Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:2 issue:204

Article
A Proposed Program of an Adult Teacher Preparation In The Faculties of Education in Syrian Universities
برنامج مقترح لإعداد معلم الكبار في كليات التربية بالجامعات السورية

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Abstract

The goal of the current research is to identify the reality of the professional and scientific level of an adult teacher in Syria, specify the necessary skills for an adult teacher, and build a proposed of an adult teacher preparation program in the faculties of education in Syrian universities. The researcher used the analytical descriptive approach to answer the research questions. The research procedure was limited on a random sample of employees in the field of adult education. Those employees include teachers, mentors and educational officials in the departments of education in Syria. The research tools were a questionnaire to identify the reality of them.

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Article
Analyzing the Rhetorical Structure of Linguistics Dissertation Abstracts Written by Iraqi EFL Graduates
تحليل التركيب البلاغي لملخصات اطاريح علم اللغة للخريجين العراقيين متعلمي اللغة الانكليزية لغة اجنبية

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Abstract

An abstract is a research tool that serves a "gate-keeping function" in helping readers decide if they want to invest more time in the rest of a paper or a dissertation (Bhatia, 1993:78). Due to its significance as an unavoidable genre required for most published works in the academic circle, the present study investigates the generic structure of MA and PhD dissertation abstracts written in English by Iraqi EFL graduates within the linguistics domain. More specifically, it investigates the rhetorical organization or the move structure, and the linguistic resources employed in the realization of these moves in linguistics dissertation abstracts. The rhetorical micro-analysis has identified eleven component moves by means of which the schematic structures of Iraqi EFL graduates' dissertation abstracts are built around. Four of these moves are obligatory including the moves of announcing present research or stating study aims, stating hypotheses, summarizing results, and describing methodology. On the other hand, the rhetorical macro-analysis has identified five moves around which these DAs are built. Three of which are obligatory, viz., the moves of purpose, methodology, and result. Moreover, results show the prevalence of the use of simple sentences type, present tense, and passive voice in the articulation of the abstract texts analyzed. On the basis of these findings, a number of pedagogical implications are suggested.

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Article
the impact of teaching by Systemic Access in acquiring Geographical Concepts for lst intermediate class students
أثر التدريس بالمدخل المنظومي في اكتساب المفاهيم الجغرافية عند طلاب الصف الأول المتوسط

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Abstract

The Present study aims at Finding out the (the impact of teaching by Systemic Access in acquiring Geographical Concepts for lst intermediate class students ). partial control experimental design with the past test experimental control groups the sample is deliberately selected from first AL-Rusafah Directorate of Education Baghdad. Ashour Intermediate school for boys is the assigned school for the experimental work. Two sections are randomly selected from the lst stage where (A)is assigned at the control group، while Cas assigned as the experimental group . The number of sample (62) male students distributed equally into 31 students for each at the two groups. the two groups are equalized in the following variables ; prior knowledge ،ageIQ، ، students scores in Geography an the previous academic year ،several external factors are controlled during the experiment. The teaching material is specified in four chapters selected from the prescribed textbook for the ist intermediate stage which is entitle General of Geography for the academic year 2010 -2011 Content analysis is done to identify the mayor and miner concepts which to tolled 102 concept .In the light of the major concepts which are 20 concepts in total ، behavioral objectives are formulated totaling 60 ones based on Blooms taxonomy an the following levels identifying recognizing ، applying . forty lesson plans are prepared ،20 per group . and test one is for acquiring geography concepts including 60 MCQ items .validity Reliabiuy item discriminating power ،item difficulty level ،and the effectiveness of the incorrect options are all achieved . the test are applied ،after three months ،at the end of the experimental work . T.test formula for tow independent samples is used to compute data and find out results . show the following : there are statistically significant difference on a level of significance of (0،05)in acquiring geographical concepts between the tow groups in favowr of the experimental group. In the light of the above stated results ، suitable conclusions ،recommendations ، and suggestions for further studies are put forward .

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Article
An Analysis of Lexical Meaning in Edwin Muir’s “The Combat”
تحليل لكسيمات المعنى في قصيدة أدوين موير الموسومة بالمنازلة

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Abstract

The lexicon of a language can be viewed as the compendium of all its words. Words, which are also called lexical items or lexemes, are the main components of every text. The branch of semantics which deals with word meaning, called lexical semantics, is used in the present research. Lexical semantics examines the relationships among word meaning. The questions are: what do language users mean when they say, for example; a cat is a type of mammal? Do ‘small’ and ‘big’ have the same relationship with each other like the pair ‘dark’ and ‘light’? Is there a difference between the relationship of ‘always and never’ and ‘often and seldom’? Lexical semantics investigates such problems. It is the study of how the lexicon is organized and how the meaning of lexical items is interrelated. The goal of lexical semantics is to build up a model for the structure of the lexicon by categorizing the types of relationships between words. Keeping in mind the above entry, the aim of the present research is to show the linguistic meaning in the poem “The Combat” written by Edwin Muir (1887-1959). There are several types of lexical analyses like: denotation, connotation, ambiguity, antonym, synonymy, and so on. The present research analyzes the lexical meanings in the selected poem, but the analysis mainly includes some of the poetic features only. This will be exposed in the lexical discussions of the words and lexemes composing the collocations as well. This research paper achieves its objectives of lexical investigation by tackling the following sections: Literary Competence, Poetry and Deviated discourse, “The Combat” as a poem, Collocations in “The Combat”, The Lexical Meanings in the poem, and the Conclusions. The last section is the list of the books consulted.  

