Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:54 issue:2

Article
Removal of Cu (ll) From Aqueous Solution Using Polyacrylic Acid Hydrogel Beads as Adsorbent
إزالة ايون النحاس الثنائي من محاليله المائية باستخدام حبيبات الجل المائية لمتعدد حامض الاكريلك كمادة مازه

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this article, the adsorption of Cu(ll) ion from aqueous solution into polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel bead has been investigated using a batch method of different temperature (10-30 °C) and different contact time (1-48 hr) to reach the equilibrium of adsorption. Initial concentration and adsorption capacity of the adsorbents is presented, the time required to reach a maximum capacity of bead was about 24hr. The temperature effect on adsorption was studied and the experimental data have been analyzed using the Langmuir and freundlich isotherm models. The adEsorption capacity at equilibrium was found to be 142.68 mg/g; more than 95% of studied cation was removed by the adsorbent. The process is very efficient especially at low concentration of pollutants in aqueous solutions.


Article
The Bacteria Contamination of Red Local and Imported Meat
التلوث البكتيري في اللحوم الحمراء المحلية والمستوردة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study has been achieved to detect the bacterial contamination of red local and imported meat (Saudi, Australian and Indian). 12 Kg of meat were bought from six different places of Baghdad (Aldura, Almahmodia, ,Algehad, Alsader city, Alkhademia, Albyiaa). Meat extraction samples were cultured in different diagnostic and nutrient cultures to detect bacterial contamination which represented mainly of Coliform, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella bacteria. The results of the imported meat showed high level in the count of those bacteria in addition to another group (not diagnosed) mentioned as “different species “of bacteria. All of them reached the maximum level of permitted range which specified by “Central Organization for Standardization and Quality Control”, while the average bacterial count in the local meat was less than of the normal range of limits. Salmonella bacteria showed negative results in all samples.


Article
Antimicrobial Effects of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis) on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Eye Infection
الفعالية الضد ميكروبية للشاي الأسود على بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa المعزولة من أصابات العين

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of black tea on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from eye infection. One hundred samples (corneal scrapings) were obtained. Approximately, 77% of the cases were due to contact lens wear followed by 15 % trauma and 8% with unknown history. The isolates identified as P. aeruginosa were 30% (23/77 CL) and 25% (2/8 Unknown). On the other hand, the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic sensitivity assay showed that 100% of the isolates were sensitive to Neomycin, Gentamicin and Amikacin. While 91.6% were sensitive to Carbenicillin and Ceftriaxone; 66.6% were sensitive to Cefotaxime and 0% were sensitive to Tertacycline. Only two isolates were found to be multidrug resistant. Screening for some Pseudomonas virulence factors such as hemolysin and protease showed that all the isolates had the ability to produce Beta hemolysin and digested casein due to protease secretion. For adhesion ability using Christensen’s method, 8.33% were recorded as strong (+++), 41.66% were moderate (++) while 50% were weak (+).In contrast black tea (Camellia sinensis) was examined for its antimicrobial activity. The agar-well diffusion method was used for the concentrations 100, 200, 300, and 400mg/ml respectively. Results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of tea alcohol extract was 400mg/ml with inhibition zone of 20mm. The extract decreased the bacterial viable count since it showed a visible decrease to <5×106 Colony Forming Unite (CFU)/ml after 24 hours of incubation. Black tea extract also had the ability to completely inhibit Pseudomonas growth on blood agar and inhibited protease activity and adhesion. There were also differences in Congo red binding seen in bacterial cell suspensions cultured in growth media that contained tea extract. The synergistic activity of tea extract with antibiotics has changed the resistance of P. aeruginosa (without the tea) to sensitive (in presence of tea extract).


