Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

e mail:

Table of content: 2009 volume:9 issue:2

Article
The Early Microleakage of a Fflowable Composite in Class V Restorations

Authors: Ammar Kh Al–Nori
Pages: 156-161
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate microleakage in Class V restorations, which were restored with flowable composites
compared to hybrid composite and to evaluate the difference of microleakage between occlusal
and gingival margins. Materials and methods: Forty five non–carious upper premolar teeth were randomly
distributed into 3 groups of 15 teeth each. Class V preparations were made in the buccal surfaces
of each tooth and restored by the use of two flowable composites (Tetric and Megafill) and the
third group with hybrid composite (Tetric Ceram). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37
°C for 24 hours. The specimens were then thermocycled manually for 100 times between 5 + 2 °C and
55 + 2 °C. All restored teeth were immersed in 0.2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectioned
buccolingually with a finishing diamond wheel. Dye penetration was scored by use of a stereoscopic
microscope under magnification of ×20. Results: The flowable composites had a significant effect on
reducing the microleakage at gingival margin (p= 0.01). The type of material had no significant effect
at occlusal margin (p= 0.454). The occlusal margin had significantly lower microleakage than gingival
margin (p= 0.001). Conclusions: The flowable composites can reduce the microleakage at gingival
margins, but non of the restorative materials completely sealed the tooth restoration interface.

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Article
Modification of Gypsum Products (Part II): The Effect of Drying Methods on The Compressive Strength and Surface Hardness of Modified Gypsum Products

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Aims: Studying the effect of microwave drying on the physical and mechanical properties of modified
Iraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris in comparison with open air drying method. Materials and
methods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study (Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) with
the combined additives (gum arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%) that incorporated
within the two gypsum products. Physical and mechanical properties of the experimental gypsum
products have been evaluated by measuring the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surface
roughness. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range
statistical test were used to analyze the data. Results: ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significant
difference in the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surface roughness between Iraqi
plaster (I.P) and Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) with or without additives. Conclusions: At two hours time
interval microwave oven drying, Iraqi plaster and Plaster of Paris samples were stronger than air dried
samples; and microwave oven at 10 minutes for 800 Watt not only increased the strength of gypsum
products samples, but also save time.

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Article
The Effect of Denture Base Surface Treatments on Microlekage of Soft Lining Materials

Authors: Nadia T. Jaffer --- Munther N. Kazanji
Pages: 168-174
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two acrylic resin denture base surface trearments on microleakage
of 4 soft denture lining materials (Tru–soft, Bony plus, UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B after 2 periods of
storage and thermalcycling. Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens for microleakage
were prepared in a disc shape 30 mm diameter and 4 mm thickness (2 mm for acrylic resin part and 2
mm for soft lining material part). Soft lining materials were bonded to three different groups of
acrylic resin surface pretreatments (untreated, sandblasted and monomer treated denture base). These
specimens underwent two aging procedures: Storage with two periods (one week and one month), and
500 cycles of thermalcycling inside 2% methylene blue dye. Results: Statistical analysis showed that
treating the acrylic resin denture base by sandblasting increased microleakage of silicone–based linings
(UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B)and decreased microleakage of acrylic–based linings (Tru–soft and Bony
plus) in comparison to untreated denture base, while treating the denture base with MMA monomer
positively decreased microleakage for all tested soft lining materials in relation to untreated and
sandblasted denture base at one week storage, one month storage and at thermalcycling. Conclusions:
For all types of denture base surface treatments, microleakage was inevitable, however, wetting the
acrylic resin denture base with MMA monomer was more effective in reducing microkeakage than
sandblasted and untreated denture bases.