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Article
Thornton Wilder's Play "Our Town"

Authors: liza hussain dwaini
Pages: 53-70
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Abstract

Thornton Niven Wilder was born on April 17, 1897, in Madison, Wisconsin. His father, Amos Wilder, was a strict Calvinist; and his mother, Isabella Niven Wilder, was a very religious lady. The family moved to China in 1906 when his father became the United States Consul-General in Hong Kong. Wilder returned with his mother to California in 1912 because of the unstable political conditions in China at that time. Enrolled in Berkeley High School, he became interested in theater and began regularly attending plays. He also began to demonstrate his unique talents for writing. Graduating from high school in 1915, Wilder attended Oberlin College before transferring to Yale University in 1917. During World War I, he served in Rhode Island in 1918. When war was over, he returned to his studies at Yale. In 1920, he received his bachelor's degree, and saw the first publication of his play The Trumpet Shall Sound. He received his master's degree at Princeton University in 1926, the publication year of his novel The Cabala. His novel, The Bridge of San Luis Rey (1927) proved immensely popular, and led to the Pulitzer Prize in 19281. Wilder later taught at the University of Chicago, in Illinois, (1930–1936), and the University of Hawaii (1935). He received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1938 for Our Town to become the only American writer to win both the Novel and Drama categories of that prize2. He volunteered in World War II (1939–45), serving in Africa, Italy, and the United States. A lecturer at Harvard in the early 1950s, he received the Gold Medal for Fiction from the Academy of Arts and Letters in 1952. Wilder was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963, and the National Book Committee's National Medal for Literature in 1965. He died of a heart attack December 7, 1975, in Hamden, Connecticut, where he had lived off and on for many years with his sister, secretary, business manager, and literary adviser, Isabel Wilder3.

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Article
بناء اختبار القدرة على التصور المكاني وفقا لنظرية السمات الكامنة لدى طلبة المرحلة الاعدادية

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Abstract

For the importance of the subject of mental abilities and what the spatial ability has of effect on the educational acquisition for the pupils in many studying subjects such as mathematics and the engineering , and fewness of studies that deal with this ability according to the modern theory on measurement in Iraq and other Arab states (as far as the researcher learns) , this research aims at construction the ability according to the local imagination for the students of the preparatory stage according to the theory of latent traits . To achieve this aim , the researcher has followed a number of scientific procedures in construction the test . Components of spatial ability have been specified three ingredients (spatial orientation, spatial imagination and spatial relations . Twenty-seven multi-choice items have been prepared . The first component (spatial orientation) consists of ten items , the second component (spatial imagination) consists of ten items and the third component consists of (spatial relations) consists of seven items . After they have been presented to a committee of experts and specialists in psychological and educational measurement to show the validity extent of each item in measuring what it has made for , all experts have agreed on the items and they are regarded valid items to measure spatial ability. After that , the test has been applied on a sample of 332 schoolboys and schoolgirls of the preparatory stage students at schools of Baghdad governorate ) , they were selected by a random social class system . In the statistical analysis of the test items , the researcher has depended on "Rash" Sample (one of the samples of latent characteristics ) . And to prove that this hypothesis is correct , the researcher has followed a number of steps : 1- One-dimension : to prove that this hypothesis is correct , the factor analysis has taken place for the three components whereby one factor is reached with a meaning for each component . The explanation of factor has depended on the low limits (Legitman) which considers the factor as a statistical indicator when the latent root, which can be explained, equals or exceeds 1 . It has depended on the rate (0.148) and more for its being a rate which satisfies the items of test with the general factor according to the standard of (Pert & Panks) . One item is omitted from the third component for it satisfies it with the working factor (it was less than 0.148) . 2- The statistical program "Rascal" has omitted two items when identifying the items with the sample on the bases of the values of (Chi sq) at the level of indication (0.05) for its value is higher that (Chi sq) value at this level as the program calculated . 3- The value of the preference coefficient of for the test approaches 1 , its value was 0.896 . 4- One item is excluded for it hasn’t achieved the independency of measurement in the way that achieves subjectivity of measurement as it is represented by "Rash" sample . Consequently , the number of remaining items is 23 in the three components . And in order to get rid of fractions and negative signs , the loget unit has been changed to centesimal watt unit for the evaluation of difficulty of items and the individual abilities . The researcher has reached to some conclusions , recommendations and proposals .