Article
Influence The Effectiveness of Compounds Produced From Algae Oscllatoria Princeps Agains t Bacteria and Detected of Some Fatty Acids
تأثير فعالية المركبات المنتجة من الطحلب Oscillatoria princeps تجاه البكتريا والكشف عن بعض الأحماض الدهنية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study Oscillatoria princeps were isolated ،purified and identification from water canal in Almustansiriah University . BG-11 culture media was used for their cultivation in suitable laboratory conditions (25c°, 200µE/m2/sec) for 16:8 hrs. Light: dark. Each culture was harvested at the end of exponential phase .Organic solvents used for extraction was Chloroform: methanol at 2:1 to extract the crude active Intracellular and Extracellular substances, and evaporated down to dryness. Antibacterial activity of these different extracts were evaluated against 10 strains of gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria, Agar diffusion method was used in this evaluation. Results showed that the intracellular products which extracted beast than extracellular product. The gram positive bacteria studied revealed higher susceptibility to attack by the intracellular and extracellular extracts comparing with the gram negative bacteria. The intercellular extraction revealed higher antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus arueus average of inhibition zone was 30mm. but The extracellular extraction revealed higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilise average of inhibition zone was 28 mm. However, Results showed gram negative bacteria intracellular products extract has the antagonistic activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosas with 25 mm inhibition zone. also been detected on some fatty acids produced by the algae O.princeps which Palmitic , Stearic, Arachidic , Linoleic and Linolenic . the highest rate is fatty acid Palmitic 75% of the extract intercellular while the rate of 34% of the acid fatty Linolenic to extracellular abroad.


Article
Vascularization of Leaves and Stem of the Species Galium Aparine L.
التجهيز الوعائي لأوراق وساق النوع Galium aparine L.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research is an anatomical study for the stem and leaves of Galium aparine L.The nodal anatomy was carefully investigated ,by the cross sections at the node provide that what was called "cyclic arrangement" of leaves is in fact includes just two opposite leaves which take their vascularization from the stele by two leaf traces.The rest four leaf- like appendages on the node are stipules ,and take their vascularization from the vascular ring which bond the two opposite leaves,and refered for some morphological and anatomical characters of the plant species in this work.


Article
Morphological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Ten Rhizobial Bacteria Isolates.
دراسة الصفات المظهرية والكيموحياتية و الوراثية لعشر عزلات من بكتريا الرايزوبيا

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study was done in biotechnology laboratories in the national center of organic farming /ministry of agriculture where ten of Rhizobial isolates and strain studied were either local isolate from chickpea root nodules or non- local (Syrian and Turkish) obtained from ICARDA.These isolates were identified and characterized on the basis of colonies morphology and biochemical tests including gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests. The Genetic diversity among the isolates was assessed by RAPD(Randum Amplified Polynorphic DNA)-PCR(Polynerase Chain Reaction) finger printing by using five primers. The RAPD result showed high ability to detect genetic polymorphism in Rhizobia and have the ability to generated unique bands (marker) especially in Shiekhan 3(10)bands Mosle(8)bands isolates that isolated from chickpea plants .


Article
Effect of LPS Extracted from Campylobacter coli on Lymphocyte Transformation
تأثير عديد السكريد الشحمي المستخلص من بكتيريا Campylobacter coli على التحول اللمفاوي.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Campylobacter coli was extracted by using digestive enzyme and hot phenol method. The effect of LPS on lymphocyte transform was studies by lymphocyte transformation index for twenty blood samples were collected from apparently healthy control. The results were showed significant differences (P< 0.05) between samples which treatrd with phytohemagglutnin PHA (66.1 ± 0.6) and the samples which treated with LPS of C. coli (74.2 ± 0.8) when compared with control, this lead to suggest that the LPS extracted from C. coli may play a role as a mitogen to transformed lymphocytes.


Article
Distribution of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iraqi patients and Healthcare Workers
انتشار العنقوديات الذهبية المقاومة للمثيسللين بين المرضى وعمال الصحة العراقيين.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

One hundred and six S. aureus were isolated from 250 Nasal swabs of Healthcare workers and patients at Al- Kadhamia teaching Hospital and Al-Numan hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. The study was undertaken over a period of ten months between August 2011 and June 2012. S. aureus isolates were diagnosed based on phenotypic traits and biochemical tests. Antibiotics sensitivity to 11 antibiotics, revealed that S.aureus is totally resistant to Pencillin G (100%), highly resistant to Cefoxitin (alternative to Methicillin) (94.3%) While there are varied resistance percentage for the rest of antibiotics: Erythromycin (37.7%), Tetracycline (34.9%), Gentamicin (29.3%), Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (50%), Ciprofloxacin (29.2%), and showed highly sensitive to Rifampin (96.2%), Clarithromycin (78.3%) and Clindamycin (73.6%),Whereas Vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (VISA) was 32.1% and 3.8% was Vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA). The incidence of MRSA among S. aureus was 94.3%. It is concluded that S. aureus nasal carriage is a common health problem all over the world and Methicillin resistant S. aureus is an emerging subject even in our community, which requires further attention and support.