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Article
Preparation of Metal Mold For Production Of Microwave Flask

Authors: Radhwan H Hasan --- Nadira A Hatim
Pages: 175-182
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Abstract

Aims: To design and prepare a metal mold used for production of Fiber Reinforced plastic flask (FRP)
suitable for curing of acrylic resin by microwave irradiation, and investigate the effect of the following variables
on the shear bond strength (SBS) of acrylic teeth to acrylic denture base material: A-curing techniques
(water bath and microwave). B-surface treatment with monomer. C-cross – linking of the tooth resin
by using the new microwave flask. Materials and methods: The FRP flask is not available in our country
so as a special design of metal mold was prepared for this study. Inner dimensions were determined according
to standard Ash metal flask. A microwave flask was fabricated from unsaturated polyester resin reinforced
with glass fibers, nuts and screws was fabricated from Teflon material which are available in our
country. One hundred sixty samples of five different brands of acrylic teeth were divided into four groups
{untreated and treated (with monomer )groups each of these were cured by water bath or microwave techniques}.
The bond strength between acrylic tooth and denture base resin was measured in shear mode by
using unconfined compression machine, the SBS in MPa was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
and Duncan’s multiple range test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant differences
in bond strength of acrylic denture base to different tooth materials by using FRP flask in relation to
Ash metal flask at (P < 0.001). Conclusions: SBS of acrylic teeth improved by monomer surface treatment
for 180 seconds to microwave cured resin by new prepared flask (FRP) was significantly higher than that of
water – bath cured resin, and cross – linked acrylic teeth showed lowest SBS compared to other type of
acrylic teeth.

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Article
A Clinical Assessment on the Efficacy of the Anterior and Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve Block Technique During Extraction of axillary Teeth

Authors: Faiz A Ayoob Al Sultan
Pages: 183-188
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Abstract

Aims: A clinical evaluation on a recently introduced technique of anesthesia for maxillary teeth namely
the Anterior and Middle Superior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional infiltration
technique for extraction of upper anterior and premolar teeth. Materials and methods: In the first part
of the study, testing of pulpal anesthesia were performed after administering this technique for teeth
from upper central incisor to upper second premolar. The sample chosen for the second part of the
study included 60 subjects of different ages and genders. The patients were divided randomly into two
groups: control group to whom the conventional supraperiosteal injection technique was administered
and the trial group to whom the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block technique was administered.
In both groups, extraction was carried out. Results: The result of this study indicated the
success of achieving pulpal anesthesia after AMSA injection for teeth from the upper canine to the upper
second premolar with no significant difference noticed between AMSA and control group in regarding
to pain score levels after extraction of these teeth. Conclusions: This new technique could be
used as a good alternative and or supplementary to the infiltration technique for anesthetizing maxillary
anterior and premolar teeth using a conventional dental syringe.

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Article
An Evaluation of Different Materials for Surface Treatment on Microleakage of Repaired Composite Resin Restoration

Authors: Emad F Alkhalidi --- Jabbar H Kammel
Pages: 189-193
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different surface treatment on the microleakage of repaired CI V com-posite resin restoration. Materials and methods: This study was performed in vitro on 20 caries free premolar teeth. Standardized class V cavity preparation on buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth was done, forty cavities cleaned with distilled water and dried, then the cavities were filled with the composite. After that, all teeth were stored in normal saline for 3 months, so that the filling become old then remove 1mm of composite from all cavities. The cavities were divided into four groups. The first two groups were treated with 37% phosphoric acid. The other groups treated with 9% hydrofluoric acid the groups II and IV were treated with silane coupling agent, then all cavities were filled with compo-site after 5th generation bonding agent were applied .The teeth were stored for one week after that the Samples were thermocycled and immersed in methylene blue dye, The samples were sectioned, and examined using stereomicroscope. Results: Samples treated with silane coupling agent showed less microleakage than those without silanation. There was highly significant difference between samples acid etched using hydrofluoric acid with those etched with phosphoric acid. Conclusions: Silane coupling agent and the hydrofluoric acid significantly decreased microleakage of repaired CI V compo-site resin restoration.