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Article
A Jungle of Depression: An Explication of D.H. Lawrence’s Last Poems in the Light of Julia Kristeva’s Depressive
غابة من الاكتئاب: شرح لمجموعة د. ه. لأورنس اخر القصائد في ضوء نظرية خوليا كرستيفا"الخطاب الاكتئابي"

Authors: Inst. Massarra Majid Ibraheem
Pages: 71-94
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D.H. Lawrence’s Last Poems, written in the last six months of his life and published posthumously, shows the crisis of depression in a dying man and describes Lawrence’s change in mood in the approaching end of his life. Julia Kristeva theorizes in Black Sun that depressed persons have difficulty to communicate through ordinary symbolic means of language. In order to communicate, they must find new linguistic means to overcome sadness. Kristeva names this attempt to overcome sadness through poetic language as “depressive discourse”. Writing and art, and specifically poetry, can be depressive discourse, thereby allowing a certain level of recovery to occur. Once an individual can write about his/ her sadness, the sufferer may experience a reprieve from depression. Lawrence’s particular use of rhythm, tone and imagery can be identified as an attempt to overcome this crisis through writing. The poems exhibit specific formal features such as irregular metre, sonorous sound and hypnotically repeated words and phrases, as well as images of darkness, falling, dying, oblivion and heaven and hell that, coupled with the knowledge of his personal state can be interpreted as features of depressive discourse. This paper, then, is an investigation of depression in D.H. Lawrence’s Last Poems in terms of kristeva’s theory of depressive discourse, showing that Lawrence was attempting to overcome his depression through poetry, as well as attempting to prove, contrary to the current portrait, especially in Iraq, that Lawrence is indeed thinking in terms of God and religion.

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Article
Life and Death in Philip Larkin's poetry :An analytical study of At Grass, Next Please , Mr. Bleaney and The TreesInstructor
الحياة والموت في قصائد "فيليب لاركن " :دراسة تحليلية "لعند الحشيش"، "التالى رجاء"، "السيد بلينىى"، و"الأشجار

Authors: Dr. Juan Abdulla Ibrahim
Pages: 95-122
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The present study is concerned with the analysis of few poems by the English poet Philip Larkin (1922-1985). What attracts the researcher's attention is the recurring theme of life and death that the poet tackles continuously using a traditional systematic structure. Larkin is "an excellent example of the plain style in modern times", writes Tijana Stojkovic.* His poems are easy but all discuss a serious topic in life, a topic which is everybody's concern in contemporary life. Larkin achieved acclaim on the strength of an extremely small body of work , just over one hundred pages of poetry in four slender volumes. These collections, especially The Less Deceived, The Whitsun Weddings, and High Windows, present the kind of poetry from which even people who distrust poetry can take comfort and delight, for the poet produced the most technically brilliant and resonantly beautiful, profoundly disturbing yet appealing and approachable body of verse during the last twenty-five years. This research paper aims at finding few reasons behind Larkin's strange views about modernity and is to find out why people think that life is miserable. These are reflected outstandingly in the poems chosen for analysis in this paper. The research is divided into three sections. The first one presents Larkin's biography and Career as a poet and tackles the themes used and repeated in his poems : At Grass, Next Please, Mr. Bleaney and The Trees. The second section presents the relationship between Larkin and the Movement. The third section is an analysis of common themes of "life and death", with reference to the endless hopes of the human beings in the chosen poems.

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Article
مهارات التفكير الناقد لدى طلبة قسم الرياضيات في كلية التربية

Authors: م.د.عمار هادي محمد
Pages: 105-146
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The research goals to find out whether students applied to the Department of Mathematics of the critical thinking skills?. Selected sample of students applied study morning at the Department of Mathematics/Education College/Mustansiriyah University. In the first semester of the academic year 2011-2012.And sample consisted of (56) students promising researcher test measures (21) paragraph of the critical thinking skills, namely: (6) paragraphs to test first (see assumptions) and (8) paragraphs to test the second (calendar arguments) and (7) paragraphs to test third (revealed inaccuracies and errors) .After confirming the veracity of the tool through submission to the arbitrators and the expense of stability using Pearson correlation coefficient, and method of testing has become the tool is ready for application to students applied . To address data used equation middle percentage weight to arrange skills three from highest to lowest and equation average hypothesis for the separation of ownership the students applying critical thinking skills or not. resulted in the search results on the following: - The students applied have critical thinking skills through the adoption of a researcher on the formula of average hypothesis that worth (10.5) and the separation between owning students applied for critical thinking skills or not been compared with the average answers students applied for paragraphs test critical thinking skills, which amounted to (13.285) which is greater than the average value hypothesis that the students applying their critical thinking skills and get most of the paragraphs on high among weighted. And made a number of conclusions, including:- 1. Most experts agreed and students who participated in the research on the importance of paragraphs in the test of critical thinking skills and the need to focus on the preparation of teachers of mathematics in order to achieve the desired goals of mathematics education. 2. Student has applied to the Department of Mathematics of critical thinking skills, a (see assumptions, evaluate arguments, detect fallacies and errors) ,but in a limited fashion.And made a number of recommendations, including: 1. Enrich Topics pure mathematics and mathematics teaching methods varied activities that stimulate students to acquire critical thinking skills Also made a number of proposals, including: - 1. Conduct research and studies on the relationship of critical thinking to some of the other variables as sex and place of residence.

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Article
LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE SKILL

Authors: Nabil N. Noaman
Pages: 123-134
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This study is accentuated on the use of literature as a technique to teach language skills. Shows to the reader what are literature and the role of both teacher and literature in teaching language. The study focus on how teaching literature important to developing language skill i.e. (reading, writing, speaking listen) and the benefit of teaching drama on developing language skill.