Article
Plasmid Role in Crystals Protein Production in Locally Isolated Bacillus Thuringiensis
دور البلازميدات في انتاج البلورات البروتينية في بكتريا Bacillus thuringiensis المعزولة محلياً

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The ability of crystals protein production was studied in local isolate Bacillus thuringiensis by microscope examination, and the crystals protein production were seen after 48 hour from growth starting, the study of plasmid profile of the isolate using gel electrophoresis technique in 0.7% of agaros gel, revealed that it had one Mega plasmid band, the plasmid role in production of crystals protein was studied by using conjugation experiments, that they applied on the local isolate B. thuringiensis which was crystals protein producer and Rifamycin sensitive as donor cells, with Bacillus spp. which didn’t produce crystals protein and Rifamycin resistance as recipient cells. Conjugation experiments assured the transmission of crystals production trait with Plasmid to the recipient cells, this result confirmed that crystals protein trait was Plasmid bourn.

Keywords


Article
Purification and Properties of -Galactosidase From A Thermophilic Fungus Rhizmmucor Pusillus IB8.
تنقية وتوصيف انزيم بيتا – كالاكتوسيديز المنتج من عزلة محلية من العفن الآلف للحرارة العالية Rhizomucor pusillus IB8

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

An extracellular -galactosidase from the thermophilic fungus Rhizomucor Pusillus IB8 has been purified via several steps included precipitation by ammonium sulphate at 80 % saturation, DEAE- Cellulose Ion exchange chromatography and gel filteration on sepharose CL-6B column. The Final purification folds and the yield of the enzyme were 42.5 and 24.8 % respectively. The purified -galactosidase has an optimum pH for its activity between 4.5 to 5, while the optimum pH for enzyme stability was between 5 to 5.5. Futhermore, it was found that the optimum temperature for its activity was 60 C°. The purified enzyme retained approximatly 98% of its original activity when incubated at 60 C° for 60 min. However, 25 % of its activity was lost when incubated for 120 min at the same tmperaure. Activation energy for conversion of the substrate ONPG to products was 6.15 Kcal / mol, whereas, for enzyme denaturation it was 99.3 Kcal / mol. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 232000 dalton as determined by gel filtration on sepharose CL-6B. Kinetic studies showed that the Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) values for the purified enzyme using ONPG as a substrate were 0.46 mM and 223 μM /min respectively.

Keywords


Article
Expression Of Xylose Reductase Enzyme From Spathaspora passalidarum In Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
كلونة وتعبير إنزيم Xylose Reductase من passalidarum في Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been genetically engineered to ferment the pentose sugar xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. One of the reactions controlling the rate of xylose utilization is catalyzed by xylose reductase (XR).The current study describes xylose reductase from Spathasporapassalidarum with NADH preference. According to JGI site the gene coding for this enzyme contains 954 nucleotides and it consists of 317 amino acids. The restriction sites for the enzymes SacII and NotI located on the 5´ termini for both the forward and reverse specific primers were designed using Lasergen 9.0 program. The genomic DNA was isolated and purified from S .passalidarum. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify this gene. The amplified gene was cloned into pSN303 plasmid resulting of the pYIM1 plasmid and then transformed into Escherichia coli. This plasmid was reisolated from E. coli, sequenced,and finally transformed into S. cerevisiae. The yeast transformants carrying pYIM1 plasmid named YJTY1. The specific activity of enzyme was 1.55 and 0.48 U/mg on NADH and NADPH respectively for YJTY1. This enzyme has a natural preference for NADH which makes it a good candidate for combination with NAD+ dependent xylitol dehydrogenase which may enable S. cerevisiae to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions and convert it to ethanol.