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Article
Biomechanical Behaviors of the Orthodontic Wires

Authors: Sarmad S Al–Qassar --- Hussain A Obaidi
Pages: 194-198
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate and compare the yield, ultimate and failure stresses of the untreated and the treated
super–elastic Nickel titanium and Spring hard stainless steal orthodontic arch wires with artificial saliva
for one, two and four weeks. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of four groups (10
wires for each group): the control group, one, tow and four weeks of emersion in artificial saliva
groups, for each of the nickel titanium and spring hard stainless steal orthodontic arch wires. The specimens
were tested with tensile procedure and plotted the load stress– strain curve, from this curve the
yield, ultimate and failure stresses elasticity modulus can be calculated. The data were subjected to the
descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Duncan’s analyses at p≤0.05 significant level. Results: The biomechanical
properties (yield, ultimate and failure stresses) of Super–elastic Nickel titanium and Spring
hard stainless steal orthodontic arch wires demonstrated significant decrease as the immersion time in
artificial saliva increased. Conclusions: The orthodontic arch wires (super–elastic nickel titanium and
spring hard stainless steal) are recommended to be used intra–orally for short period to avoid reaching
the complete loss of the biomechanical properties.

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Article
The Influence of Different Ligature Materials on Frictional Coefficient of Slided Bracket on Arch Wire

Authors: Anas M Al–Mukhtar --- Hussain A Obaidi
Pages: 199-202
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the frictional coefficients of different ligature materials with combination of stainless
steel arch wire and bracket. Materials and methods: Ten ligatures were used for each of stainless
steel, elastotomeric and teflon utilized with stainless steel arch wires and brackets. A simulated half
arch fixed apparatus was designed for measuring the static and kinetic frictional coefficient of the slide
bracket incorporated with tensile testing machine. The data were analyzed by using the descriptive and
variance analyses of tests (ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range test at p≤ 0.05) to reveal the significant
difference of the frictional coefficient among the three types of ligature materials. Results: It was
disclosed that the elastomeric ligature had a very highly significant increased mean value of the static
and kinetic frictional coefficients as compared with other ligatures. Conclusions: The elastomeric ligature
is not recommended for use with sliding stainless steel bracket on the arch wire.

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Article
Shear Bond Strength of Hard Chairside Reline Material to Denture Base Material

Authors: Radhwan H Hasan
Pages: 203-210
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different surface treatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of a hard chairside
reline material to denture base resin. Materials and methods: Cylindric columns of denture reline material
were bonded to columns of denture base resin. Fifty specimens were prepared and divided into 5 groups
according to the surface treatment used. Group I: Untreated; group II: Wetting with denture base resin monomer
(180 s); group III: Wetting with Kooliner monomer (180 s); group IV: Wetting with acetone (10 s);
and group V: Wetting with chloroform (5 s). The strength at which the bond failed under shear was recorded
and fracture site on the specimens was tested by visual examination and reflecting light microscope. The
data were statistically analyzed using one–way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan’s Multiple Range
Test and Chi–square test. Results: All surface treatments caused significantly increase (p < 0.0001) in SBS.
Chloroform caused significantly higher SBS, and untreated group showed significantly lower SBS. Mixed
failure mode was predominant in groups with higher SBS, while adhesive failure mode was predominant in
groups with lower SBS. Conclusions: All surface treatments (Monomer, Kooliner monomer, acetone, chloroform)
achieved significantly higher SBS.

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Article
Clinical Comparison Between Primary and Secondary Closure Techniques of Wound on Pain and Swelling Following Lower Third Molar Surgery

Authors: Harith H Kaskos
Pages: 211-215
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Abstract

Aims:To evaluate the effect of recycling of denture base on the surface hardness of artificial acrylic
denture teeth. Materials and methods: Thirty identical artificial acrylic denture teeth of two types
(cross linked and conventional denture teeth) were positioned within polyvinylchloride tubes filled
with melted wax to prepare a samples within heat activated denture resin to be tested for Vickers hardness
test before and after recycling by water bath for 1 hours at 100 °C and by microwave for 30 minutes
at 80 watt then for 1.5 minute at 500 watts. Results: Showed that the water bath and microwave
recycling of denture base will not affect the hardness of conventional and cross linked denture teeth,
and cross linked denture teeth are more wear resistance after recycling by microwave and water bath.
Conclusions: Artificial denture teeth will not affect by double cycle of curing produced of acrylic denture
base.

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Article
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA)

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of MTA against selected microorganisms compared with a
widely used root end filling materials. Materials and methods: Fifteen mm discs of MTA, GIC and
Amalgam were prepared and three types of microorganisms; two bacteria and one fungus, were grown
in 4 ml of brain heart infusion broth for 18 hr. Then 0.5 ml of each growth was spread over selected
media (three plates for each sample) and the discs were applied on the agar, incubated for 24–48 hr and
the zone of inhibition was measured. Results: Amalgam did not demonstrate any antimicrobial activity,
whereas MTA showed antimicrobial effect against all tested microorganisms and was highly significant.
GIC showed antibacterial activity comparable to MTA but failed to produce antifungal effect.
Conclusions: MTA demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal effect, while GIC showed only antibacterial
activity, whereas Amalgam did not show any activity.

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Article
The Effect of Acrylic Resin Recycling on The Hardness of Artificial Acrylic Resin Denture Teeth

Authors: Mohammed M Sadoon --- Ali'a W Omari --- Nada Z Mohammed
Pages: 220-224
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the effect of recycling of denture base on the surface hardness of artificial acrylic denture teeth. Materials and methods: thirty identical artificial acrylic denture teeth of two types (cross linked and conventional denture teeth) were positioned within polyvinylchloride tubes filled with melted wax to prepare a samples within heat activated denture resin to be tested for Vickers hardness test before and after recycling by water bath for 1 hours at 100 °C and by microwave for 30 minutes at 80 watt then for 1.5 minute at 500 watts. Results: Showed that the water bath and microwave recycling of denture base will not affect the hardness of conventional and cross linked denture teeth, and cross linked denture teeth are more wear resistance after recycling by microwave and water bath. Conclusions: Artificial denture teeth will not affect by double cycle of curing produced of acrylic denture base.


Article
Comparison of New Topical Treatment (Curcumine viscous solution 30% ) For Recurrent Herpes Labialis (RHL)

Authors: Maha T Al–Saffar
Pages: 225-231
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Aims: To determine the therapeutic effect of viscaus solution of curcumine 30% , as a topical treatment of RHL in comparison with the traditional antiviral agent " acyclovir ". Materials and methods: A total of 120 patients (100 female, 20 male) with RHL divided into four groups: Group I: Fifty patients used viscous solution of curcumine 30% topically. Group II: Thirty patients used viramed "acyclovir" cream topically. Group III: Twenty five patients used glycerol topically "control positive group".Group IV: Fifteen patients without treatment "control negative group". Results: Female were more affected than male with RHL (83.3% female, 16.3% male) with high percentage of association between highly stressed events and RHL. The results also showed significant differences between size of lesion, duration of healing and pain in patients using viscous curcumine solution topically and patients received viramed cream and patient received no treatment. The patients group which received glycerol "control positive" showed a significant differences in duration of healing compared with group I and group II. While, patients group which received viramed topically showed no significant differences compared with group III and IV in related to duration of pain and show significant difference with group I, III and IV in relation to duration of healing. Conclusions: Topical application of viscaus carcumine solution 30% showed a good effective response on RHL compared with other antiviral agent with the lower percentage of adverse effect, and further study for its effect on other oral lesion may be recommended.


Article
The Effect Of Light Curing Intensity On Fluoride Release From Composite Resin

Authors: Manal A. Sultan
Pages: 232-237
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Aims: To find the effect of light cure intensity on polymerization of light cured composite resin(Tetric and Kerr composite resin). Which affects the amount of fluoride release from (light cure) composite resin. Materials and methods: Two types of light cure composite resins material (Tetric ceram and Kerr are used in this study, three groups of samples were made from each type of material used each group contain 10 samples which are cured by light cured device with different intensity of light cure.The first group of samples were cured by light the intensity of the light cure was 170 Mw/cm2. The second group of samples were cured by the intensity of 300 Mw/cm2 , third group of samples were cured at the intensity of 470 Mw/cm2. Results: The amount of fluoride released from all samples were determined in (milli volt)then convert to ppm(part per million).The amount of fluoride release in to deionized water from materials at the high intensity were less from the amount of the fluoride release from the materials that cured at low intensity. Conclusions: The amount of the fluoride from the light cured composite resins material which cured at the high intensity is less than the amount of the fluoride released from light cured composite resin at low intensity. Which means that the intensity of light cure will affecting the amount of the fluoride release from light cured composite resin materials.