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Article
The Effect of Using One-Minute Paper on Third Year College Students' Achievement in the Course of Methods of Teaching
اثر استخدام الدقيقة الواحدة للكتابة على تحصيل طالبات الكلية للمرحلة الثالثة في كورس طرائق تدريس اللغة الانكليزية

Authors: EFL Inst. Maysaa Raheed
Pages: 135-154
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One-minute paper (OMP) is a quick and easy assessment tool that gives students an opportunity to ask questions and seek clarification. This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of using one-minute paper on third year college students' achievement in the course of methods of teaching EFL in comparison with the presentation-practice production (PPP) approach or the lecture method. To fulfill the aim of the study, the researchers adopted a null hypothesis which indicates that there is no significant difference between students' achievement who practice the OMP and that of students who do not practice it. To achieve the aim of the study, an eight-week experiment was conducted using control group, random assignment, posttest design only. Using the t-test for two independent samples, it is found that the calculated t-value is 4.185 which is greater than the tabulated value 2 at 0.05, which means a statistically significant difference in favour of the experimental group. This indicates that one minute paper teaching is more effective than the presentation practice production teaching (PPP) or the Lecture Method teaching as it leads to the rising of the awareness of the students towards their subject- matter. At the end of the research paper, conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions for further studies are put forward.

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Article
Bullying Behavior for Students at Intermediate Stage
السلوك الاستقوائي لدى طلاب المرحلة المتوسطة – بحث مستل

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Study aimed to build a measure of behavior Bullying of students at the intermediate stage and measuring the behavior Alastqoaúa their behavior Bullying in the city of Baquba, has adopted a researcher of social learning theory in the construction measure that was displayed on a group of experts from education and psychology who confirmed the validity of the scale of the application and has also extracted the characteristics Alsekoumtria of scale through the application of the scale Besorth initial sample statistical analysis of $ (400) students who were selected from the research community has been all paragraphs distinct except the paragraph number (42), has been extracted stability by preparing the test, which amounted to (0.85) has been the results showed Yan second graders with behavior Bullying a conduct similar studies of came out research with a number of recommendations, including benefit extension of the scale that the researcher prepared by the diagnosis of students who have behavior Bullying a and Kzllk study has come out with a number of proposals, including finding the relationship between behavior Bullying and emotional intelligence.

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An Acoustic Phonetic Study Of The Application Of Underspecification Theory On Iraqi Arabic Vowels
دراسة صوتية فيزيائية لتطبيق نظرية التخصيص التحتي على حروف العلة العراقية

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Underspecification Theory(henceforth UT) is one of the controversial issues of Lexical Phonology . Ut is concerned with the theory of features and the specification of underlying segments; hovering mainly on the idea that features should be left unspecified if a lexical phonological rule would be capable of filling them in ,i.e. Underspecification pursues the omission of certain features in underlying representation and the specification of underlying segments. Dinnsen(1998:294) contends that the theory crucially distinguishes between these properties of underlying representations that must be specified and those that must be underspecified ,that is not specified. The underspecified properties, in this case, are filled in by rules of various types that express the predictable value of the property. Durand(1990:156) argues that there are two views on the specification account:1) a full specification account, and a partial specification account. The former type is concerned with the utterance of a value for each feature into a phonological matrix including the total set of distinctive features as high , low , back, round and voice. The latter approach leaves out some predictable features; the missing values would be then filled by redundancy rules, with the possibility that the contrast between two phonemes suspends in some contexts leading to the postulation of archiphonemes. In this case, UT is not just an attempt to achieve formal simplicity at the underlying level. At the basis of this approach lies an interest in a symmetrical segments or feature-values in languages, as it starts from the assumption that underlying specification should be as streamlined as possible and that redundancies should be extracted from underlying entries for distinctive features and all other aspects of phonological representations.

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Article
فاعليـة برنـامج تدريبي وفقاً للكفايات التدريسية لتدريسيي مختبر الأحياء المجهرية في كفاياتهم التدريسية - بحث مستل

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Training is of the requirements necessary to keep pace with modern developments with the evolution of human needs and developments in life and having the ability and the ability to transfer the knowledge and skills of others and to them, hence identified research problem in addressing training teachers Laboratory of Microbiology at the Faculty of Nursing during the service in accordance with the efficiencies of teaching which reflects positively on improve their teaching performance. The aim of the current research is to achieve the following objectives: 1. Building a training program for teachers microbiology laboratory and in accordance with the qualifications of teaching staff 2. Verification of the effectiveness of the proposed training program in teaching competencies for teachers in the microbiology laboratory. In order to achieve the objectives of the research Researcher experimental design was adopted for two experimental and control groups, a partial seizure, as the experimental group is subject to the training program, while not subject to the control group for this program. Select the research community and appointed of all faculty and students, Two meals morning and evening for Grade, Department of Basic Medical Sciences in the Faculty of Nursing - University of Baghdad, for the academic year (2011-2012) was building the training program and verified before applying it to a sample reconnaissance, has put three stages are: I) the planning stage (input) II) Ii) the implementation phase (Operations) Third) Calendar phase (output) Were presented content of the training program on a group of experts and arbitrators, the statement minds and identify strengths and weaknesses and make appropriate adjustments in the light of their views, the researcher numbers observation card to measure teaching competencies for teachers laboratory microbiology of both experimental and control groups, the researcher statistical methods (correlation coefficient Pearson, the t-test for two independent samples, equation Mann - Whitney), the results showed an improvement in teaching performance to teachers experimental group who underwent the training program, the control group, in light of the findings, the researcher recommended attention to training programs for teachers, especially for college graduates scientific Pure during the service.