Article
Elastic Electron Scattering From Unstable Neutron-Rich 19C Exotic Nucleus
الأستطارة الألكترونية المرنة من نواة الكاربون- 19 الغريبة الغنية بالنيوترونات غير المستقرة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The ground state proton, neutron, and matter density distributions and corresponding root-mean-square (rms) of 19C exotic nucleus are studied in terms of two-frequency shell model (TFSM) approach. The single-particle wave functions of harmonic-oscillator (HO) potential are used with two different oscillator parameters bcore and bhalo. According to this model, the core nucleons of 18C nucleus are assumed to move in the model space of spsdpf. The shell model calculations are carried out for core nucleons with truncations using the realistic WBP interaction. The outer (halo) neutron in 19C is assumed to move in the pure 2s1/2-orbit. The halo structure in 19C is confirmed with 2s1/2-dominant configuration. Elastic electron scattering form factor of 19C nucleus is also investigated by means of the Plane Wave Born approximation. The effect of the long tail behavior (found in the calculated matter density distribution) on the elastic form factor of 19C is studied. The calculated matter densities and form factors of stable 13C and unstable 19C are compared. It is found that the difference between the nucleon form factors of 13C and 19C nuclei is attributed to the difference presented in the matter densities of these nuclei. Hence the difference in the matter densities of 19C and 13C nuclei mainly comes from the neutron skin of the core 18C and from the difference in the neutron density distribution of the last one neutron in both 19C and 13C nuclei. It is found that elastic electron scattering from exotic nuclei can provide predictions for the near future experiments on the electron-radioactive beam colliders where the effect of the neutron halo or skin on the charge distributions is planned to be studied. PACS number(s): 25.60.Dz, 21.10.Gv, 27.30.+t, 13.14.Gp.


Article
The Study of Dielectric and Microstructure Properties for Iraqi Kaolin Under the Effects of Binder and Calcinations.
دراسة الخواص العزلية والتركيبية للكاؤؤلين العراقي تحت تأثيرالمادة الرابطة وعمليات الكلسنة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The calcination treatments and a binder of poly acrylic acid PAA (1wt%) effects on kaolinite particles were investigated through dielectric properties at 1MHz ,quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction and microstructure. The calcinated samples at 850°C/3hr and fired at 1350°C/2hr were revealed decrease in broadening (Full Width at half maximum) FWHM and increase of dielectric constant.


Article
Conclusion Empirical Equations of Asymmetry Parameter for Magic Nuclei in N for Reaction of Incident Neutron Energy (14.5 MeV)
استنتاج معادلات تجريبية لبرامتر النوى السحرية ذات اللاتناظر في التفاعلات النووية ( ,n)عند طاقة النيوترونات الساقطة (14.5 MeV)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study, the magic nuclei is divided into two groups, one of them is light group and the other is middle group, it was calculated shell corrections for all nuclei, and also it was concluded the relationship between cross sections for nuclear reactions and the mass number (A) for all nuclei to incident neutrons (14.5 MeV). We found empirical equations to asymmetry parameter (N-Z)/A as function of mass number and for that two groups: for A=38 to A=40 light nuclei. for A=50 to A=89 middle nuclei. for A=90 to A=144 middle nuclei. Keywords: asymmetry, magic nuclei, neutron, nuclear reactions.


Article
Calculation of The Nuclear Matter Density Distributions and Form Factors For The Ground State of 12Be and 14Be Nuclei
حساب توزيعات كثافة المادة النووية وعوامل التشكل للحالة الارضية للنواتين بريليوم 12و بريليوم 14

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The ground state charge, neutron and matter densities for two-neutron halo nuclei 12Be and 14Be are calculated within a two- frequency shell model approach. In the description of the halo nuclei it is important to take into account a model space for 10Be and 12Be different from the two halo neutrons which have to be treated separately in order to explain their properties. The structures of the halo 12Be and 14Be nuclei show that the dominant configurations when the two halo neutrons distributed over the 1d shell orbits. Elastic Coulomb scattering form factors of these two exotic nuclei are also studied through the combination of the density distributions of the 10Be, 12Be core and the two halo neutrons. The effects of the neutron halos on the electron scattering form factors are explored. The form factors for the two exotic 12Be and 14Be nuclei are compared with those of the stable 9Be nuclei. It is found that the difference in the calculated charge form factors between halo and stable nuclei is attributed mainly to the difference in the center of mass correction which depends on the mass number and the size parameter (b). PACS number(s): 25.30.Bf;21.60.Cs;21.10.Gv;27.20+n.