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Article
Association of Root Caries, Oral Hygiene and Gingival Health Among Adult Population in Baghdad and Mosul City Center (A omparative Study)

Authors: Alhan Ahmed Qasim
Pages: 238-253
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Abstract

Aims: To determine the association of root caries, oral hygiene and gingival health among adult population
in Baghdad and Mosul Cities. Materials and methods: A sample of 210 subjects was selected
aged 20 – 60 years, attending the Periodontal Clinic of DentistryCollege at Baghdad and Mosul Universities.
For each subject, clinical examination was performed on a dental chair, using plane mouth
mirrors and exploratory probe to detect root surface caries. While WHO periodontal probe was used to
detect the dental plaque and gingival health. Root Caries Index (RCI) was used for detecting root caries,
Plaque Index (PI) for oral hygiene and Gingival Index (GI) for gingival health. T – test was used to
find a difference between Baghdad and Mosul, while Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to find
the difference among groups, the differences were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: From the
total sample the mean Root Caries Index (RCI) rate was (13.69) in Baghdad and (13.59) in Mosul, no
significant difference was found between the two cities (p> 0.05). The mean Plaque Index (PI) was
moderate for Baghdad and Mosul (1.23, 1.04) respectively, while Gingival Index (GI) mean was low
for both cities (0.96, 0.71) respectively. Also subjects who did not brush their teeth revealed a high
mean of RCI, PI and GI in both cities than those who brushed their teeth once or more than one time
daily with highly significant difference (p< 0.01). A significant decrease in the mean of RCI, PI and GI
with high level of education (p≤ 0.05) was found. Conclusions: Root surface caries is regarded to be
high in both cities population and deserve attention concerning their actual role in the epidemiology of
principle oral disease of the adult population.

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Article
The Effect of Thermocycling on Shear Bond Strength of Two Types of Self Etch Primers

Authors: Ra’ed J Sa’id --- Saad S Gasgoos
Pages: 246-253
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Aims: To determine the shear bond strength of two types of self–etch primer (Transbond plus 3M Unitek,
USA made and Clearfil, Japan made) when used to bond metal orthodontic brackets to enamel surface
after thermocycling test and water storage for two months and to check the failure site after debonding
using adhesive remnant index. Materials and methods: sixty extracted upper first premolars for
orthodontic reason were used in this study; 30 teeth were bonded with light curing Transbond plus 3M
Unitek and the other 30 teeth were bonded with light curing Clearfil self–etch primers. For both groups,
Dentaurum stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded to enamel surface with Transbond XT light
curing composite. Then 10 samples from each groups were tested for shear bond strength after 24 hours,
the other 10 samples from each groups were tested after 500 manual thermocycles between 5°C &55°C,
the third 10 samples of each groups were tested after 500 thermocycles and 2 months water storage at
room temperature. The adhesive remnant index was tested under 10X magnification lens. Results: Both
materials demonstrated a very good shear bond strength before thermocycling (14.5825 MPa for 3M
Unitek & 14.3966 MPa for Clearfil groups). After 500 thermocycles, there were no significant changes in
shear bond strength for both materials (15.0567 MPa for 3M Unitek & 13.997 MPa for Clearfil groups)
and this is clinically acceptable. After 500 thermocycles and two months water storage the shear bond
strength of the 3M/Unitek reduced progressively below the acceptable clinical value (3.469 MPa),
whereas the shear bond strength of Clearfil group still above the acceptable level (10.607 MPa). The tendency
of bond failure at the enamel–adhesive interface was increased after thermocycling and water storage.
Conclusions: this study was done in vitro and further in vivo investigations are needed to evaluate
these 2 materials.

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Article
Evaluation of Intruded Primary Incisors: One Year Follow Up Study

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Abstract

تحدد هدف البحث الحالي بتقصي اثر أنموذج التعلم البنائي في تحصيل طلاب الصف الرابع العلمي في مادة علم الأحياء , ولتحقيق هدف البحث تم صياغة الفرضية الصفرية الآتية :
- لا يوجد فرق ذو دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى (05,0) بين متوسطي درجات تحصيل طلاب المجموعة التجريبية الذين يدرسون على وفق أنموذج التعلم البنائي ودرجات طلاب المجموعة الضابطة الذين يدرسون على وفق الطريقة الاعتيادية.
اقتصر مجتمع البحث الحالي على طلاب الصف الرابع العلمي في المدارس الثانوية والإعدادية النهارية التابعة للمديرية العامة لتربية محافظة الديوانية للعام الدراسي 2009-2010.

استخدم الباحث التصميم التجريبي ذي المجموعات المتكافئة الذي يتضمن مجموعتين، المجموعة التجريبية والمجموعة الضابطة، ووفقاً لهذا التصميم اختيرت عينة الدراسة قصدياً في مدرسة (ثانوية أبي تراب المطورة للبنين)، بلغت عينة الدراسة (51) طالباً قسموا عشوائياً على مجموعتين اختيرت أحداهما عشوائياً (بطريقة القرعة) لتمثل المجموعة التجريبية وقد ضمت (26) طالباً درسوا باستعمال أنموذج التعلم البنائي، واختيرت الأخرى لتمثل المجموعة الضابطة وقد ضمت (25) طالباً درسوا باستعمال الطريقة الاعتيادية. كوفئت المجموعتان في متغيرات : العمر الزمني، والذكاء، والتحصيل السابق (نصف السنة). حدد الباحث المادة العلمية بالفصول الأربعة الأخيرة (الثامن – التاسع – العاشر – الحادي عشر) من كتاب علم الأحياء للصف الرابع العلمي. اعد الباحث اختبارا تحصيليا اعتمادا على محتوى الفصول التي تم اختيارها من كتاب علم الأحياء , اذ تالف الاختبار بصورته النهائية من (40) فقرة موضوعية من نوع الاختيار من متعدد وقد تم حساب الصدق والثبات ومعامل التمييز والصعوبة لهذا الاختبار. أظهرت النتائج باستخدام الحقيبة الإحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية (SPSS) ما يأتي:
- تفوق طلاب المجموعة التجريبية التي درست على وفق أنموذج التعلم البنائي على طلاب المجموعة الضابطة التي درست على وفق الطريقة الاعتيادية في التحصيل.

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Article
Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Authors: Zeina M Ahmad
Pages: 259-267
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Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on the
palatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male with
class I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upper
anterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:
significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference of
upper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short and
deep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

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Article
Bacteriological Study on Tooth Brushes

Authors: Eman A Mustafa
Pages: 268-272
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Abstract

Aims: To determine if the tooth brushes in a regular use can become contaminated with microorganisms
and to investigate if the microorganisms were present with a packaged brushes. Materials and
methods: Thirty synthetic tooth brushes were used in this study. Ten adults each was supplied with
new tooth brush of the same type and brand together with identical tubes of fluoridated tooth paste.
After three weeks, subjects were requested to follow their normal hygiene practices, twenty new tooth
brushes from two manufacturers were also enrolled in this study. All brushes were collected, decapitated
and cultured in different culture media to identify aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms present
in each tooth brush. Results: The result showed that various microorganisms can grow on used tooth
brushes, Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated from all used tooth brushes except one, α hemolytic
Streptococci, yeasts (Candida albicans), Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were
isolated from 70%, 60%, 50%, 30% and 20% of the used brushes respectively. Proteus spp. and Enterobacter
spp. were isolated from 10% of tooth brushes while Corynebacteria, Aerococci and Moraxella
catarrhalis were isolated from 40% of used tooth brushes. Anaerobic bacteria (Peptococcus spp., Veillonella
spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp.) were isolated from 30%, 20% and 10% of the used brushes
respectively. Eleven from twenty unused brushes were contaminated; while other nine were apparently
bacteria free. Conclusions: It is concluded that used tooth brushes were found to harbour microorganisms
and it cannot be determined whether or not the brushes were contaminated when new.

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Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Some Denture Cleansers on Hardness of Acrylic Denture Base and Teeth Materials

Authors: Aliaa W AL-Omari
Pages: 273-278
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Aims: To evaluate the effect of some commercially available new denture cleansers on the hardness
of acrylic denture base and teeth materials. Materials and method: Samples were prepared
from heat cured acrylic resin denture base material and teeth. After that, half of the samples for
each group were immersed for ½ hr per day in the denture cleanser throughout one month, the
other half of the samples immersed for 8 hr per day in the denture cleanser through one month.
The denture cleansers used are three solutions prepared freshly everyday for immersion of the
samples. The hardness of the samples were tested by using Vickers hardness tester, the mean is
taken for each group and evaluated by using one way analysis of variance test and Duncan's multiple
range test to compare the groups. Results: The results demonstrated that there were significant
differences in the hardness of acrylic resin denture base material with different denture
cleansers and duration of immersion (P < 0.0001), and there were significant differences in the
hardness of acrylic resin teeth with different denture cleansers and duration of immersion (P <
0.0001). The results also revealed that the cross linked teeth had a higher hardness value than the
acrylic resin teeth. Conclusions: The type of denture cleanser and duration of immersion had an
effect on the surface hardness of acrylic resin teeth and denture base materials. The cross linking
of acrylic resin materials increase the resistance of the material to the action of solvents.

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Article
The Effect of Three Coating Materials on the Candidal Growth, on the Surface and Color of A heat–Cure Acrylic Resin Denture Base

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the effect of three coating materials: Acrylic resin coating "monopoly", olive oil and
grape seeds oil on the Candida albicans growth, and on color of a heat – cured acrylic resin denture base.
Materials and methods: Three coating materials underwent pores method to find out their antifungal
effect. The effect of coating materials on the acrylic denture base surface was determined via Sensitivity test
in which twenty discs of acrylic resin 6mm diameter and 2mm thickness were prepared and divided into
four groups: control (uncoated), monopoly, olive, and grape oil coated groups. These discs were added to
Sabouraud Dextrose agar surface and incubated for 24 hours at 37 oC and the diameter of growth inhibition
zones were measured. Then the Turbidity test was taken place, in which 60 acrylic specimens (1cm x 1cm x
2mm) were prepared and immersed in 60 test tubes that were divided into four groups, each group (15
specimens) was subdivided into three groups of incubation: 7, 20, and 30 days incubation period, each test
tube contained 4 ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth, 0.1 ml of 24 hours Candida albicans, and its corresponding
acrylic specimen, turbidity (yeast growth) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wave length.
For color change measurement test, 20 acrylic resin specimens (45 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared and
distributed into four studied groups. The absorbed light was measured by spectrophotometer and termed
optical density at 345 nm. Results: All coating materials were fungicidal in pores method. Statistical
analysis of sensitivity test showed that Candida albicans was susceptible at highest extent to monopoly
coated denture base followed by the oils coated groups. In turbidity test, monopoly specimens showed
antifungal activity in all periods of incubation, but the effect decreased gradually, olive and grape oil coated
specimens exhibited their highest antifungal activity after 30 days incubation. Color change measurements
showed that monopoly coated group had the highest optical density, while the olive and grape groups
showed a decrease in the optical density when compared to uncoated group. Conclusions: Use of coating
materials on the acrylic denture base surface was beneficial, especially monopoly in terms of antifungal
activity against Candida albicans followed by natural oils (olive and grape oils). However, coating
materials showed a significant change in the color of acrylic denture base.

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Article
The Antibacterial Effect of Myrtus Communis as Root Canal Irrigant: Acomparative Study

Authors: Rajaa T Sulieman
Pages: 289-296
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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of Myrtus communis alcoholic extract solution when used as
intracanal irrigant and to compare it with the currently used root canal irrigants. Materials and methods:
Samples of 30 patients of both sexes were included in the in vitro study having 30 uniradicular
necrotic pulp. Microbiological samples were obtained from the root canal and then transferred for laboratory
work. In the clinical trail "in vivo", samples of 32 patients having uniradicular necrotic pulp.
They were randomly divided into four groups major depending on the type of irrigant solution used.
Samples from root canal obtained at the beginning of the study and after treatment. The percentage of
the reduction of the counts for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were calculated. Results: The in
vitro study showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was obtained with the 35% Myrtus
communis alcoholic extract. In the clinical trail, the antimicrobial effectiveness of 35% Myrtus
communis alcoholic extract solution was evident and comparable with that from other commonly used
root canal irrigant like chlorhexidine 0.2% and sodium hypochlorite 5.25%. Conclusions: This study
revealed that alcoholic extraction solution (35%) from Myrtus communis has antibacterial effect and
could be used as root canal irrigant.

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Article
Using Thermopile as Densitometer for Measurement Optical Density for X-Ray Radiation Film Which Used in Dental Medicine

Authors: Qusay Kh Omer Al–Dulamey
Pages: 297-302
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Abstract

Aims: To encountered in using thermopile device (thermocouple) as densitometer for measuring optical
density for X–radiation film which is used in dental medicine. Materials and methods: Americium–
241(Am–241) 59.5keV was used to expose a number of dental X–ray films for different times to
end with a variety of optical densities on them. Results: A comparison of the optical density readings
between the densitometer and thermopile was made. Conclusions: The thermopile was capable to
measure the optical density of any transparent polymer material while the densitometer can measure
the optical density of the X–ray film only.

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Article
The Significance of Motor Speed on Heat Generation During Implant Drilling (Experimental Study on Bovine Bone)

Authors: Abdul Hameed N Aldabagh
Pages: 303-306
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Abstract

Aims: To measure the heat generated from 3 drilling speeds (1250,2000, and 2500 rpm) using the armamentarium
of ELIT implant systems. Materials and methods: Temperature was measured with
thermocouple technology in vitro using the bovine femoral cortical bone model. Intermittent drilling
was accomplished by using normal hand force that used in implant preparations. External irrigation at
40 mL/min with normal saline was used with drilling depth at a depth of 7mm and diameter 3.75. Heat
measurements were recorded after final drilling step. Results: Result showed temperature increases
related to the time of drilling and the speed of 2500 rpm accompanied with lowest temperature. Conclusions:
From a heat generation, we concluded that preparing an implant site at 2500 rpm could decrease
the risk of bone damage, which may affect the initial healing of dental implants. This may decrease
the devital zone adjacent to an implant after surgery.

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Article
Surface Porosity of Different Investment Materials with Different Mixing Techniques

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Abstract

Aims: To evaluate and compare the number and surface area of surface porosities of different dental investment
materials by using two mixing techniques. Materials and Methods: Two mixing techniques;
manual and mechanical were used to prepare specimens for four dental investment materials: Biosint Supra,
Rema Exakt, Rematitan Plus, and Deguvest soft. Computer programs are used to measure the number
and surface area of the porosities to compare among them. ANOVA, Duncan multiple range test in addition
to T–test were carried out to determine the significant difference at P<0.05. Results: In relation to the surface
area of the porosities, there are high significant differences among the investment materials tested, and
high significant difference is presented between the two mixing techniques tested with the manual mixing
technique and showing higher value than the mechanical vacuum mixing technique. In relation to the number
of porosities, there are no significant difference among the investment materials tested, but there are
very high significant differences between the two mixing techniques tested with the manual mixing technique
and showing higher value than the mechanical vacuum mixing technique. Conclusions: the number
and surface area of the surface porosities differ from the different materials used, and differ in the same
material by changing the mixing technique.

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Table of content: volume:9 issue:2