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The Role of the Intellectual in an Era of Crises: Study in Saul Bellow’s Herzog
دور المثقف في عصر الأزمات: دراسة في رواية هيرزوك لسول بيلو - بحث مستل

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Saul Bellow (1915-2005) is an American novelist, playwright, essayist, and short story writer. He is the Nobel Prize winner in literature in 1976. He is recognised as a novelist of the intellectuals for all his works are concerned with the figure of the intellectual who goes through a multiple of crises. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the pros and cons of the intellectual’s role and behaviour; and to trace his reactions in dealing with such intense crises so as to find a suitable elucidation


Article
Silence Encoding Technique for Compressing Digital Speech Signal
تقنية الترميز الصامتة لضغط اشارة الكلام الرقمية

Authors: Falah Mahdi Abdullah
Pages: 201-218
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Conventional methods of coding the time waveform of a speech signal are used to reduce the data rate. However, it is to be expected that these simple coding techniques will be superseded by more complex coding methods that may give much more substantial reduction in the data rate for accepted level of degradation in speech quality. Within the framework of this paper, a new perceptive silence encoding technique for compressing the digital speech signal is introduced. First, an overview of some basic concepts involved with natural of digital speech and digital speech coding paradigm are presented. Then, a quantitative analysis for the digital speech waveform signal is conducted to emphasis the powerful utilization of the proposed coders. An efficient preprocessing process is established to perform the deletion of the nonessential acoustic material from the speech waveform . The major aim of designing the silence encoding system is to satisfy the following: 1.Smoothing the output speech signal by determine the noise within the waveform and substitute it with a value that do not have any relation with the noise value. 2.Reduce the cost that encountered in the speech compression process and this is can be established by compressing the voiced speech only and left the unvoiced speech without any processing.

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Article
فن تنمية الذكاء المتعدد

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Praise be to God right praise, prayer and peace be upon His creation and The God of the good and virtuous. The world is witnessing the whole great attention to education, and structure, and methods, especially that need to be developed; to meet the challenges of the century atheist twenty, and lifestyles in this century and the value of new that will lead to new targets, structures and contents of new teaching and learning in our country. So crystallized this research in the field of intelligence and how its development by stepping into the theory of multiple intelligences, and their contribution to the development, and development trends, skills and abilities of the students, as the concept of multiple intelligences create room for creativity in different aspects, and reveals the capacity Alzkaúah potential of learners, and that need to be improved, and the development, as it is a gateway to establish relationships descriptive effective able to learn the methods of self, and a collective to achieve specific goals, as the teacher can play a prominent role in this area, particularly in the application of teaching strategies certain consistent with the type of intelligence that wants development, or improve the class of learners. The theory of multiple intelligences proposes solutions teachers can design the curriculum in the light of new, can also provide us with a framework for teachers which can eat any educational content and present it in several different ways.

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Article
A Pragmalinguistic Study of Threat and Warning in English and Arabic
دراسة تداولية لغوية للتهديد والتحذير في اللغة الإنكليزية و العربية - بحث مستل

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This research project deals with the aspects of threats and warnings as speech acts or as verbal actions performed by speakers. Threat is one speech act defined as the act of declaration of hostile determination to be inflicted in retribution for or conditionally upon some course, whereas warning is the act of intimation or notice of something as about to happen. Obviously, there is a close relation and inherent tensions between them. How can speakers assume that the intended illocutionary force will be recognized by the hearer? A speech act of threatening, especially a conditional one, overlaps with warning. For example: "I am going to kill you if you don’t return my car." In this paper, we present two bodies of research focusing on two different kinds of speech acts in Arabic and English. In performing threats, as it is hypothesized, the most agentive participant is the speaker but in warnings it is the hearer. It is concluded that in both languages, warning is the negative of advice and threat is the negative of promise.

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Analytical Study Of The Rights Of The Child In The Kindergarten Curriculum in Syria
دراسة تحليلية لحقوق الطفل في منهج رياض الأطفال في سورية - بحث مستل

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Objective of this research is to know the rights of the child involved in the kindergarten curriculum in Syria for the academic year 2011-2012 Researcher followed in the kindergarten curriculum (book teacher- book child)The search returned of the following results: 1.For order to include the rights of the child in the kindergarten curriculum (book child) was as following:the right of obtain information first by(1,0),right of movment in second place by(0,89),then the right to eguality in the classroom by (0,81),followed by the right to play by(0,72),then the right to protection from physical threats by(0,64), the right of self-expression by(0,48) then the right of psychological safety by (0,40)followed by aright of belonging to the environment and the right of the child to be open to the world and arises on goodness to others by(0,32),then the right to be treated with dignity of the child by(0,19). 2.For order to include the rights of the child in the kindergarten curriculum (book teacher) was as follows: the rights to play first by (0,1),then the right to eguality in the classroom by(0,9),followed by the right of participation by (0,79),then the right of obtain information by (0,71),then the right to protection from physical threats by (o,58),then the right of movment by (0,48),then the right of self-expression by (0,46),then the right of psychological safety by (0,44),followed by the right to be treated with dignity of the child by(0,43),then the right of belonging to environment by (0,28) then the right of the child to be open to the world and aries on goodness to others by (0,23) 3.The results confirned the presence of a statistically significant correlation between the rights of the child in the teacher book.

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Article
Dislocation of Temporality as a Fractured Dramatic Space in Samuel Beckett’s Endgame and Harold Pinter’s Old Times

Authors: May Ahmed Majeed
Pages: 249-264
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After reading the two fine plays Endgame by Samuel Beckett and Old Times by Harold Pinter, one sees that the two depicts modern man who turned to the most passive of all, bewildered, disillusioned, purposeless and dislocated. A man who is bewildered of simple questions: who am I? what am I ? what will be the end? They are endless questions in an attempt to assert himself in a dislocated temporality. Temporality is a direct echo of the existential impasse of the modern world. Both plays assert that selfhood is fragmented and fashioned by this impasse. Hence dislocation of the temporal is an assertion of the fragmented self of their vanishing characters.

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Article
تدريس التعبير على وفق استراتيجية جدار الكلمات - بحث مستلّ

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Abstract

To achieve the goals of the research the researcher came to experiment the sample of second grade students, they select randomly for division (c) to represent the experimental group in which (40) students studied the strategy of word wall. And the division (b) to represent the controlled group, whom studied in the traditional method . after elimination the answers of the students from failed in the test in which (7) students , the final amount of the sample is (78) students. After analyses the results and treated statistically: There is difference at statistical level (0.05) between the degrees of experimental group students, whom(38) students studied the expression by method of words wall and those control group students whom studied in the traditional method for the benefit of first group .

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Article
The use of the Most Common Mental Mathematical Strategies by Teachers of Mathematics .
استخدام استراتيجيات الحساب الذهني الاكثر شيوعا عند معلمي الرياضيات

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The present research aimes to identify the mental mathematical strategies which are commonly used by teachers of mathematics. The sample of this study includes (175)male and female teachers from the Directorate general of Education of AL-Karkh3 and those of AL- Risafa/1and3. Astudy tool was constructed after serveying anumber of spicalized researches and refrences in mental mathematical strategies . The researcher was able construet the study tool that consists of three major mental mathematical strategies divided into substrategies wh ich were further subdivided into other subbranch strategies with examples to clarify the subdivisions of these subs trateyies ,therefore,the total member of the items was(35). The study tool has been verified for its validly and relaiblty.After that the tool has been applied to sample including (175)male and female teachers of mathematics from three directorates general of AL-Karks/3and AL-Risafa/1and3. After the application of the tool,the gathered data were analysed statisticaily using the meanscore s and the percentages .As aresult, the researcher has been able to come up with the following most important results:the most commonly used substrateyies by teachers of mathmaties are:( front counting of twos,fives and tens) ,( addition by the smaller number of two) and Repetition of additifon. The researcher has recommended the following points :- 1-organising courses to qualify teachers of mathematics at the basic education on how to use the mathematical strategies to promote the level of their pupils using such strategies. 2-Teachers guides of all educational stages, should include the mental mathematical strategies to enable teachers to make use of these strategies when teaching mathematic. The researcher would also like to suggest the following topics. for further research. 1-Investigating the effect of using mental mathematical strategies to develop pupils tendency toward mathematics. 2-Investigating the effect of using mental mathematical.strategics to develop mathematical thinking for the pupils at the primary stage. 3-conducting a descriptive study to know the teachers points of view concerning the use of mental mathematical strategies to solve mathematical problems.

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Article
بناء اختبار تحصيلي وفق نظرية السمات الكامنة - بحث مستل

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The present studyains at constructing an achievement test in the course of Guidance and Psychological Health for the university of Baghdad in terms of the Latent Traits Theory To achieve this aim, scientific procedure is followed starting with the identifications of the content material of the aforementioned cowers with respect to the items stated by the sector committee of tge Ministry of Higher education and Scientific Resarch and based on the refrence books relatted.The cowrse content is of ninie choplers Accordingly,137behavioral objectives are formulaled to cover tge whole makrial .Consequently ,nine sub- tests are construcfed ,one lest per chapter ,depending on the table of specification .The total number of the items is 137 of the MCQ of fow optians .The lest is submited to agrowp of experles in the fieldsof Educational and Psychological Sciences and Measurement and Evaluation .According to their judgement,One item is eliminated,ther fore the final version of the lest includes 136 item The lest in its find versian is aoolied a sample of 438 male and female studeates at the 3rd stage from the colleges of Education,University of Baghdad who were a stratefel random sample The lest is ststistically .

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Article
المداليل النفسية في قصة يوسف(عليه السلام)

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Stories phenomenon in the Koran, and a repeat of this term and the keenness of the Koran and described the best stories, and the glory of the Quran and distinctiveness privacy accuracy in presenting the stories, and we find repeated stories of the clans and the prophets, and his eagerness to remind them even with reference to the names or descriptions, or the most important events that they went through. This phenomenon (stories) and referred to as a privilege, you need to pause and study and reflect on the psychological dimensions, even briefly, as happened in this study, we have taken from the story of the prophet of Allah, peace be upon him a model .... The story Quranic enjoy lively divine not been exhausted purposes Vtnfred charm breathtaking not like it magic like when you read live airspace and this shows the greatness of the narrator (the Almighty), where appeared this story integrated parts sober architecture filled with miracle eloquent expression, no doubt was the psychological impact of some selections in the story Yusuf (AS) has had a particular impact Eetmaha with Moral of the story and why they are listed, van if anything shows that this miracle dimension which is beyond description can not be described except that a miracle is impossible for any storyteller or narrator that regulates the example it is a miracle.

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Article
Evaluate the performance of teachers, students of Arabic at the elementary level in the light of educational competencies
تقــويم أداء الطلبة المعلمين لمادة اللغـة العربيـة في المرحلة الابتدائية في ضوء الكفايات التعليمية

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Find aimed at evaluating the performance of students, teachers of Arabic at the elementary level in the light of the educational competencies: as a student teacher who is in his role will be a landmark, the backbone of education, and how much is enough enough education. The buildings of good and the school curriculum and devices adequate supplies required to be of little use if not having a efficient teacher, but that the presence of this parameter compensates sometimes lack that may be present in these areas, and without the teacher-prepared and well qualified enough and distinct Bmka DIMA social, may not be any of these factors, any benefit, and then became the preparation of the student teacher is paramount in the planning of communities that seek to progress and development because the radiation source of intellectual and civilization the views of some teachers and supervisors of specialists.in the nation, and it stops the development of the nation as the type of teacher is one of the most important factors that are characterized by education. Hence the importance of enabling the student teacher of the efficiencies of education, and if what happened to an imbalance in the skills, the teacher could not achieve its objectives, and that is what is required from the teacher that has the professional competence and scientific enable it to perform its work, is the performance evaluation one of the pillars that can be adopted in a development of the student teacher and improve the qualitative aspects of performance. To achieve the objectives of the research the researcher adopted a set of actions, including identifying the research sample, a list of competencies have been identified Allazmalltalbh teachers of Arabic through a prospective study and review of previous studies and literature and

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Article
بناء منظومة قيم الأمانة لدى المعلم في ضوء الرؤية القرآنية

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The teacher with what he/ she owns of knoqledge and science is considered as an effective instrument for building up the huma buing educationally and morally. The teacher is the ideal who is followed due to what they own of unique ethical virtues to make them as cultivator of virtuous ethics verbally and in action. The values they bear have a key role in performance of their educational and ethical message honestly and sincerely . It is known that the crises and wars faced by counters have negative reflections on the society. So some cases of corruption appear aftermath of such crises and take different forms to be dealt with. Therefore, they have become phenomenon of weak trust value and declination of uprightness. Among the widespread phenomenon, indications have appeared to show spread of immoral practices which are rejected by our religion and society such as cheating and bribe acceptance, selling the examination questions, tampering the school marks, inequality over the educated people and arbitrary behavior on them, etc. This would arise a lot of questions to follow every twist and turn by the researcher about the extent of the teachers' performance to their educational message and carrying it faithful with assuming the burdens of this great responsibility . This is the reason involved the researcher to select this study and go through this researcher aims to: ( Constructing a System of Honesty to the Teacher in Terms of Quranic Vision ).

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Article
relationship betweenThe Mathematical power and
العلاقة بين القـوة الرياضية والأداء التدريســي - بحث مستل

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The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in USA (NCTM, 2000) has allocated the mathematical power in the fourth standard of mathematical assessment which is mathematical knowledge, that consists of the abilities of students having reasoning thinking, mathematical communication, and mathematical correlation as well as their ablities to make and solve the familiar and un familiar problems.It is also presented as group of abilities which students can use to think and communicate mathematically and practically. The sample of current research has been chosen the applied students of the colleges of Basic Education in Iraq (Diyala , and Missan) of the academic years 2012/2013. The sample consists of (150) male and female applied students in and tow tests have been prepared for them : The first is the Mathematical power test which included fields (mathematical communication, mathematical correlateion, and reasoning thinking) and the test with its final form consists of (40) paragraphs. And its truthfulness,stability and sychometric characteristics. The second is a note card for the teach ing performance which is consisted of(30)paragraphs distrluted for three fields (planning- execution- assessment) and marks sure of its truthfulness and stability through using Pearson-Correlation Coefficient and reliability was(0.83) and data has been processed through the appropriate statistical tools such as (T-test, Chi-square, Pearson-Correlation Coefficient, and Cooper factor) through the preparation and all the necessary sychometrics characteristics to preparation the tools of the research. The current research aims to identify the relationship between the mathematical power and the teaching performance

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Article
The Effect of Meryl- Tennyson Two Methods in Acquiring and the Development of Historical Concepts and the Development of Inductive Thinking for Teacher
أثر أنموذج الانتقاء في اكتساب المفاهيم التاريخية وتنمية التفكير الاستدلالي عند طلاب معهد إعداد المعلمين – بحث مستل

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تُعدّ مادة التاريخ من المواد الدراسية الأساسية التي تدرس في مختلف المراحل الدراسية فهي تمكن المتعلمين من الاطلاع على دور أمتهم الحضاري وتأثيراتها في عالمهم المعاصر وما قدمته من أفكار وآراء في شتى مجالات العلم والمعرفة ، لذا سجل احداث الحياة، وتسلسلها، ومعانيها، والمرآة التي تعكس أحوال الأمم والشعوب (حميدة وآخرون ،2000، ص51)، الا أن واقع تدريس مادة التأريخ تشوبها الأساليب النمطية التي تعيق تحقيق الأهداف التربوية المنشودة وهذا ما تلمسه الباحث من خلال عمله في حقل التدريس واطلاعه على العديد من الأدبيات والدراسات السابقة إن الطلبة يميلون الى الحفظ الآلي ويتوجهون نحو حفظ المعلومات كغاية، والشكوى من ان هذه المادة بعيدة عن حياتهم الواقعية بحكم الموضوعات التي يدور حولها تعود الى الماضي سواء أكان البعيد أم القريب، وإن أساليب عرض هذه الموضوعات قد لا تثير التفكير لديهم شعوراً بعدم جدوى دراستهم، فتضعف مشاركتهم في العملية التعليمية. إذ ما تزال هذه المادة أسيرة الطرائق التي تؤكد الجوانب النظرية والشكلية والحفظ والتلقين بدلاً من الأهتمام بتنمية التفكير ولاسيما التفكير الإستدلالي الذي يعد نمطاً من أنماط التفكير التي تسعى التربية الحديثة الى تنميته لدى الطلبة، ذلك إن تنمية التفكير الإستدلالي ليست بالعملية السهلة التي تضطلع بها التربية فهي تحتاج الى تحقيق ذلك بتهيئة خبرات وأنشطة تتناسب ومراحل التفكير المختلفة لدى الطلبة وتعد طرائق التدريس واحدة من العوامل الرئيسة لتنمية التفكير الأستدلالي لديهم .

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Article
مفهوم الذات وعلاقته بالإدراك الاجتماعي والمكانة السوسومترية لدى طلبة المرحلة الإعدادية

Authors: م.م.رنا رفعت شوكت
Pages: 595-622
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The concept of self-knowledge formation organized and educated Perceptions of emotional perceptions and evaluations of individual Ablorh individual and considers him a psychological definition of the same self-concept consists of individual self-psychological ideas specific dimensions for the various elements of his being internal or external And function of self-concept and motivation and integration function, organize and develop the changing world of experience that no individual in the middle, and so it regulates and determines behavior. The growing self-concept as a product configuration of social interaction along with the inner motivation of self-assertion, and although he fixed to a large extent, but it can be modified and changed under certain circumstances. The differing views about the nature of the self and its structure and composition and dimensions, functions and even the definition, and has been mentioned Ibn Sina self-concept as is knowledge of the human, and we have learned what God did not know self-inspiring and self and assured self and self is inclined towards evil In the light of previous data formulated objectives of the current research which 1 - measure the self-concept of the fourth grade students preparatory. 2 - measuring social cognition of fourth grade students preparatory. 3 - find the relationship between self-concept and social cognition and prestige Alsusumitrih To achieve the research objectives adopted researcher scale self-concept of Piatti (2006), and the measure of prestige Alsusumitrih the gift (2005), and prepared a scale to measure social cognition, and consisted paragraphs scale self-concept of (20) paragraph, the measure social cognition Vtkon of (16) paragraph, and be scale prestige Alsusumitrih from (4) Questions Selected sample of your search as simple random, after collecting data were processed using appropriate statistical methods research found the following results 1- The sample has a high concept. 2 - The sample has a high social awareness. 3 - There is no relationship between self-concept and social cognition and prestige Alsusumitrih.

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Article
الابتكار وإعادة التصميم

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Current research deals with the study of innovative thought system in interior design, and the possibility of activating the mechanisms of functioning as strategic to redesign the principle variables contemporary social thought. The research aims to detect the nature of standards and requirements that provide valuable intellectual strategy lead Interior Designer and architect to organize it by design, and contribute to dealing with product design through activation of innovation and re-engineering. "research has included the concept of innovation and quality levels and classifications, as well as addressing the most important criteria and requirements to activate the innovative aspect of the designer and the objectives thereof, which calls for continuing probability and redesign for innovative format , That approach completion and aesthetic shape design raises the recipient a sense of comfort and acceptance. Research also addressed the principle redesign as a prerequisite to the process of innovation, the most contemporary technologies for designers to work according to the said principle. The search has reached the conclusions including: • Embodied the ultimate goal in operationalizing the principle of design through the development of concepts, attitudes and knowledge, skills and organizational and functional structures, systems and design methods, and create the appropriate regulatory climate for creativity and positive interaction between man and the environment.

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