Article
The Exploitation of Dar-Zarrouk Parameters to Differentiate Between Fresh And Saline Groundwater Aquifers of Sinjar Plain Area.
توظيف معاملات دار الزاروق في تمييز المياه الجوفية العذبة عن المالحة في منطقة سهل سنجار

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research discusses the exploitation of Dar-Zarrouk (D-Z) parameters which were deduced from the quantitative interpretation of 80 Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding VES points distributed in six profiles within the Sinjar plain area which bounded by the coordinates:Latitudes :35o 22’ 00’’ S – 36o 22’ 00’’ N ; longitudes : 41o 36’ 00’’ W – 43o 00’ 00’’ E. The VES field data were provided by the Iraqi general commission of groundwater. The VES field readings were interpreted manually by applying the (auxiliary point -partial resistivity curve matching) method, then the interpretation enhanced by using sophisticated computer software. The VES field data were interpreted and analyzed with an advanced technique through the deduction of D-Z geoelectric parameters which are: Longitudinal unit conductance (S) and Transverse resistance (T), then a new geoelectric maps were constructed. The D-Z parameters maps were used to differentiate aquifers of fresh groundwater from those of saline ones. This technique reduced the ambiguity related to interpretation which mainly produced by principles of equivalence and suppression and cause intermixing in recognizing depth limits for the electrical zones (fresh and saline water bearing formations) during interpretation. The drawing of (D-Z) and other geoelectric parameters maps provided a decipherable vision about the occurrence and distribution of saline and fresh groundwater aquifers within the study area.


Article
Proving The Existence and the Uniqueness Solutions of fractional Integro-Differential Equations
مبرهنة وجود ووحدانية الحلول للمعادلات التفاضلية التكامليةالكسرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, we will study and prove the existence and the uniqueness theorems of solutions of the generalized linear integro-differential equations with unequal fractional order of differentiation and integration by using Schauder fixed point theorem. This type of fractional integro-differential equation may be considered as a generalization to the other types of fractional integro-differential equations Considered by other researchers, as well as, to the usual integro-differential equations.


Article
Modeling and Stability Analysis of an Eco-epidemiological Model
نمذجة و تحليل الاستقرارية لنظام بيئي وبائي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper,a prey-predator model with infectious disease in predator population is proposed and studied. Nonlinear incidence rate is used to describe the transition of disease. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution are discussed. The existences and the stability analysis of all possible equilibrium points are studied. Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the global dynamical behavior of the system.


Article
The Dynamics of Holling Type IV Prey Predator Model with Intra- Specific Competition
ديناميكية نظام هولنك من النوع الرابع للفريسة-المفترس والمتضمن التناقس الضمني

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper a prey-predator model involving Holling type IV functional response and intra-specific competition is proposed and analyzed. The local stability analysis of the system is carried out. The occurrence of a simple Hopf bifurcation is investigated. The global dynamics of the system is investigated with the help of the Lyapunov function and poincare-bendixson theorem. Finally, the numerical simulation is used to study the global dynamical behavior of the system. It is observed that, the system has either stable point or periodic dynamics.


Article
Stability Analysis with Bifurcation of an SVIR Epidemic Model Involving Immigrants
مع المهاجرين SVIR تحليل الاستقرارية مع التفرع للنظام الوبائي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

There are many factors effect on the spread of infectious disease or control it, some of these factors are (immigration and vaccination). The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of those factors on the dynamical behavior of an SVIR model. It is assumed that the disease is spread by contact between members of populations individuals. While the recovered individuals gain permanent immunity against the disease. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution of this model are investigated. The local and global dynamical behaviors of the model are studied. The local bifurcations and Hopf bifurcation of the model are investigated. Finally, in order to confirm our obtained results and specify the effects of model’s parameters on the dynamical behavior, numerical simulation of the SVIR model is performed.


Article
The Effect of Mhd on Unsteady Flow of A Second Grade Fluid Film Over an Unsteady Stret Ching Sheet
تأثير الحقل المغناطيسي على الجريان اللامستقر لمائع من الرتبة الثانية تعلوه غشاوة لصفيحة مطاطية غير مستقرة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this paper is the study of the influence of magnetic field on unsteady flow of the second-grade fluid with constant viscosity. The equations which controlled this type of fluid flow are complicated, so finding an analytical solution is not easy, because it is a system of partial differential equations.We obtained an expression for the velocity by using homotopy analysis method HAM. It is found that the equations motion are controlled by many dimensionless parameter, namely magnetic field parameter M and material constant α, dimensionless film thickness β and unsteadiness parameter S.We have been studied the influence of all the physical parameters, that mentioned above on the velocity field, also a comparison study among unsteady flow and unsteady flow under the influence of the magnetic field had been done.This study is done through drawing about 75 graph by using the Mathematica package.


Article
Effect of Mhd on Accelerated Flows of A Viscoelastic Fluid with The Fractional Burgers’ Model
تأثيـــر المجال المغناطيسي الهيدروديناميكــي على التدفقات المتسارعة للموائع اللزجة المرنة مــــع أنمــوذج بيركــــر

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, we studied the effect of magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) on accelerated flows of a viscoelastic fluid with the fractional Burgers’ model. The velocity field of the flow is described by a fractional partial differential equation of fractional order by using Fourier sine transform and Laplace transform, an exact solutions for the velocity distribution are obtained for the following two problems: flow induced by constantly accelerating plate, and flow induced by variable accelerated plate. These solutions, presented under integral and series forms in terms of the generalized Mittag-Leffler function, are presented as the sum of two terms. The first term, represent the velocity field corresponding to a Newtonian fluid, and the second term gives the non-Newtonian contributions to the general solutions. The similar solutions for second grad, Maxwell and Oldroyd-B fluids with fractional derivatives, as well as, those for the ordinary models are obtained as the limiting cases of our solutions. Moreover, in the special cases when . While the MATHEMATICA package is used to draw the figures velocity components in the plane.


Article
Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic on Flow of Field of Oldroyd-B Fluid
تأثيــر المجال المغناطيسي الهيدروديناميكي على التدفقات المتسارعة لحقل الموائع اولدرويد من نمط بي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this paper is to study the effects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) on flow of field of Oldroyd-B fluid between two side walls parallel to the plate . The continuity and motion equations, for the problem under consideration are obtained. It is found that the motion equation contains fraction derivative of different order and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) parameter M .The effect of M upon the velocity field is analyzed ,many types of fractional models are also considered through taken different values of the fraction derivative order . This has been done through plotting the velocity field by using Mathemitca package . Close form for the stress tensor was obtained in many cases, which have been studied before, are covered from our solution.


Article
Unsteady Flow of Electrically Conducting Fluid of Second Grade Over A Stretching Sheet Subject to A Transverse Magnetic Field
الجريان اللامستقر لمائع من الرتبة الثانية قابل للتوصيل الكهربائي على صفيحة مستعرضة مطاطية في حقل مغناطيسي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, the series solution for unsteady flow for an incompressible viscous electrically conducting fluid of second grad over a stretching sheet subject to a transverse magnetic field is presented by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). Also we examines the effects of viscoelastic parameter, magnetic parameter and time which they control the equation of motion.


Article
A simple Cascade Method for Mixed Noise Removal.
طريقة بسيطة لازالة الضوضاء المختلطة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Images are usually corrupted by type of noise called "mixed noise ", traditional methods do not give good results with the mixed noise (impulse with Gaussian noise) .In this paper a Simple Cascade Method (SCM) will be applied for mixed noise removal (Gaussian plus impulse noise) and compare it's performance with results that acquired when using the alpha trimmed mean filter and wavelet in separately. The performances are evaluated in terms of Mean Squane Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR).

Keywords

mixed noise --- MSE --- PSNR --- SCM


Article
Partial Cryptography in Digital Media Environment Based on ECC Algebra
التشفير الجزئي في بيئة الوسائط المتعددة بالاعتماد على رياضيات تشفير المنحني الاهليجي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In recent years, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has attracted the attention of researchers and product developers due to its robust mathematical structure and highest security compared to other existing algorithms like RSA. It is found to give an increased security compared to RSA for the same key-size or same security as RSA with less key size. In this paper a new approach is proposed for encrypting digital image using the arithmetic of elliptic curve algebra. The proposed approach produced a new mask for encrypt the digital image by use a new convolution processes based on ECC algebra operations and work as symmetric cryptographic system instead of asymmetric system. A new approach combined both compression and encryption algorithms, the compression algorithm used here is discrete wavelet transform to decompose the image information into four subbands (LL, LH, HL, and HH), then LL subband will be encrypted. The new approach test by execute encryption and decryption processes was more flexible and efficient.

Keywords

Digital image --- DWT --- Partial encryption --- ECC.


Article
Areal Quantification Changes Assessment in Ibn Najm Marsh(southern Iraq) Using Multitemporal, Multisptial and Multispectral Satellite Images
تقدير التغيرات الكمية في مساحة هور ابن نجم(جنوب العراق) باستخدام صور فضائية متعددة الازمنة والتميز والاطياف

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Iraq has had more than 10000 km2 of geographical low land areas called marshes. Enriched with great diversity of natural vegetation and wild life. With increasing climatic changes and passive man interference phenomena, vast areas of these marshes have deteriorated through drying out processes at an alarming rate. According to recent survey achieved by several Iraqi ministries marshes areas have decreased to about quarter of theS original area. The statistical data and geospatial information are weak. We monitored, assessed the environmental processes and detect changes using digitally processed landsat MSS (Multispectral Scanner) and Spot (System Pour Observation) satellite images that transform haur Ibn Najm (marsh) into agricultural land as result of desiccation processes. Seasonal and long-term changes are detected. Hydrological and terrain changes are studied .The methodology of using multitemporal , multispatial and multispectral images is currently being evaluated in this marsh ,by using land sat MSS data with (79x79m) spatial resolution and spot data with (10x10m) spatial resolution , acquired between 1985 and 2002 respectively. The area of haur Ibn Najm has been calculated in both images before and after drying out processes according to GIS (Geographic information System) .Ground truth points have been plotted in the previous marsh or present cultivated land by GPS (Global Positioning System) to support the indisputable facts reached.


Article
Determination of Ionospheric Parameters Over Iraqi Zone
حساب قيم المعاملات الأيونسفيرية فوق منطقة العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, an analytical study for the behavior of ionospheric parameters (Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) and Optimum Traffic Frequency (FOT)) has been preformed between transmitter station (Baghdad) and many different receiver stations which are distributed randomly over Iraqi territory. The ionospheric parameters dataset has been made using ICEPAC communication model for annual time for the years 2009-2011 of the solar cycle 24. A simplified ionospheric model has been suggested which based on the correlated relationship between the geographical locations coordinates (longitudes & latitudes) of receiver stations and the dataset of the MUF and FOT parameters. The results of this study showed that the correlation between the ionospheric parameters and geographical location coordinates can be expressed as linear surface equation. The predicated ionospheric parameters values using the suggested empirical model show a good fitting with theoretical values that calculated using the international models.


Article
Analysis of Precipitation and Precipitable Water Vapor over Iraq for the Period 1948-2011
تحليل السلاسل الزمنية للهطول وكمية بخار الماء القابل للهطول فوق مدينة بغداد للفترة 1948-2011

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The water vapor is one of the constituent elements of the rain and the superiority of its importance in the study of climate because it is the basis on which depends all the different aspects of condensation. The purpose of research is to analyze the time series of the Baghdad station andan analyze these series to see whether there is a relationship between these two variables. Obtained the data used in this research from the National Center for Environmental Prediction for the period from 1948 to 2011. The use of statistical criteria included linear regression and Mann Kandal test to find the link. The results of time series monthly presence decrease in rainfall and all months except October, either the results of time series of monthly amount of water vapor deposited emerged there is an increase for all months of the year, and the highest value of the rain appeared in the month of March, reaching a value to about 4.0 m³ during the year 1974. Man Kandal tests showed there was no links between rainfall values and the values of water vapor with years of schooling, while the correlation between rainfall and water vapor deposited do not appear only in the months (March, April, May, September and October) with a very low rates.


Article
Computer Simulations of Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets
محاكاة حاسوبية للتصوير المباشر للكواكب الخارجية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the possibility of observing extrasolar planet nearby star via optical telescopes. Several techniques are considered in this study in order to quantitatively assess their quality in suppressing the wings of the point spread function of optical telescope of a reference star. The optical telescope with circular Gaussian shape aperture reveals extrasolar planet even with contrast ratio 10-7 while the square Gaussian shape aperture reveals the planet with 10-5.


Article
Screening of bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) to water deficit stress under field conditions
غربلة أصناف من حنطة الخبز(Triticum aestivum L.) لتحمل شد نقص الماء تحت ظروف الحقل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Field trial was conducted during the growing season of 2011-2012 at the Research Field, Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad University to test the performance of wheat cv Rabyaa, Latifiya, Al-Iraq, Tummose 2, Abu-Graib 3, IPA 99 and Sham 6 grown under different soil water deficit stresses. Several agronomic and physiological traits and yield and yield components of the test cultivars were determined. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with five replications for each treatment. The cultivars were kept in the sub plot while water stress treatment was assigned as main plot. Water stress was applied by irrigated the plots to the soil field capacity (FC) then withheld next irrigation until the soil moisture of the respective plots depleted to 50 (control), 25 and 15% of FC. Results indicated that the water deficit stress significantly reduced biological yield, grain yield and yield components, plant height and number of tillers. Also, drought significantly reduced leaf area and chlorophyll content and increased proline accumulation of the all test cultivars. In most cases, the reduction increased with the increased water stress. The results also showed significant differences among the test cultivars in most of the aforementioned parameters. Under higher drought stress, cultivars Rabyaa, Latifiya and Abu-Graib 3 were superior in grain and biological yields and most of yield components (number of spikes/m2, number of grains/spike and 1000-grain weight) compared to other cultivars including Sham 6 and IPA 99 which recorded lower values of these traits. Subsequent analyses revealed the drought tolerant cultivars (Rabyaa, Latifiya and Abu-Graib 3) showed increased with high significant in grain and biological yields, yield components, plant height, number of tiller, leaf area, accumulation of proline and total chlorophyll content than non-tolerant cultivars (Sham 6 and IPA 99). This suggests that the these characters are useful criteria that may be used for screening wheat genotypes for drought tolerance.


Article
Screening of bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) to water deficit stress under field conditions
غربلة أصناف من حنطة الخبز(Triticum aestivum L.) لتحمل شد نقص الماء تحت ظروف الحقل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Field trial was conducted during the growing season of 2011-2012 at the Research Field, Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad University to test the performance of wheat cv Rabyaa, Latifiya, Al-Iraq, Tummose 2, Abu-Graib 3, IPA 99 and Sham 6 grown under different soil water deficit stresses. Several agronomic and physiological traits and yield and yield components of the test cultivars were determined. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with five replications for each treatment. The cultivars were kept in the sub plot while water stress treatment was assigned as main plot. Water stress was applied by irrigated the plots to the soil field capacity (FC) then withheld next irrigation until the soil moisture of the respective plots depleted to 50 (control), 25 and 15% of FC. Results indicated that the water deficit stress significantly reduced biological yield, grain yield and yield components, plant height and number of tillers. Also, drought significantly reduced leaf area and chlorophyll content and increased proline accumulation of the all test cultivars. In most cases, the reduction increased with the increased water stress. The results also showed significant differences among the test cultivars in most of the aforementioned parameters. Under higher drought stress, cultivars Rabyaa, Latifiya and Abu-Graib 3 were superior in grain and biological yields and most of yield components (number of spikes/m2, number of grains/spike and 1000-grain weight) compared to other cultivars including Sham 6 and IPA 99 which recorded lower values of these traits. Subsequent analyses revealed the drought tolerant cultivars (Rabyaa, Latifiya and Abu-Graib 3) showed increased with high significant in grain and biological yields, yield components, plant height, number of tiller, leaf area, accumulation of proline and total chlorophyll content than non-tolerant cultivars (Sham 6 and IPA 99). This suggests that the these characters are useful criteria that may be used for screening wheat genotypes for drought tolerance.

Table of content: volume: issue: