جدول المحتويات

مجلة زراعة الرافدين العراقية

ISSN: 1815316X
الجامعة: جامعة الموصل
الكلية: الزراعة والغابات
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين لأول مرة عام 1966 واستمرت لغاية عام 1982، وتوقفت بعد ذلك لمدة ثلاث سنوات بسبب القرار الوزاري بتوزيع المجلات العلمية على الجامعات العراقية وحسب الاختصاصات حيث كانت حصة العلوم الزراعية لجامعة صلاح الدين التي أصدرت المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية (زانكو)، وكانت المجلة الوحيدة في العلوم الزراعية في وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي ، ثم صدرت مجلة زراعة الرافدين مرة أخرى وذلك في عام 1986 واستمرت إلى عام 2000 إذ تم اعتماد مجلة زراعة الرافدين مجلة قطرية وبهذا تم تغير اسمها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية . وحصلت على الرقم الدولي ISSN 1609-4077 واستمرت بالصدور إلى المجلة إلى عام 2004 إذ تم إعادة اسم المجلة إلى مجلة زراعة الرافدين واعتبرت مجلة قطرية – دورية-علمية – محكمة وحصلت على الرقم الدولي الجديد ISSN 1815-316X وصدر المجلد 33 العدد 1 وهو تسلسل مجلة زراعة الرافدين إذ أن المجلة أصدرت 32 مجلد قبل تحويلها إلى المجلة العراقية للعلوم الزراعية. واستمرت المجلة في الصدور إلى الوقت الحاضر 2012 المجلد (40) .

كانت المجلة عند صدورها عام 1966 بعدد واحد سنوياً، وحالياً تصدر بأربعة أعداد دورية لكل سنة. ولابد من الإشارة إلى أن المجلة في بداية إصدارها عام 1966 كان يضم العدد خمسة بحوث باللغة الانكليزية، وتزايدت في الوقت الحاضر لتضم 30 بحثاً باللغتين العربية والانكليزية .

حصلت المجلة خلال مدة عملها على تقييمات وزارية عالية فقد حصلت هيئة التحرير في عام 1996 على كتاب شكر وتقدير من السيد الوزير لتميز المجلة ، كما اعتبرت المجلة متميزة في عام 2009 أيضا إذ حصلت على درع الوزارة وشهادة تقديرية .وقد حصلت المجلة في سنة 2012 على الاعتمادية الدولية وبالتالي اصبحت في متناول جميع دول العالم .

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:agrimeso@yahoo.com

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2013 المجلد: 41 العدد: 2

Article
DISCOVERY LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR LOCAL RURAL LEADERS IN TELKAIF DISTRICT IN NINAVAH PROVENCE
استكشاف السلوك القيادي للقادة الريفيين المحليين في قضاء تلكيف/محافظة نينوى

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الخلاصة

The research aimed at discovering the leadership behavior of the local rural leaders in Tal-Kaif district Nineveh Governorate from the farmers' point of view the research population All the local rural leaders and all the farmers in the district. A sample of 30 villages out of 99 has been randomly chosen and 30 leaders of these villages have been discovered, while a percentage of 10% of total number of the farmers which was 2078 has been taken. the data were elected through two a questionnaires, the first included the characteristics of the leaders, while the second to determine the leadership behavior of the leaders from the farmers point of view .after testing the validity & reliability of the questionnaire the final formula has been limited by 76 items, and after collecting and analyzing the data, the results showed that the leadership behavior of the local rural leaders was intermediate tends to rise according to the two dimension of the work and human relation together and in each of these dimensions separately. The results also showed that there is a very close match between what mentioned in the Ohio leadership behavior theory and the current research results, while the results contradicted with what mentioned in the theory that the two dimensions of the leadership behavior are independent from each other.


Article
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE POTATO PRODUCITON IN TALKAFF AREA / NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR 2011 SEASON
تحليل اقتصادي لكفاءة انتاج البطاطا في منطقة تلكيف/محافظة نينوى للموسم الربيعي 2011

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الخلاصة

This research aims at studying crop potato in area Talkaff in Nineveh Governorate, depending on the experimental data of 2011 for a specimen of (50) farmers. The function of total expenses was estimated from which the function of median total expense was derived to calculate the optimal size which can achieve economic efficiency. It seems that the optimal size of the potato is 23.54 tone with actual size of the research specimen was 15.06 tons, so the farmers of this variety achieved only 63% of the size economy. But, the optimal size of the area which can exploitation to obtain the optimal size of production reached 13 donum. Accordingly, we recommend to expand of the planted areas to achieve size saving for their optimal sizes.


Article
EFFECT OF SHADING IN SEEDS GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF SEEDLINGS LOGUAT Eriobotrya japonica lindl.
تأثير التظليل على إنبات بذور ونموشتلات الينكي دنيا )البشملة( Loquat ( lindl . Eriobotrya japonica )

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الخلاصة

This study were conducted in the Nursery of the Technical Institute/Mosul/ Iraq, during two growing seasons 2008and 2009, to study the effect of shading percentage (zero, 50% and 75%) from the total sun light on germination of seeds and their effect on growth (stem length, stem diameter, leaves number, number of branches, length of branches, length of roots) by used color green plastic (Saran). The results indicated that are significant effects of shading treatments for two growing seasons 2008 and 2009 and the interaction between them on germination of Loquat seeds and their effect on growth (stem length, stem diameter, leaves number, number of branches, length of branches, length of roots). The treatment of shading percentage (50%) in 2008 growing season was the best treatment which gave the highest means in germination of seeds as compared with the other treatment, but the sun treatment in 2008 growing season was the best treatment in (stem length, stem diameter, leaves number, length of roots and number of branches and their lengths in 2009 grown season) The treatment of sun shading percentage in 2008 growing season was the best treatment in stem length.


Article
EFFECT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER ON THE VEGETATIVE GRWOTH AND CHEMICAL CONTENT OF YUCCA ALOIFOLIA L.
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من السماد النتروجيني والفوسفاتي في النمو الخضري والمحتوى الكيميائي لنبات اليوكا Yucca aloifolia L .

المؤلفون: Alaa Hashem . Y. Altaee علاء هاشم يونس الطائي
الصفحات: 26-38
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الخلاصة

The present study was carried out in laths house to study the effect of four levels of fertilizer (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) g as ammonium sulphate (21% N) and four levels of Phosphate fertilizer (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) g as tri-super Phosphate (45% P2O5) per pot diameter 30 cm, mixed with soil surface on the vegetative growth and chemical content of Yucca aloifolia L. plants. The results refers that all studies parameters affected significantly by Nitrogen fertilization and Phosphate fertilization and the interaction between them on the concentration (2.0 gm/pot N with 1.5 gm/pot P) which total increased on height stem and leave number and stem diameter 13.44 cm and 11.61 leave and 2.98 cm in the end of study. While leaves area of plant and percent of chlorophyll and Nitrogen and Phosphor 2577.88 cm2 and 60% and 5.37% and 0.77% respectively in the end of study.


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAY WITH SEAWEED EXTRACT KELPAK40 AND CHELEATED IRON ON THE GROWTH OF LOQUAT SEEDLING
تأثير الرش الورقي بالمستخلص البحري Kelpak40 والحديد المخلبي في نمو شتلات الينكي دنيا البذرية

المؤلفون: Ayad T . Shayal Alalam إياد طارق شيال العلم
الصفحات: 39-47
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الخلاصة

Effect foliar spray with three levels of seaweed extract kelpak40 (0, 2 and 4 ml.L.1) and iron (0.20 and 40 mg Fe.L.-1) using chelated iron Fe-EDDHA (6% iron) and the interaction between them on the growth of loquat seedlings, one year old which were planted in the lath house/ Horticulture and Landscape Design Dept./College of Agriculture and forestry/ Mosul University at 2011 growing season were studied. Results showed that the interaction between 2 ml.L.-1 kelpak40 + 20 mg Fe.L.-1 significantly dominated over control treatment in leaves number, seedling leaves area and leaves dry weight percentage which reached in this treatment 16.66 leaf/seedling, 1262.90 cm2/ seedling and 43.05% respectively, while the means of these parameters in the control treatments were 9.5 leaf/ seedling, 534.60 cm2/ seedling and 35.21 respectively. The interaction of 4 ml.L-1 kelpak40 + 40 mg Fe.L.-1 were dominated over control treatment in leaf area and leaves dry weight which reaches 81.05 cm2 and 7.70 gm. respectively in this treatment and 55.71 cm2 and 5.25 gm. respectively in control. while the treatment of 4ml.L.-1 kelpak40 was dominated over control in seedling length and leaves total chlorophyll, which reaches 33.66 cm and 59.20 SPAD in this treatment and 22.66 cm and 56.16 SPAD respectively in control. The interaction between 2 ml.L.-1 kelpak40 + 40 mg.L-1 chelated iron were dominated over control in leaves N and Fe concentration which reaches 1.48% and 710.33 mg.L-1.in this treatment and 0.73% and 431.67 mg.L.-1. Respectively in control.


Article
EFFECT STORAGE PERIOD ON CHARACTERISTICS CONSUMPTION OF 27 DUCH AND FRENCH POTATO CULTIVARS
تأثير مدة الخزن في الصفات الاستهلاكية ل 72 صنفا من البطاطا الهولندية والفرنسية

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out in a private of cool store in Mosul-Iraq in 2011. The tubers of 27 potato cvs. Which were harvested in Spring season in Rabia- Mosul/ 2011، and stored 3.5 months (short storage) and 7 months (long storage) at 4±1 C° temperature and 90-95 % R.H. to study the storability of these cultivars. The results indicated: The Voyager variety was significantly increased in percentage of sprouting growth، percentage of weight loss and tubers decay. The Hermus variety was significantly increased in dry matter and starch percentage of tubers. While Ajiba variety was significantly increased in tuber firmnness ،and Ladyolympia variety was significantly increased in specific gravity of tubers . The long storage (7 months) was significantly increased in sprouting growth percentage. Of weight loss of tubers perc.، while the short storage (3.5 months) was significantly increased in decay tubers perc.، dry matter perc.، starch percentage. Of tubers، and tuber firmness as compared with the long storage. Interaction treatment Voyager variety in long storage was significantly increased in percentage. Of sprouting growth، percentage. Of weight tubers، while the same variety in short storage was significantly increased the tubers decay percentage.،Hermus variety in short storage was significantly increased dry matter and starch percentage. In tubers، but Ajiba variety in short storage was significantly increased tuber firmness ،while the Ladyolympia variety in short storage was significantly increased specific gravity of tubers as compared with other treatments.


Article
EFFECTIVENESS OF GIBBERELLIC ACID TREATMENT AND SOAKING PERIOD ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF " LOTUS" PERSIMMON ROOTSTOCK
فعالية المعاملة بحامض الجبرليك ومدة النقع في إنبات البذور ونمو شتلات أصل الكاكي " لوتس"

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الخلاصة

Seeds of " Lotus " kaki rootstock from mature fruits of 12 years old were used in this study where divided into 3 group . the first was soaked in water for 24. 48 and 72 hrs.. the second in GA3 at concentration 200 mg.l-1 for 24. 48 and72 hrs..and the third was soaked in GA3 at concentration 300 mg.l-1 for 24. 48 and72 hr.Seed were stratified in peatmoss and sand in the refrigerator at 5 c° for 100 days. At the end of stratification period. the seed were grown on the 30th of March 2011 in black polyethylene bags of 10kg. weight. Randomized complete block design was used with 2 factors and 3 replicates and 7 seeds for each treatment or replicates. The results given early of October/ 2011 indicted that water soaking of seeds for 72 hr.gave the highest seeds germination (90.47%). whereas. the lowest (47.61%) was from the seeds soaked for 48 hr. in 300 mg.l-1 GA3. Soaking the seeds in 200 mg.l-1GA3 for 24 hr. resulted in a significant increase of seedlings height and leaves number ( 68.15cm and 49.74 leaf). respectively. The highest diameter (5.40mm)resulted from the seeds soaked in water for 24hr. which were superior significantly on the seed soaked for 48 hr. in 300 mg.l-1 GA3 which gave the lowest diameter (3.40mm).


Article
STUDTYING THE RESPONSE OF TANGARIN SCIONS GROWN ON SOUR ORANG ROTSTOCK FOR BUDDING DATE, APPLICATION METHOD AND LEVELS OF STRUCTUR ACTA AGRO COMPOUND FERTILIZER
إستجابة طعوم ال وٌسف النام ةٌ على أصل النارنج لموعد التطع مٌ وطرق ومستو اٌت من السماد المركب ستاركتشار أكتا أغرو

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الخلاصة

This study were conducted at lath house / Hort . & Landscape Design/ Coll. of Agriculture and Forestry during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons on Tangarin transplants which were budded on sour orange rootstock to know the effect of autumn budding date (1/10/2010 and 15/10/2010) and foliar or soil application of structure fertilizer at two levels for each method (2 and 4 ml. L-1). The application of the fertilizer was done twice a season, with 20 days intervals, the first was done when the scion length was 45cm (at 15/4/2011). Results indicated that the first date of budding was dominated over the second date of budding in the leaves Zn level, transplants leave number, transplants leaves area, main stem length and diameter and lateral branches number. For the effect of method application and levels of structure fertilizer, results showed that soil application of the fertilizer at the level of 2 ml. L-1 gave the highest means of leaves N level, leaves dry weight, leaves area, transplant leaves area and main stem length, which were dominated over most other treatments. Meanwhile the heighest means of leaves chlorophyll, leaves fresh weight and leaves Zn level were in the treatment soil application of structure at 4 ml. L-1 level. In the case of the interaction between budding date and method and level of structure fertilizer, the best one was that between first budding date and soil application of the fertilizer at the level of 2 ml. L-1, which gave the highest means of leaves N and Zn levels, leaves dry weight, leaves dry weight percentage, leaves area, leaves number, transplants leaves area and main stem length.


Article
EFFECT OF COVERAGE THICKNESS ON GERMNATION AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH FOR TEN SPESSES CULTIVARES OF LAWNS.
تأثير سمك التغطية على إلانبات والنمو الخضري لعشرة انواع وأصناف من بذور المسطحات الخضراء

المؤلفون: Janan A. Sideeq جنان عبدالخالق صديق
الصفحات: 81-90
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in Agricultural College/ Dohuk University during the period 11th Apr and 11th Jun 2010. The objective was to study the best planting depth (0, 1, 3) ml for ten cultivars of Lawns Poa pratensis var barimpaia, Cynodon dactylon var cd4, Cynodon dactylon var panama, Lolium perenne var adeline, Lolium perenne var barblack, Lolium perenne varbartwingo, Festuca orundinacea var barlexas 2, Festuca Rubra commutate var bargreen 2, Festuca arundina var palladio, var hardtop, Festuca ovina duriuscula. Results showed significantly increase in germination percentage, dry weight of plant, pure live seed percentage, and germination speed as coverage thickness decreased. All Festuca cultivars show significantly increase in germination percentage, pure live seed percentage, and less germination speed while Lolium cultivars give the best result in dry weight of plant and number of vegetative branch when compare with the other cultivars. The interactions between the two factors had a significantly effect for most of studied characters.


Article
WATER QUALITY EVALUTION IN RELATION TO THEIR PRECIPITATION / DISSOLUTION MINERALS USING READY COMPUTER PROGRAMS
تقييم نوعية مياه الري حسب قدرتها على اذابة او ترسيب المعادن الملحية باستخدام البرامجيات الجاهزة

المؤلفون: A.A. Alhadedy --- M.A. Alobaidi --- A. W. Abdulkareem
الصفحات: 91-98
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الخلاصة

Four water qualities at Al-Jazeera northern irrigation project(irrigation. Drainage. Well and sulfatic waters) were selected to study their tendency in precipitation and dissolution of associated minerals. Soluble ions of the applied waters as an input data in mmolcl-1 were entered into the Visual Minteq program which calculate the saturation index values of the established soil minerals. And the predicted program WATSUIT which accounts for the precipitation and dissolution of important soil minerals (primarily CaCO3 and CaCO4 .2H2O) on the composition of soil solution within the root zone. The outputs of Visual Minteq program revealed the outstanding of sulfatic irrigation water in the number and quantity of salt minerals precipitated (i.e. calcite. Ordered and disordered dolomite. Aragonite. Vaterite and gypsum). WATSUIT model exhibited higher quantity of CaCO3 and gypsum when irrigating with sulfatic water ranged between (1.74-48.77) and (13.21-182.75) mmolcl-1 respectively at all quarters of the root zone.


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING SOME PROBIOTICS SUPPLEMENTATION TO PERFORMANCE COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO L. IN GLASS AQUARIA 1-Growth and Food Utilization Criteria
تأثير إضافة بعض المعززات الحيوية Probiotics في العليقة على أداء اسماك الكارب الشائعCyprinus carpio L. في الأحواض الزجاجية أ- معايير النمو والاستفادة من الغذاء

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الخلاصة

Study was planed to compare different types of probiotics in two level used in Cyprinus carpio L. fish ratios for studying it's effect on growth and food utilization criteria. A same ration was fed for 84 days to nine groups (15 fish/each) with initial weight 22.44 ± 2 gm/fish and the intact ration was fed to the 1st fish group as a control. The biomin imbo probiotic was added 1and 2 gm/1kg ration for the 2nd and 3rd fish group. 0.5 and 1 gm of the poultry star®me per 1kg ration the 4th and 5th fish group. The ration of the 6th and the 7th fish group included 6 gm and 8 gm of the Iraqi probiotics. 3 and 5 gm of the commericial dry yeast was added to the 8th and 9th fish group ration respectively. All the probiotic supported ration fish groups gave special poultry star®me on level added 0.5 gm/1kgsignificanthigher (p<0.05) body weight gain, growth rate, relative growth rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value than the control fish group.


Article
EFFECT OF GRAZING، FEEDING FREQUANCY AND HORMONAL TREATMENT ON SOME PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN AWASSI EWES DURING PREGNANCY PERIOD
تأثير الرعي وتكرار التغذية والمعاملة الهورمونية في بعض الصفات الإنتاجية والفسلجية للنعاج العواسية خلال فترة الحمل

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الخلاصة

Eighty Awassi ewe lambs(10 month aged) were used to evaluate the effect of Grazing GR, Feeding frequency FF and hormonal treatment HT on, as Body weight BW and Body gain BG. Glucose GL, Total protein TP, Albumin ALB, Globulin GLO, Triglycerides TG and Blood urea BU. Estrous synchronization was conducted, Animal groups (10 ewes each), 8 different treatments were applied including GR, FF, eCG and GnRH hormonal treatments. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in BW in GR groups at 1st 2nd month of pregnancy and in the group that rationed once daily at the 1st , 2nd and 3rd month of pregnancy, while the best interaction effect on BW was recorded in T1 and T2 at the 1st , 2nd and 3rd month. There was a significant increase in BG in the groups rationed twice daily at 4th month, while the interaction effect on BG was recorded in T5 at the 3rd month and T7 at the 4th month. GR, FF and HT had no significant effects on biochemical parameters at 1st and 5th month of pregnancy, except a significant increase by the interaction in TG in T1 as compared with T2 at the 1st month. Comparing the results of 1st and 5th month showed there are a significant increase in GL, GLO and BU and a significant decrease in ALB and TG at the 5th month of pregnancy. In conclusion, the study revealed that GR and FF affect BW of the early stages of pregnancy and this effect disappeared at the late period, GL, GLO and BU increased, ALB and TG decreased with the progress of pregnancy period in Awassi ewes.


Article
EFFECT OF CHOLESTROL REDUCING AGENT ON FATTY ACID COMPOSTION IN COW AND SHEEP CREAM AND BUTTER
تأثير بعض العوامل المخفضة للكولسترول على تركيب الأحماض الدهنية في قشدة وزبد الأبقار والأغنام

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الخلاصة

β-Cyclodextrin and Cross linked β-CD were used as reducing agents for cholesterol in cream and butter made from cow and sheep milk .β-cyclodextrin reducing cholesterol in cow cream and butter by 71.11, 69.76% respectively while .in sheep cream and butter the decrease were 73.33, 83.07% respectively. Also crosslinked β-CD reduced cholesterol in both products in the same manner. Table salt also reduced cholesterol in the production of cream salted and cow and sheep butter by 52.07, 58.33% and 62.68, 46.36% respectively. Bacterial starters were also used in cholesterol reduction. Bifidobacterium. bifibum resulted in reduction of cholesterol by 30.33, 33.78% in cow cream and butter. respectively. while the reduction were 56.09, 53.3% in sheep cream and butter.respectively. furthermore the use of mixed starter. Bifidobacterium. bifidum+Lactobacillus. acidophilus were also reduced cholesterol in both products. Fatty acid composition were GLC analyzed for all mentioned treatment resulted showed the saturated fatty acid C4-C18 were reduced in all treatment. and unsaturated fatty acid C18:1.C18:2.C18:3 were increased in all treatments.


Article
EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION RATIOS OF FAT ON CHARACTERISTICS OF SIMI-ICE MILK
تأثير استبدال الدهن ببدائل غير دهنية في خواص شبيه المثلجات اللبنية

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الخلاصة

This study was performed to investigate the effect of partial or complete substitution of fat in blends of dairy ice cream with two semi fat sources namely; dry whey and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Results show that there was , an increase in the rate of total solid content, total sugars, ash, protein and yield and a decrease in pH value in whey blends compared to the blends of MCC in which fibers content was increased with increasing the ratio of substitution. Results also show that specific weight of whey blends increased compared to that of MCC blends which showed an adverse trend in was specific weight value. Further, result show an increase in viscosity through aging. Moreover there was an increase in the shrinkage values only in the whey blends after 24hr the storage time, whereas freezing point was increase only in the MCC blends. Furthermore the result also showed that MCC blends was more resistant to melting point and more reduced in energy content compared with whey blends. Whereas whey blends revealed higher degree in sensory evaluation than that of other blends.


Article
ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANTS EXTRACTS AS ANTIOXIDANT MATERIALS
فعالية بعض المستخلصات النباتية كمواد مضادة للأكسدة

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الخلاصة

The effects of using two extracting solvents (methanol and ethanol 80%) on the extract yield, total phenol content and antioxidant activities of dried sumac fruits and leaves of dried rosemary and sage extracts had been studied. Generally higher crude extract yields were obtained using aqueous methanol as compared to the respective aqueous ethanol. Dried sumac fruits gave higher extract yields as compared with the extract yield of dried rosemary and sage leaves. Sage leaves gave higher amount of total phenol compounds as compared with the two other studied plants, also sage leaves extract gave better antioxidant activity through reducing power and bleaching of B-carotene tests compared with the antioxidant activities of sumac fruits and rosemary leaves.


Article
EFFECT OF METHODES. QUANTITIES AND INTERVALS OF IRRIGATION ON SOME GROWTH CHARACTERS OF Acacia Arabica Wild TRANSPLANTS AFTER PLANTING
تأثير أساليب وكميات وفترات الري في بعض صفات النمو لشتلات شوك العرب Acacia arabica Wild بعد الغرس

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted in Mosul University Compus. eastside of Tigris River. from the beginning of March until November 2006 in order to investigate the effects of irrigation methods (bar soil surface. covering soil surface by gravels and fitting perpendicular plastic pipes). irrigation quantities (4. 6 and 8 liters) and irrigation intervals (one week. two week and three weeks) on growth characters of Acacia Arabica Wild. The factorial experiments was conducted according to Randomized Complete Block Design by using Duncan method to compare the treatments mean. At the end of this experiment the characters. survival percentage. diameter growth increment. height growth increment and branches number increment were tested. and the most important results were as follows: 1) The fitting of perpendicular plastic pipe. quantity of irrigation (8) litters and the shorter irrigation interval gave the best results for all studied characters. 2) The following interaction (perpendicular plastic pipe and 8 liters). (perpendicular plastic pipe and each one week irrigation) and (8 litter and one week irrigation) gave the best result for all the studied characters as compare with the other interactions. 3) Due to the interaction among the studied factors the interaction of (perpendicular plastic pipe and 8 litters and one week irrigation) gave the best results for all the studied characters comparing with the other triple interaction.

الكلمات الدلالية

Acacia arabica Wild --- tube. --- شوك العرب، الري، أنبوب.


Article
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FACTORS ON ADHESIVE LINE SOLIDIFICATION IN SHEAR TENSION TEST AND DRY AND WET TENSILE TENSION TEST OF WOOD STRUCTURE
تاثير عوامل مختلفة لتصلب الخط الصمغي في قوة الشد للقطع المائل وقوة الشد الجاف والرطب في التراكيب الخشبية

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to test the strength of glue line in wood structures by using some mechanical tests (shear strength test, Dry and wet tensile tests). Two kinds of adhesives (Urea-formaldehyde (UF) and poly-vinyl acetate (PVA) with three types of wood surfaces (Pure Pine, Pure Sycamore and substrate of Pine with Sycamore) and two methods of adhesive curing (Electrical and microwave domestic ovens) were used. It was shown from the study results that wood type had an effect in share tension test, pine wood gave the best results followed by shear tension of sycamore wood and pine with sycamore wood, but there were no significances between the three types of woods. Urea formaldehyde adhesive got the highest shear tension values when compared with PVA adhesive. Solidification by using electrical oven method gave the best values in shear tension as compared with the microwave oven curing method. The results also showed that 1 gm adhesive quantity gave the best results as compared with 0.75 gm and 0.5 gm in shear tension. Concerning the dry and wet tensile tension of the PVA glue line by using electrical oven dry, microwave oven and room temperature solidification methods, the results showed that pine wood had greater dry and wet tensile tension than sycamore wood and pine with sycamore wood. Also, parallel grain direction gave the best values as compared to perpendicular grain direction for both dry and wet tensile tension. The results also showed that the highest dry tensile tension was by using electrical oven solidification method، followed by room temperature method، while solidification by using microwave oven gave the lower tensile tension value. Room temperature solidification method gave the best results in tensile tension after emersion in water for 30 and 60 minute as compared to electrical oven and microwave oven solidification process respectively. Also, 2 gm adhesive gave the best results in tensile tension compared to 1.5 gm and 1 gm adhesive quantities.


Article
FIBERS DIMENSIONS AND ITS VARIATION FOR TWO DIFFERENT AGES OF Melia azedarach L.TREES GROWN IN MOSUL
ابعاد الالياف وتبايناتها لعمرين مختلفين من اشجار السبحبح Melia azedarach L.النامية في مدينة الموصل وتاثيرها في صناعة الورق

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الخلاصة

Three trees were randomly selected from each age, The trees were felled and one disc 5cm. in thickness were taken from DBH in each selected tree to study the anatomical properties namely; fiber length، fiber diameter, fiber wall thickness, the ratio of double fiber wall thickness to lumen diameter (Runkel ratio) and the ratio of fiber length to its diameter. From each disc a sector was taken from the pith to the bark and divided into three equal parts to study the variation in anatomical properties across the stem.Average fiber length of the young trees (1.03mm), while (1.00mm) for the mature trees.Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between the trees for all the anatomical properties in this study for both ages. Analysis of t test showed that there was no significant difference between the average of fiber length to its diameter، While there is significant difference between fiber wall thickness, fiber lumen diameter and the Runkel ratio.The results did not shows any regular concerning the variation of fiber dimension in the radial direction .It was shown that there is a significant increase in the fiber length for each ages and in the fiber wall thickness and the Runkel rtio for the mature trees. There were an increase from the pith to the middle then not significant increase for the fiber diameter and the Runkel ratio for the young trees but it is significant for the ratio of fiber length to its diameter in the mature trees. There was no significant increase in the fiber diameter and fiber lumen diameter from the pith to the middle then there is a significant increase till the bark and there was a decrease from the pith to the middle then there is no significant increase to the bark of the young trees. We can conclude that the fiber length of the tow ages lies within the fiber lengths ranges used in pulp and paper manufacturing. The average of Runkel ratio of the mature trees also lies within the values required for pulp and paper manufacturing so it maybe more suitable than the young trees. Crystals in chambered fibers، libriform fibers and fibers with dentate end were observed.


Article
QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS OF VEGETATATION COVER GROWN AT OVERLOOKING ASPECTS ON ASHAWA RESORT AT NORTHERN IRAQ.
الصفات الكمية للغطاء النباتي النامي في الواجهات المطلة على مصيف اشاوا بشمال العراق

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at Ashawa resort in northern Iraq. including quantitative characters of vegetation grown in four aspect surrounding Ashawa resort with two elevation.The studied characters were (covering, relative covering, density, relative density, wet and dry weight, dry mater, plant height, frequency, relative frequency, Importance value, composition percentage).The results of grasses and herbs showed that the first level gave significantly a higher values of the traits (covering, density, wet and dry weight, grasses%, legumes%, richness, Shannon index, simpson index, homogeneity and carrying capacity) than the second level, while the second level of trees and shrubs gave significantly a higher values of the traits (covering, density, wet and dry weight, Shannon index, simpson index and homogeneity). The east aspect was significantly difference in the characters of grasses and herbs (covering, wet and dry weight, other herbs and carrying capacity), while the south aspect was significantly difference in (density and legumes%), no significant difference between north and west aspect in (richness, Shannon index, simpson index and homogeneity) was shown. As for trees and shrubs, the east aspect was significantly superiority of these qualities (density, richness. Shannon’s and Simpson’s diversity indices). The north aspect was superiority of these characteras (covering and homogeneity), while the south aspect was significantly superiority from the other aspects in (wet and dry weight). Through this study of the general covering it was shown that there were significant differences between aspects and elevations.


Article
EVAPOTRNSPIRATION DETERMINATION OF SOME FOREST TREE SPECIES AND SEEDLINGS
تقدير تبخر نتح بعض أشجار و شتلات ألغابات

المؤلفون: Ibrahim I. A. إبراهيم أنور إبراهيم
الصفحات: 218-224
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الخلاصة

Weighing method was used to determine actual evapotranspiration of three types of forest trees seedlings Pinus brutia, Cupressus sempervirens var horizontalis and Biota orientalis grown in forestry nursery at College of Agriculture and Forestry during the period from the middle of November 2009 and the end of January 2010 .The effects of various environmental factors on evapotranspiration were studied such as air temperature, relative humidity, dew point, actual vapor pressure, saturation water vapor pressure, saturation deficit and soil moisture. Results showed that the amount of evapotranspiration of the three types of seedlings were 3.3,4.5 ,2.9 ml/hr/seedling, the best equation that gave good agreement are as follow ETp = 0.5219 ( sd ) – 1.339 ETc= 0.860 ( sd ) – 2.453 ETt = 0.704 ( sd) – 2.406 On the other hand results indicated that the amount of transpiration measured by cut branches of the same species were gave a values of 28.23, 35.7, 34.0 mg H2O/gm/hr respectively.


Article
EFFECT OF FIBERS SOURCE AND SOME PROCESSING VARIABLES ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARDS.
تأثير نوع الألياف الخشبية وبعض عوامل التصنيع في الصفات الميكانيكية للألواح الليفية المتوسطة الكثافة

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الخلاصة

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panel from recycled wood fiber from old corrugated container (OCC) to reduce tree cutting and using of wood timber in this industry. Furthermore, the effects of the fiber source and the process variables like resin content and press time and their interactions on the mechanical properties of MDF panels were studied. The results showed that the panels made by wet process from recycled fiber were better than panels made from fiber mixture and virgin fiber in the mechanical properties for Modulus of rupture (MOR), Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and Internal bond (IB). The panels made with resin content 10% were better than panels made with other levels of resin contents for each of MOR, MOE and IB. The panels made by pressing 30 minute were better than all other press periods for each of MOR, MOE. The results of the interaction of fiber source ,resin content , and pressing time showed the superiority of the panels made from recycled fiber with 10% resin content and pressing time 20 and 30 minute for each of MOR and MOE over the rest of panels , whereas the IB was the best in the panels of the recycled fiber with different resin content and various pressing time. The panels with the above mechanical properties had passed the standard requirements for interior application.


Article
THE REACTION OF WHEAT GENOTYPES TO COMMOM SMUT DISEASE CAUSED BY Tilletia tritici and T.leavis
رد فعل طرز وراثية من القمح إزاء مسببي مرض التفحم الشائع T. triticiو T. leavis

المؤلفون: Mayada Kayali ميادة كيالي --- Melody Nasheet ميلودي نشيط
الصفحات: 237-247
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الخلاصة

Wheat crops are infected by many diseases that vary in severity and incidence according to prevalent climate conditions in cultivation areas. Common bunt (CB) caused by Tilletia tritici and T.leavis, remains a serious and dangerous wheat disease in Syria. It affects most types of durum and bread wheat cultivated in the world, causing losses in grain yield. Given the importance of this strategic crop and the relative lack of studies on this disease in Syria, and genetic resistance, this study aimed to: Evaluate and select durum and bread wheat accessions for resistance to common bunt.Seed of 104 durum and 102 bread wheat genotypes were screened in 2006/07 and 2007/08 seasons, under artificial inoculation using a mixture of teliospores of both T. tritici and T.leavis under field conditions. Significant variations in reaction types were found in infected plants. In the first season, 12 durum and 4 bread wheat genotypes showed resistant reaction (R) to the disease, and 23 durum and 4 bread genotypes reacted moderately resistant (MR). Only 8 tested durum genotypes were resistant in the second season, meanwhile 24 tested durum and 10 bread wheat genotypes proved moderately resistant (MR). The resistant genotypes could be used in breeding programs for increasing resistance of high yielding wheat cultivars.

الكلمات الدلالية

Crops --- Tilletia tritici --- yield. --- القمح، T.leavis Kuhn، التفحمات.


Article
ESTIMATINON GENOTYPIC PHENOTYPIC VARIANCES FOR BARLEY GENOTYPES
تقدير التباينات الوراثية والمظهرية لتراكيب وراثية من الشعير

المؤلفون: Al-Tawel, M. S. محمد صبحي الطويل
الصفحات: 248-258
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الخلاصة

Twenty four genotype of barley were used in addition to the local variety (black barley), according to random complete block design (R.C.B.D.) with three replications under the rainfed conditions of northern area of Iraq. The characters were studied. These characters are namely: Number of days to 50% anthesis, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, number of spikes/m2, biological yield, grain yield, harvest index and. Genotypic and phenotypic variances were highly significant for all the characters. Broad-sense heritability value was high for plant height, number of spikes/m2, number of grains/spike and biological yield and moderate for Number of days to 50% anthesis, spike length, grain yield, harvest index and 1000-grain weight. The expected genetic advance values were low for Number of days to 50% anthesis, Medium for plant height, spike length, grain yield and 1000-grain weight, high for number of spikes/m2, number of grains/spike, biological yield and harvest index, The coefficient to phenotypic and genotypic was low for number of days to 50% and thesis and plant height while moderate for spike length, number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2, biological yield, grain yield, and 1000-grain weight and high for harvest index.


Article
INFLUENCE OF BIOFERTILIZER EM1، NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND REMOVING THE LEAF UNDER EAR ON GROWTH TRAITS، YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN CORN (Zea mays L)
التاثير الفسيولوجي للسماد الحيوي EM1 والتسميد النتروجيني وازالة الورقة تحت العرنوص في صفات النمو والحاصل ومكوناته لمحصول الذرة الصفراء ( Zea mays L. (

المؤلفون: Saleh M.Ibraheem صالح محمد ابراهيم
الصفحات: 259-279
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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of Biofertilizer EM1, Nitrogen fertilization and removing the leaf under ear on growth traits, grain yield and its components of corn (Zea mays L.), in two locations for the autumn season 2009. The first location was in Mosul City، while the second was in Salamya 34 Km southern Mosul city. The split- split plot arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications was used. The experiment included four levels of Biofertilizer EM1 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 cc/Liter), two levels of Nitrogen fertilization (zero, 120Kg N/ha) and two treatments of removing and non removing of leaf under ear . Nitrogen fertilization levels, Biofertilizer EM1 and removing leaf under ear were represented as Main plots, sub plots and sub sub plots respectively. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization level 120kg N/ha was significantly superior as compared with non nitrogen fertilization in all growth traits: number of days to 75% flowering، stem length, leaf area, leaf area index، leaves and stem dry weight. Grain yield and its components: ear length, number of rows per ear, number of grains per rows، weight of 500 grains، grains yield and harvest index. Grain quality: protein percentage and yield, oil percentage and yield in both locations. Increasing of Biofertilizer EM1 levels caused significant increase in all growth traits, grain yield and its components and grain quality in both locations. Removing the leaf under ear was significantly superior compared with non removing in all growth traits, grain yield and its components and grain quality in both locations.


Article
ESTIMATION OF HERITABILITY , EXPECTED GENETIC ADVANCE AND SELECTION INDICES FOR NEW DURUM WHEAT ENTRIES
تقدير التوريث والتحسين الوراثي المتوقع وأدلة الانتخاب لمدخلات جديدة من الحنطة الخشنة

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الخلاصة

Ten durum wheat entries (Triticum durum Desf.) introduced from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) were used in this study .The grains were sown in the season (2006 – 2007) in the farms of the college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University - IRAQ. Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications was used. The experimental unit consisted of 4 rows; 2.5m. long and 30 cm apart. The characters studied were number of days to 50%, plant height, spike length, Flag leaf area/cm2, number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2, biological yield (kg/ha), grain yield (kg/ha), harvest index, 1000-grain weight, protein content and ash content. Entries were significantly different at 1% level for all the characters. Broad sense heritability values were high for all the characters. The expected genetic advance values as the percent of the total mean characters were ranged between low for number of days to 50 % , plant height, biological yield and ash content; medium for spike length, flag leaf area, number of grains/spike, grain yield, harvest index, 1000-grain weight, protein content and high for the number of spikes/m2. The selection index that included the three characters, length of spike, number of spikes/m2 and the number of grains/spike was superior over the direct selection of grain yield.


Article
ECOLOGICAL STUDY AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME APPLE VARITIES TO ATTACK BY Dysaphis reaumuri and Dysaphis pyri
دراسة بيئية وحساسية بعض أصناف التفاح للإصابة بنوعي الَمنْ Dysaphis pyri, Dysaphis reaumuri

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الخلاصة

The Results of studying the effect of some ecological factors and Ana and Vestibella apple varieties on seasonal activity of leafroll aphid Dysaphis reanmuri and Dysaphis pyri, showed a significant effect on mean number of the two aphid species a ccording to the season, apple variety and direction, the highest mean aphid number reached 25.47 Aphid/Leaf on East direction on Vestibella variety for the season 2010 The results also exhibit a significant variation between the general mean number of aphids according to the direction and reached 23.16, 9.62, 7.74 and 13.46 Aphid/leaf for East, West, North and South direction respectively. The regression equations between the mean number of aphids and biotic and abiotic factors showed a clear effect on mean aphid seasonal activity and the rain exhibit ahighest effect on mean aphid number and reached ٪66 – 6 while the effect of wind and temperature on mean number of parasites were 67. and 59.6% respectively.


Article
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MAIZE SEEDS SPEICES TO INFESTATION BY KHAPRA BEETLE (Trogoderma granarium Everts, Coleoptera, Dermestidae)
حساسية بعض أنواع حبوب الذرة للإصابة بخنفساء الحبوب الشعرية (الخابرا) Trogoderma granarium Everts, (Coleoptera, Dermestidae)

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الخلاصة

The present study included the effect of corn seeds species (Forage corn, Popcorn and Sorghum) and the effect of storage period (2 and 4) months on the population density and growth rate of khapra beetle in addition the effect of population density on the loss of weight and some of physical characteristics, germination percentage, (volume of 100 seed and weight of 1000 seed), The results indicated that the sorghum seed was more susceptible to infestation by Khapra beetle of all insect stage 61.67 and 215.67 insects for two storage periods 2 and 4 months respectively, followed as the forage corn (45 and 56.76) individuals, Then the pop corn (29.67and 46.67) individuals for two storage periods, respectively too, and the general mean of insect numbers for two storage periods were 45.45 and 106.37 insect. The results showed that the individuals growth rate was between 1.48 on pop corn seed at 2 months of storage period and 5.39 on sorghum seed at 4 months of storage period, the lower loss of seed weight reached (0.51) gm. at 2 months of storage period on the pop corn with the loss percentage 2.04%, and approached to higher loss on the sorghum (4.24) gm. with the loss percentage 16.95% at 4 months of storage period. The effect of insect infestation and storage period was greater on the physical characteristics under study, which the general mean of germination percentage for the two storage period decreased from 83.33% before infestation to 12.94% after infestation, and volume of 100 seed decreased from 11.65 to 8.88 ml. then the weight of 1000 seed reduced from 121.62. to 101.79 gm.


Article
EFFECT OF PHAEOACREMONIUM ALEOPHILUM ON ELEMENT PERCENTAGE IN INFECTED TWIG APRICOT TISSUES
تأثير الفطر Phaeoacremonium aleophilum في نسب العناصر المعدنية بمواقع التلقيح في أفرع بعض أصناف المشمش

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الخلاصة

Paeoacremonium aleophilum W. Gams, Crous has influences on nutrient elements in infected twig Apricot tissue. The pathogen caused accumulation of Nitrogen and Phosphors after one month stating from inculcation with 35.969% increasing in Nitrogen for Abo-zyngeel Local Cultivar of inculcation while there was no Nitrogen increasing in the rest local cultivars. Phosphors was accumulated only in Turkey local cultivar after two hours with 7.4%, while the other nutrient elements such as K,Ca,Fe did not record any significant increasing for all LCs. All tested nutrient elements at their levels in infected tissue (Fe,P,Ca,N) except K had been inhibited P. aleophilum dry weight in Minimal Medium while concentration (5000mg/L and 400mg/L) K and P had stimulated effect to fungus sporulation in contrasting to the inhibition effect on the rest nutrient elements including Fe,Ca,N at 400,4000,10000 mg/L levels respectively. There are high correlation between salicylic acid high levels of Potassium and Phosphorus elements in the otherwise there are high correlation between salicylic acid and low levels with Calcium and Ferrous elements.


Article
EFFECT OF THE FEEDING OF Coccinella septempunctata L. ON Aphis fabae Scopoli TREATED WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION AND METHODS OF ROYAL JELLY AND HONEYDEW ON ITS SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
تأثير تغذية الدعسوقه ذات السبع نقاطCoccinella septempunctata L. على مَنّ الباقلاء الاسود Aphis fabae Scopoli والمعامل بطرائق وتراكيزمختلفه من الغذاء الملكي والندوة العسلية في بعض صفاتها الحياتية

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الخلاصة

The feeding of the Lady beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. on black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scolopi which was treated directly and indirectly by three concentration (2, 4, 8%) of royal jelly of the bee and honeydew which excreted by the aphid Pterochlorus persicae (Chold.). The results of this study showed that the ladybeetle fed on black bean aphid treated directly with royal jelly of 8% conc. produced a significant effects on the means of larval development period and pupal period which was 2.10, 2.50, 2.50, 3.30 and 3.80 days for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Instars and pupal stage period respectively, in comparison with 2.90, 2.90, 2.90, 4.00 and 4.30 days respectively for control treatment and showed a significant effects on the means of pre – oviposition period, oviposition period, number of egg per female, incubation period and eggs hatching percentage which reached 4.60, 27.40, 681.40, 2.61 and 94.00% respectively, compared with 6.60, 24.00, 602.40, 3.28, and 80% respectively for the control.


Article
SEED QUALITY (Fe AND Zn CONTENTS) OF WHEAT GENOTYPES
نوعية الحبوب (المحتوى من Fe و Zn) للأنماط الوراثية لنبات الحنطة

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الخلاصة

In the lab study, seeds of 18 wheat genotypes were tested for their concentrations and contents of Fe and Zn to determine the seed quality . The iron concentrations in the seed of the 18 wheat genotypes ranged between 20.5 to 65.4 mg kg-1 dry weight basis. Only the seed of Saef and Bohuth/6 genotypes had Fe concentration more than 57 mg Kg-1 and fulfill quality standard set by WHO, 2006, were as six of seed genotypes had more than 41mg Zn Kg-1 namely Saef, Karoniah, Zebba/5, Abo-Ghraib, Sham/3 and Pash/29. The results also showed that for the two genotypes with the highest Fe concentration, only Saef was the genotype that had higher Zn concentration more than 41 mg Zn Kg-1 the quality standard. In contrast to Zn , the variation for seed Fe content was not greater than variation found for the concentration.

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