceptable range which reached ( 1,106 ). 4- the independence of the measurement to achieve the measurement objectivity according to the model requirements: the ( 125 ) remaining items matched the requirements of the measurement independence which were subjected to the final statistical analysis according to the individuals' abilities 5-and the difficulty of the items as they represent the final form of the test; the value of the test stability has reached ( o, 925 ).

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تأثير برنامج تعليمي في تنمية مهارات الاستماع النشط لدى أطفال الرياض

Authors: م.م زينب خنجر مزيد
Pages: 1003-1028
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The current research aims to know the impact of the education program in the development of Active listening Skills for the children of kindergarten, by gender, and to achieve the objectives of the program and put the following assumptions: 1. Does not have a statistically significant difference in average test scores Active listening Skills to among children in the experimental group before and after the implementation of the program. 2. Does not have a statistically significant difference in average test scores Active listening Skills among children in the experimental group exposed to the program and children in the control group not exposed to the program. 3. Does not have a statistically significant difference in the average degree of selection t among child Active listening Skills ren in the experimental group by gender Research sample was selected randomly sample consisted of (60) boys and girls of their age (5-6) years (Stage of pre-kindergarten basil in Baghdad / Iraq and was the distribution of children in the sample into two equally officer and pilotIn order to achieve the objectives of the research the researcher to build an educational program for the development of Active listening Skills has been applied On the children of the experimental group and the application before me to test (ALasif andAbo lteafa ) The researcher found the following results-1 - does not have a statistically significant difference among the middle-test scores Active listening Skills of children in The experimental group exposed to the education program compared with the control group not exposed him in theTest the light for this purpose and for the pilot. 2 - There are significant differences between the test score Active listening Skills of children is in the experimental group before and after implementation of the program for the benefit of the test distance. 3 - there is no difference statistically significant among the middle-test scores Active listening Skills in the experimental group in the exam, according to dimensional variable sex (males, females).

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استخدامات الوسائل التعليمية في تدريس التربية الإسلامية

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The use Audio visual aids in Teaching Islamic Education The preset study aims at knowing the benefit if using The audio visual aids teach Islamic Education No dolt these aids an quit segniricaul in fauhtating the whole process of learning it maled the material quit accessible to the wind of the learning They an undeed success infmetail tools to achieuse the purpose of learning There fore , the learning task may be racilitated or curbed the gnality of the quids used It emlodiel brdging the gab between the theoretical or conceptual abstract of learning and Its readliztion tharuyh somethiy tangible .It minimizes The terms and idioms reguired to be presented

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تأثير الخصائص التنظيمية على ولاء العاملين للمنظمة (مدخل استراتيجي)

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Loyality is an attitude we can't measure or realizing it in a tangible way , so the loyality to organization comes at first , which appears after the events of (9/4/2003 ) because of fiscal and managerial corruption . This study aims to measure the loyality of the employees at theTechinical institute Hawijah ,and the influence of the organization characteristics on it , therefore the out comes of questionnaire which distributed that ( the relation of the administration with the employees , the clearity of the goals , working hours, participating in decision making) . They are characteristics have vital role on the loyality of the employees . also the span of settlement and security of the place in which the organization founded .

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السلطة الأبوية في الأسرة العراقية المتغيرة

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The parental authority in the changeable Iraqi family has its importance in the social studies and anthropological studies as a result of the changes that took place for this authority in the light of the developments witnessed by contemporary Iraqi society especially after the appearance of industrial and urbanism movements after mid post century. The research include the following axes: 1- the introduction which include the changes took place on the parental authority in the contemporary Iraqi family. 2- General frame of the thesis of the thesis problem, its importance in addition to the thesis goals. 3- The theoretical and curriculum frame of the thesis which include the anthropological visions of the parental authority, the building functional theory and the study curriculum. 4- Structural changes in the Iraqi family in the light of changes study which took place in both of parental relations and family relations. 5- Changes took place in the parental authority in the contemporary Iraqi family in the light of generations conflict and the effect of modern communication methods in changing parental authority in addition to the economical factors in changing this authority. 6- The results and recommendations reached by the research.

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الصعوبات التي تواجه مشرفي النشاط الفني في الكليات والاقسام العلمية في الجامعات (التكنولوجية انموذجاً)

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The aim of this study is to identify the Obstacles face art activity supervisors on universities (as the technological) both in the engineering and scientific sections. The research’s sample includes (10) of the art activity supervisors. The researcher used the questionnaire as a tool for collecting information and applied the questionnaire on the sample of the final study, and it consists of (10) articles directed to the art education supervisors. To insures the valdity of the tool, the researcher view it to a group of experts in art and educational arts ,the questionnaire eventually was applied in its final form on the sample of the research. In order to make the statically data calculation, the researcher used (Pearson connection coefficient) to reach stability, and Fischer equation to find the weight of the article in addition to the percentage weight to state the value of each article from the questionnaire articles.In the results of the research, all the articles arranged according to their weight from the highest degree to the lowest degree. The researcher intended to interpret and discuss the articles that its weight degree increased on mean calculation average (1) and to each article. The researcher reached these recommendations: 1- Arrange halls to allow students to participate in art activities (atelier) (theatre) and supply art tools, new equipments, and maintain them. 2- Increase the number of students to participate in art activities.

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مباحث في طرائق تدريس التربية الإسلامية وأساليب تقويمها

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The Islamic Education one of the main means by which reliable in breeding young breeding congenital correct, its properties, making it distinct from other educational theories situation, they entity full balanced framework of the educational process, in light of the flexibility and suitability to live in every age, and is valid for all generation, and keep pace with each advancement. Therefore, the objective strategic of Islamic Education Arabic is to reach the individual to the case who is a Muslim in belief and feelings and behavior, and an Arab to say and the direction and hopes proficient for his career and his work, according to the methods of modern subject in the aspects of his whole life to Islam. The way of Islam in education dealing with the treatment of the affairs of the human being comprehensively address never let him something, do not ignore anything, his body and his mind and his soul and his physical and moral life and his activities are all on the ground. And give educational institutions the modern calendar of great importance, depending on developments in many of them that some aspects of education has grown without prior assessment or objective test of the results achieved thus becoming the need to evaluate continuously is important after hiring great efforts and much money has been spent, and that the calendar should be lead to more appropriate planning of educational programs in the future. So, there is a need for the calendar became pivotal in sentencing success or failure, which in this sense is a tool realism which Almqmon based educational process and then take appropriate decisions on improvements that should be made. It is possible to employ modern calendar styles and practical applications in teaching Islamic education, it is still a lot of its theoretical and practical issues need more scientific studies to ensure the development of cognitive and emotional achievement and Mharria in this important article. Efforts have been made clear from the parties responsible for the development of teaching this material, has continued the Ministry of Education and Higher Education and Scientific Research implementation of recent trends in the follow-up of good teaching Islamic education and teaching the Holy Quran and evaluate curricula and activities and the performance of relevant their teachers and teachers

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التقنيات التربوية الحديثة والتعلم الذاتي

Authors: د. خماس العيبي
Pages: 1197-1234
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This study involves the importance of computer in developing both teaching and leering processes due to its technical and educational capacities which enhance the concept of self-instruction. Computer-aided learning is an important educational issue which has contributed in achieving active learning through concentrating on the teachers role taking into consideration his tendencies and interests to stimulate his motivation toward self-instruction. The study stresses the importance and role of advanced technology represented by computer and internet in developing the learners own capabilities in a acquiring scientific Knowledge especially in the field of applied engineering sciences. Engineering education is a fertile field for applying educational activities by means of computer which is the most outstanding from of educational technology aiming at developing the learner’s self-capabilities to go along with the movement of contemporary technological revolution-Instructional computer is an important pattern of self-instruction as proved and advocated by many researchers and studies which revealed the vital and active role of computer educational programs characterized by the speed f accomplishing required tasks, saving and retrieving information , conducting works of analysis and combination coupled with Accuracy. Further more,the computer assists the learner to move according to his own capabilities. To achieve the objectives of the present study,the researcher applied an educational computer program (AUTOCAD)for teaching the subject of engineering drawing to fourth year students-mechanical engineering at the Electro-mechanical Engineering Department. the results of the study revealed that computer has an important and active role in developing students capabilities to perform and accomplish engineering drawing exercises at high efficiency compared to the traditional method of teaching this subject . the results confirm the importance of computer educational programs through the active contribution in assisting the learner to acquire Scientific knowledge which increases his reaction with such programs enabling him at the same time to gain the skills required for his specialization especially in the field of applied engineering sciences. The current work concluded with suggestions and recommends actions all of which stress the importance of computer educational programs as follows:- 1. The necessity of incorporating computer programs to the curriculum of engineering sciences being the fertile for such applications. 2. Making use of computer laboratories in teaching engineering applications by designing computer teaching programs to assist the students in developing their own capabilities- It is necessary to reconsider the engineering educational curriculum according to the outcomes of technological teaching aids namely the computer and the internet in the processes of teaching and learning

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إمكانية استغلال المخلفات الزراعية والنباتات الحولية في العراق

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Research has conducted to enlighten the annual great losses due to unexploited huge quantities of non – wood lignocellulosic materials available in Iraq. Amounts of these materials were estimated. Iraq Consumptions of pulp and paper and composite panels were calculated according to the global annual per capita consumption. Results referred that about 20 million tons of non utilized lignocellulosic materials are available in Iraq annually. Estimations based on global averages shows that the country consumption of pulp could exceed two million tons, and that of composite panels could be around one million ton. Paper import could costs more than one and a half milliard dollars, while total cost with composite panels may exceed two and a half milliard of American dollars. Some conclusions and recommendations were recommended to utilize this forgotten fortune, the grain field wastes could be at first.

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عزوف الطالبات عن رياضة الجمناستك والسباحة

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Sports has become one of the base interfaces for advanced Nations and sign of its Renaissance and Sport (beginners) constitute the cornerstone for all types of sports as it helps the health integration and also swim and is a type of sports activity includes move in water by using walrgiln and alzaraine is a favourite sport of many people for being exercised by both sexes. This research also dealt with the problem and the reasons for the reluctance of students sports beginners and reaching conclusions and appropriate solutions in addition to this search included the following:- The first chapter includes the research problem, the importance of research, research objectives, the limits of the search, select terms. The second chapter covers the theoretical framework and previous studies The third chapter will assure the research methodology and procedures And Chapter IV the presentation and analysis of results and discussion IN the fifth chapter evolved to include the conclusions and recommendations and proposals.

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التوجه نحو الحياة وعلاقته بالاستقرار الزواجي

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The present study aimed to: 1- Measured orientation of the staff of life. 2- Measurement of marital stability among the staff. 3- Identify the relationship between orientation toward life and marital stability among the staff. Has been determined by the current search Mustansiriya University staff of both gender and in 2010 -2 011. Has adopted a researcher in the study of social exchange theory. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher built search tools of scale, orientation towards life, which consisted of (29) items, and the measure of stability, marital and be one of (32) items, may provide in both scales are several types of truth are virtual and logical and honesty constructivist. The stability was extracted for both scales in a retail mid-term, bringing reliability coefficient (0.89), to the measure of orientation towards life and (0.91), a measure of stability, marital adjustment and stability calculated equation alpha was measured by the trend towards life (0.89), and to measure stability marital (0.92). The findings of the current research are: 1- Of the sample showed a positive approach towards life. 2- Of the sample showed a high level of marital stability. 3- Appeared that there is a strong relationship between orientation toward life and marital stability among a sample search. In light of these findings the researcher presented a set of recommendations and proposals.

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الملامح الماركسية في فلسفة توماس كٌون

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The search is dedicated to seek Marxian aspects in the philosophy of , philosopher of science , Thomas Kuhn . These important aspects are : 1) the same historical start after offering the history in new form suitable for produce theory in development ,2) joining the history with sociology to show that all great human activities are achieved with social discipline , 3) the similarity in revolutionary attitude by showing the revolution as full rupture with old structure in society or in science .

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هايدرولوجية خزان سد كفري

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Water is one basic human needs that are most important in people's lives, the greater this need with the increased population, so came the research problem in how to store this water after the construction of the dam in the town of Kifri in research entitled (Haedrologer reservoir dam Kifri) which is located Within the area (Ckramaan) based search in achieving its goal to the major premise that it can take advantage of the water stored in the summer and how to invest this water to irrigate and cultivate some (7000) acres of farmland fill the needs of the population. The search reached some conclusions and recommendations, which is to increase the amount of reservoir levels during these two rate (10) million m 3 as well as provided by the tourist of the city in addition to fisheries that they contain.

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واقــع انتــاج الحنـطــة فـي محـافظــة الانبــار 1990 – 2010 دراســة جغـرافيــة – مقـارنــة

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The formers in AL-Anbar governorate are practicing both plant and animal production . Wheat is the most outstanding crop that was cultivated long time ago . And because of the history and importance of this crop in the population food this crop is atraditional crop that can not be given up as acultivated crop . Wheat is the first winter crop cultivated in AL-Anbar . The agriculture production in AL-Anbar governorate concentrated in Euphrates -vally starting from Iraqi – Syrian borders west word to the borders with Babil governorate east word and this feature is general in Iraqi plains happened because of the two rivers stretching throughout the Mesopotamian. This research was dealing with the Situation of wheat production in AL-Anbar governorate during the period 1990 – 2010 , and because of the length of this period , five years were chosen to represent this period those are ((1990 , 1995 , 2000 , 2005 , 2010 )) , each year of them represent practical model for crop situation during the period of the research .

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اثر أنموذج اشور في اكتساب المفاهيم التاريخية لدى تلاميذ الصف الخامس الابتدائي - بحث مستل

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The present study aims at knowing "The effect of Assure Model in Acquiring the Historical Concepts for fifth Grade Students", the researcher put the hypothesis and in order to achieve the aim of this study, he put the requirements and tools himself. They are: 1. Formulating the behavioral which attained (60) items to measure the process of concept acquisition (define, distinguish, application). 2. Preparing the teaching plans for the two groups of the study which included the material for the three chapters of the book Arabic Islamic History taught for fifth grade students (22) plans. The researcher used (t-test) for two independent samples in data processing, and the following results were obtained: The result shows excel of the experimental group – taught according to Assure Model- over the control group in the conventional methods in acquisition historical concepts.

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أثر برنامج أرشادي لتخفيف العزلة الاجتماعية لدى طالبات المرحلة المتوسطة - بحث مستل

Authors: ضفاف عدنان مصطفى
Pages: 1369-1391
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This Research has identifying the effect of in reducing isolation counseling program . Behavior for the students in intermediate school. The researcher adopted almaeeni scale's (2002) for the isolation behavior then there searcher exposed this scale for many experts in Evaluation and measurement and counseling. Then revealed the psychometric characteristics and constructed counseling program depended on Existential counseling by frankle strategies then explored the validity of the program by exposed it for the mony experts in counseling then applied it for (20) students in real (10) for the experimental group and (10) students for controlled group the researcher used (mean-standard) deviation – man – Whitney – kolmogr of seminar of – Pearson correlation coefficient) as statistical tools. The results show the student has a high level in isolation behavior and there is a high effect in the counseling program in reducing isolation behavior for the benefit of the experimental group.

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بناء اختبار تحصيلي لمادة الإدارة والإشراف التربويّ على وفق نظرية السمات الكامنة لطلبة معاهد إعداد المعلمين - بحث مستل

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The present study aims at constructing an achievement test used in testing the subject of educational administration and supervision at the teacher training institutes according to the latent trait theory. The scientific procedures are followed in the test construction starting with the items of educational administration and supervision subject according to the sectorial committee of the Iraqi Ministry of Education. The total chapters of this subject are (9). After directing an item checklist of this subject to the teachers in action to find out the items they actually teach, they all agree on 100% of the total items. 189 behavioral objectives are developed for the three upper levels in Bloom Taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, and application). One multiple choice test item with 4 options is developed for each behavioral objective taking into consideration the accuracy and comprehensiveness of objectives and test items. To check the validity of the test items and their appropriateness to the behavioral objectives and response options, they are exposed to a jury of 18 experts in educational and psychological sciences. According to the jurors’ suggestions, some items are modified and others are excluded. The final version of the test includes 153 items. The achievement test is conducted on a sample of 310 students who are selected according to the stratified random sample method. This sample includes students from 9 teacher training institutes in Baghdad. Rasch model, which is one of the latent trait theory models, is used in the analysis of the test items. To verify the assumptions of this model, the following procedures are adopted: 1. Checking the unidimensionality. All the items developed for the ten chapters are analyzed according to the basic content method to check the test factor construction. One meaningful factor is achieved for the test. This factor is based on the lower limits of (Getman) who considers the factor as statistically significant if the explainable latent root equals or exceeds 1 . Burt & Banks formula of standard error is adopted as a criterion for item saturation with the general factor which is found to be (0.148). 10 test items, the factor saturation of which is found to be less than the adopted one, are excluded from the test. 2. Checking the correspondence of test items to Rasch model by using Rascal program according to Chi square at the level of (0.05). The program excludes (14) items for having a higher Chi Square value at the level of (0.05). 3. Approximation of test discrimination coefficient to 1. 4. Checking measurement interdependence to achieve measurement objectivity according to Rasch model. 18 test items are excluded for not being objective. 5. The final version of the test includes 111 items all of which are statistically analyzed to convert the Logit unit into Watt. This is done to get rid of the fractions and minus signs in the approximation of item difficulty and individuals’ ability. The coefficient stability of the final version of the test is found to be (0.954). In the light of the study findings and conclusions, a number of recommendations are presented, and suggestions for further studies are put forward.

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آراء الرصافي في شعر المعري (بحث مستل)

Authors: م.م سفانة داود سلوم
Pages: 1421-1454
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The study consists of four sections. The first one represents Al- Rusafi's opinions which he had propagated through lectures that he delivered. The second section is the critical literary composition starting from "An overview of the life of Al- Mutanabi". The third one includes the lingnal composition in which Al Rusafi was outstanding and proved that he is a character who has wide thinking capacity. The fourth section includes his critical opinions which he said during the stage at which he isolated himself from the people and composed the book "Thoughts and Ideas".

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خانقاهات مصر حتى نهاية عصر المماليك البحرية 648-784هـ/1250-1382م

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The khanaqahs it’s a public building which the state take in consider to build it because it's mission's it has a religious feature and have many names but all of it means the Sufism place, the Mamluke's state in the Egypt take in construction build and perpetration by the alloment and khanga siriaqus one of them, there were khanaqas for women, so it played a social role, in addition to its religious and teaching role.

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المكاييل والأوزان الشّرعية وما يعادلها بالأّوزان المعاصرة - بحث مستل

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We have included the Islamic between the folds of precious texts of the Quran and sunnah of the prophet (peace be upon him) many kinds of weights and measures acquiring legitimize for this entry in the provisions of the legislation of acts of worship and the transactions and the limits and no one has the right to change of what the sharaa has decided of these weights and measures in decrease and not increase because the change in disabling of what was brought by verdicts of Islam and if stays its values known on the situation which was decided at the head of beginning of Islam that remains the rules of sharaa known to the provisions of the first term is known and to those of not knowing it . It is incumbent upon the Muslim nation to maintain these weights and measures legitimacy and determine the equivalent .

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فعالية برنامج تدريبي لتنمية مهارات ما وراء الذاكرة لدى طلبة المرحلة الإعدادية - بحث مستل

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Has become a memory problem in the second half of the twentieth century the most problems of psychology scientific enjoyed the study and attention, and investigated a lot of development and progress, as has been studied in the branches and areas of many scientific, including those of science that appear to be far from psychology such as IT information or computer, medicine, biology, physiology, and sociology, using entrances and a variety of methods. which depend all things, life on the strength of the memory of the organism in general and humans in particular, where the incoming importance of memory in the academic field significantly, not least because of the many students make great efforts in studying and study at the stage of preparing for exams various school in order to obtain degrees of success appropriate to qualify to go to the school-top, Alaanam may experience some difficulties in achieving it, may return these difficulties to either a failure in the entry, storage or How to recovery, and this is due to the lack of sufficient awareness by students out of memory and the promise to have this awareness as knowledge of the details of memory performance and identify strengths and weaknesses lie and where, This study aimed to reveal the effectiveness of the training program in the development of skills metamemory of students, middle school, and detecting whether the program effectiveness more depending on sex, study sample consisted of (120) students from middle school for the academic year 2010 to 2011 distributors by 60 males and 60 females divided each sex into two groups, an officer and pilot by 30 each group were subjected training program for the development of skills metamemory (based researcher) for the two experimental groups the first male and second female and the researcher used a scale metamemory of Troyer and blades (Troyer & Rich 2002) of the Arabization of Muawiya Abu Ghazal (2007) in tests of tribal and post between the two groups the control and experimental, and for each sex separately, the researcher used to verify the research hypotheses testing Altaúa to two separate sets t.test, and the results showed no difference statistically significant for testing dimensional between the two groups the control and experimental (males) and for group pilot scale as a whole and dimensions of sub-scale, as the results showed no difference statistically significant between members of two groups of experimental and control (female) to test the dimensional scale metamemory and for the experimental group to the test as a whole and keep the Sub, and the results showed that there was no difference statistically significant between members the two experimental males and experimental females for testing dimensional scale metamemory of the dimensions (satisfaction with the memory, and selecting the right strategy), as results showed no difference statistically significant among the members of the two experimental groups the first male and second female in the post-test to post (diagnosis of memory capacity) and for group pilot (male), and results showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the two experimental groups to single out the first male and second female to scale metamemory as a whole and for the experimental group (males), and the recommendations recommended by the study 1 - Develop training programs for teachers to make them aware of this concept (metamemory.) which increases the interest and importance of this concept in the field of education, 2. The allocation of classes to train students on skills metamemory and how to use memory strategies through curriculum independent study of them specialists in the field of educational psychology. 3. Detection of low academic achievement and subjecting them to the training program and note their progress in school after the program level. It is also suggested by the study of proposals to complete the progress and development in this area suggested that the researcher 1 - conducted a study of a pilot study on the effectiveness of training for memory behind in the development of other dimensions metamemory.. 2 - to conduct a study to compare the cross behind the memory in different stages of learning, ranging from kindergarten to university.

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الوحي إلى الإمام عند السيد السبزواري - بحث مستل

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1-It was thought that Imam , is a person complied the script on him by god and by prophet's tongue (pray on him ) so he would be as person in preservation of god's immunity from wrong things and of small and big faults . 2- AL-SAID AL- Sabzawari can see the view of AL-IMAM's inspiration 's mean the inspiration with science that can helps him to explain and understand the Aiat of holy Quran that were guided him to correctness way and leads him to application of legislation. 3-IMAM concluded the science by god and it's reality of referenced and inspiration, as well as it's god addition, it were opened on the IMAM'S heart ( piece on him ) his upgrading and pride distinguished from another humankind .

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منطقة الجبل الأخضر في ليبيا: دراسة في الجغرافية الإدارية

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Administrative Geography, which is concern with the study of administrative regions in political boundaries of the state, represent part of political geography since increasing demand on democracy, communities rights and its participation in the design making in order to insure material and non-material equity in the whole state which leading to increase vital of state and its coherence . So, The research attempts to answer the following tow major questions: What are the factors that effect the administrative map of the study area? What are the problems that facing this map? Therefore, the research included four parts, firstly: the developments of the administrative map, secondly: determine the factors that effects this map, thirdly: the problems that facing this map, Finally: suggest a map for administrative units of the study area.

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اثر ظاهرة التصحر على تناقص المساحات الزراعية وتدهور الإنتاج الزراعي

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The desertification It is not a modern and new phenomena on the human , we are not surprise of that , our earth knew this phenomena before thousands year , in dry ages after raining ages , But dangerous of this phenomenon is decreasing at modern period especially after industrial revolution , and healthy development ,and death decrease and not are raise ratio on common world , so that in Arab land or home land . The desertification problem become effect in mind of government and national organization on the head nation union across many conference . This population explosion in front its decreases and Agriculture production , become not enough for millions of human on the surface of world , and become importance treatment desertification phenomenon and water decrease ,and human expansion in land investment with connection of agriculture irrigation systems to decrease needs to huge quantity of water and not for the bad dry condition there across many African countries and death animals wealth , and death thousand of human this we are talking about in the research and experiences , and with many recommendation and final we prevue , our thank for this humble research and depend upon for our job .

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المنهج البنيوي والسيميائي

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Russian formal study has separated between literature studies and other humanitarian studies , and also concentrated on literary subject and its regulation in distinguished characteristics to make it the literary of the literature in which it opened the way in front of formal analysis which developed by several pioneers of the structural and mien direction ; therefore the formalists has been liberated from the existing traditional relationship between the form and content …

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نظرية مقاصد الشريعة وأثرُها في بناءِ المجتمع

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The plan of this these obligated to be four chapters with abstract and conclusion , as the following ;- First chapter : what are targets Second chapter : Social target Third chapter : Economic targets and how associated with Islamic legislation Forth chapter : Legislation target and the new scientific affairs

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Table of content: volume: issue: