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مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2013 المجلد: 44 العدد: 3

Article
MOLECULAR VARIATION BETWEEN POPULATION AND SUBPOPULATION OF MAIZE INBREDS
التغايرات الجزيئية بين مجتمع وتحت مجتمع سلالات من الذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

To determine the impact of 3 cycles of selfing and selection on inbreds of maize in field performance and molecular variation, seeds of 6 A- lines, 6 maintainers (B- lines) and 6 restorers (R- lines) were planted. That was on the farm of Field Crop Sci., Coll. of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad across 6 planting seasons during 2008-2010. Previous published results of this article showed that performance of selected inbreds was different as compared to original populations. Then, samples were taken from these inbreds and analyzed for their DNA. Ten RAPD primers were used and gave 139 DNA bands of molecular weight ranged between 264-2717 bp. Coefficient of Nei and Li of genetic similarity (GS) revealed that similarity ranged between 76% to 97% between original and selected populations. The highest GS (97%) was between inbreds R6-o and R6-s, while the lowest GS (76%) was between inbreds R2-o and R2-s. However, genetic similarity among all inbreds ranged between 57% to 89%. Meanwhile inbreds of higher genetic diversity did not give higher performance or higher hybrid vigor. This implies that hybrid vigor is not necessarily correlated with genetic diversity, or such tests need more primers, or hybrid vigor is correlated with a specific favorable number of diversed QTL integrate so well when their inbreds crossed.


Article
GENETIC VARIATION OF SOME TRAITS OF MAIZE UNDER POPULATION DENSITIES 1- Field traits
تغايرات معالم وراثية لبعض صفات الذرة الصفراء تحت كثافات نباتية 1- الصفات الحقلية

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الخلاصة

To estimate the extent of genetic variability of some maize characters under different plant population, a field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Dept. of Field Crop science, Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad during fall 2011 and Spring 2012 using three different populations 47.6, 57.1, and 71.4 thousands plants per ha. The cultivars were Buhoth 106 improved and original. The experiments were factorial and laid out in completely randomized block design with four replicates. Several traits were studied in terms of plants’ performance and variations aspects, observations were recorded on ten plants in each treatment. The values of genetic, environmental variance, genetic and phenotypic coefficient variation, stability and the heritability of maize were calculated .The highest genetic variation environmental variation were 88.3, 57.8, 48.0 and 25.2 for total dry matters, crop growth rate, stalk dimension, and leaf area index respectively, while the lowest rates were 0.7, 3.8, 4.3 for effective filling period, dates to flowering and number of functional leaves correspondingly. The highest heritability was for total dry matters 99% and the lowest was for effective filling period 42%. The highest phenotypic stability was for the dates to flowering and dates to maturity (both 98%) for improved cultivar during fall season. The population density has significantly affected the entire studied traits in both seasons, the improved cultivar was superior in the whole traits under study apart from effective filling period, there was a significant interaction cultivars X population in fall season for the traits of dates to maturity, leaf area index, crop growth rate and total dry matters, while the traits of dates to flowering, effective filling period, plant height and number of functional leaves were non significant. We conclude that some traits are affecting more by the environmental factors; therefore we recommend considering the total dry matters and crop growth rate as a criteria in measuring grains’ production ability of maize.


Article
GENETIC VARIATION OF SOME TRAITS OF MAIZE UNDER POPULATION DENSITIES 2- Yield and yield components
تغايرات معالم وراثية لبعض صفات الذرة الصفراء تحت كثافات نباتية 2- الحاصل ومكوناته

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الخلاصة

To estimate the extent of genetic variability of some maize characters under different plant population, a field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Dept. of Field Crop, Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad during fall 2011 and Spring 2012 using three different populations 47.6, 57.1, and 71.4 thousands plants per ha. The cultivars were Buhoth 106 improved and original. The experiments were factorial and laid out in completely randomized block design with four replicates. Several traits were studied in terms of plants’ performance and variations aspects, observations were recorded on ten plants in each treatment. The values of genetic, environmental variance, genetic and phenotypic coefficient variation, stability and heritability of maize were calculated. The highest genetic variationenvironmental variation were 77.11, 57.80, and 32.13 for grains yield, number of grains, and grains’ weight respectively, while the lowest rate was 5.65 for number of ears. The highest heritability was for grains yield 99% then for number of grains 98% and for grains’ weight 97%, while the lowest rate was for number of grains 85%. The highest phenotypic stability was for grains' weight for improved cultivar during fall season. The highest gains' yield was 10.9 Ton/hac. given by the improved cultivar under the population density of 71.4 thousand plants per hac.. The population density has significantly affected the entire studied traits in both seasons, the improved cultivar was superior in the whole traits under study, there was as well a significant interaction cultivars X population in fall season for the traits of grains' weight, number of ears and grains’ yield, while it was non significant for number of grains. We conclude that most of yield components some traits are affecting more by the genetic factors apart from number of ears; therefore we recommend considering number and weight of grains as a criteria in measuring grains' production ability of maize.


Article
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVETY OF GA3 AND THE HIBISCUS SUBDARIFFA EXTRACT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND CONTENT OF OIL OF CHAMOMILE
الفعالية البايولوجية لحامض الجبرليك ومستخلص الكجرات في نمو وحاصل ومحتوى زيت البابونج

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out during two winter successive seasons 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 at the experimental fields of the Field Crops Dept./ College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad. That was to study the spraying effects of foliar application of three levels of GA3 at 0, 100 and 200 mg GA3.l-1 with three levels of Hibiscus subdariffa extract (0, 5% and 10%), in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In order to response detect the growth and volatile oil on chamomile plant (Matricaria chamomilla L.) common cultivar, in order to determine the best level of growth regulators which increase efficiency ability of plant production, and study plant morphological changes which result from physiological process, spraying accompanying, more over atrial to access to plant extract which give the same needed effects which hormone gibberellin marked caused in plant from using some active compounds found in some medical plants which act as growth encouraging factors or growth inhibition factors. Results indicated that treat with GA3 and Hibiscus subdariffa extract was significantly increased values of all parameters measure. However, levels of 100 mg GA3.l-1 and 10 percentage Hibiscus subdariffa extract showed highest values of: plant height 64.26, 86.86 cm, number of branches 36.66, 54.83 branches.plant-1, fresh weight of plant 1534.73, 1889.70 g, dry weight of plant 644.73, 779.70 g and content volatile oil percentage of flowers 1.51, 1.72 % , in both seasons, respectively. We conclude that there is identical acts of GA3 which make stimulant effect, after that the stimulation become lower, in opposite to Hibiscus subdariffa extract which its simulant act increase by the increasing of concentration levels. Therefore, we recommend to study the mechanism of bond between bio-active compounds that we found in Hibiscus subdariffa extract and GA3 in studied growth regulators.


Article
PERFORMANCE OF TOBACCO IN DU CONTAMINATED SOILS
اداء التبغ في ترب ملوثة باليورانيوم المنضب

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in the greenhouse and at the field of the dept. of field crops, college of agriculture, university of Baghdad, For two years, 2010 and 2011. The aim was to study the quolity of cultivars of tobacco, s cigar and cigarette, by affecting of different doses of Du soils contamination, that is without soil contamination (control treatment) 1:1 kilo soil contamination( low dose) and 1:2 kilo soil contamination (high dose). Three varieties of tobacco were used. Two of them are for cigars (Criollo, Habana) and the later is for cigarette (SH). The design of experiment was systematic arrangement of whole plots according to randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results showed there was no significant differences among varieties in total Nitrogen (T-N), protein, Ash, and Chlor percentage, for tow years. Doses of contaminated soil were significant in chemical properties of carbohydrates. High dose gave 13.4%, while, low dose gave 10.4% and control treatment gave 6.8%. Low dose superior on control significantly, while, there was no superior in T N and Protein percentage in first year. In the Second year, high dose gave 3.4% and superiored on control that gave 2.9% and low dose that gave 2.4%, while, high dose gave 10.9% and superiored on control treatment that gave 9.3% and low dose that gave 7.5% in protein percentage. There was no significant defferences among contamination doses in carbohydrates properties. Ash and chlor percentage not affected by doses of contamination rays during two years. The interaction between first variety and third doses of contamination was significant and gave 14.1%, in tha first year. In the second year, there was significant effects in T N. The third variety with third dose gave 3.8%, therefore it was superior on the rest of the treatments. The same treatment was superior in protein percentage in the second year and gave 11.8%. The conclusion of this study was the effect soil contamination rays in chemical features of the plant and range ability in change this characters make cigar and cigarette conclusion in chemical tobacco characters that effected of dose contamination uranium.


Article
EFFECT OF CAPILTULUM DIAMETER AND SEED POSITION ON SEED QUALITY OF SUNFLOWER
تأثير قطر القرص وموقع البذرة في جودة بذور زهرة الشمس

المؤلفون: S. H. Cheyed صدام حكيم جياد
الصفحات: 322-330
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الخلاصة

Irregular flowering in capiltulum or difference in capiltulum diameter of sunflower may leads to difference in weight and full duration of seeds, which affects on the quality of seeds later. An experiment was conducted at the laboratory of seed technology, Dept. of Field Crop, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the year 2012. The aim was to determine the effect of capitulum diameter (smaller than 15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35 and bigger than 36 cm) resulted from different plant populations, and seed position at the capitulum (peripheral, middle and central) on seed quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cv. Shumoos. Results revealed that there were significant effects of capitulum diameter and seed positions on all traits. An increase in capitalum diameter from smaller than 15cm to bigger than 36cm gave the highest averages of seed weight (68.6g for 500 seeds), kernel weight (42.5 g for 500 kernels), seeds long (18.1mm), seed width (8.08 mm), kernel long (12.4 mm) and kernel width (5.6 mm). Those results caused the highest averages of standard germination (88.6%), plumule length (7.81 cm), seedling weight (10.7 g) and seedling dry weight (0.63 g). Seeds were located at peripheral position showed superior in all traits except kernel percentage. We recommend collecting seed from big capitulum or from peripheral position of capitulum for agricultural use.


Article
EFFECT OF ANTI-TRANSPIRATION AND WATER STRESS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF MAIZE
تأثير مضاد النتح والإجهاد المائي في بعض المؤشرات الفيزيولوجية للذرة الصفراء المزروعة

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الخلاصة

The experiment carried out during the seasons 2010-2011 in the fields of Maskana in Aleppo/Syria, 80 kilometers east of the city of Aleppo to study the effect of anti-transpiration in the physiological parameters of the two cultivars of maize under water stress conditions. Ghouta 82 and Basel1are used, and anti-transpiration under the trade name (Biobest) with three treatments of water stress are: (55-70-85%) of the field capacity. The results analyze statistically by using spilt-split polt with R(B1) design with three replications to estimate some physiological traits: Relative water content, proline content, chlorophyll content, stomata conductance and productivity, the stress Led to a significant decline in the values of each of relative water content: (31.7, 16.5%), stomata conductance (21.7, 7.7μmol.m-2.S-1), chlorophyll content (18.9, 22.1 mg / g), while the proline content: (3.2, 1.5 mg / g), and the efficiency of transpiration: (2.1, 3.22 μ mol CO2 / μ mol H2O) for two types Ghouta 82 and Basil 1 Respectively, spray of anti transpiration softened the impact of water stress for all transactions field capacity studied and improved the values, that's what show to compare the results Category Ghouta 82 in water stress conditions (treatment 55% of field capacity) between the treatment of the control and the treatment of anti-transpiration, has reached the relative water content: (64,58.3%), stomata conductance (85,60.4μmol.m-2.S-1), chlorophyll content (4.7,4.6mg / g), while the all of proline content: (16.45,14.3mg / g), and the efficiency of transpiration: (9.56,6.9μ mol CO2 / μ mol H2O) for two types Ghouta 82 and Basil 1 Respectively, Also took a class Basil 1 results largely the same behavior, but that product Ghota 82 outweigh Basil 1 in all the indicators studied.


Article
IDENTIFICATION AND BIOCONTROL OF SOFT ROT BACTERIA DISEASE ON ONION UNDER LAB. CONDITION
التشخيص والمقاومة الأحيائية للبكتريا المسببة لمرض التعفن الطري على البصل تحت ظروف المختبر

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to identify the causal agent of onion rot disease and its control by using biological agents .The causal agent was characterized as Erwinia chrysanthemi by means of microscopic and cultural characteristics, biochemical reactions, and ability to grow on selective and differential hosts. Short rod-shaped cells with round ends, motile, and react negatively to gram-stain were observed by light microscope. Circular, convex with regular border, yellow-creamy colonies were grown on (Nutrient broth yeast extract agar) and (Yeast extract-dextrose CaCO3) media. Circular, convex, white-brownish colonies were observed on (Crystal violet-pectat medium). It has been found that E. chrysanthemi was sensitive to ethromycin, capable to reduce sucrose, liberated gas from glucose, and lysis pectin. The pathogenicity test on potato slice showed that 4 of 8 isolates obtained in this study were pathogenic. The isolate 1 was found more virulence than the other. The addition of Pseudomonas fluorescence at 108 CFUml, and agromycin at 0.5gl to the culture medium nutrient agar were led to an inhibition of E. chrysanthemi growth by 59% and 33%, respectively.


Article
EFFICACY OF SOME BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL AGENTS TO CONTROL ROOT KNOT NEMATODES (MELOIDOGYNE SPP) ON EGGPLANT
كفاءة بعض العوامل الأحيائية والكيميائية في مكافحة ديدان تعقد الجذورMeloidogyne spp على الباذنجان

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted in aplastic house naturally infested with root knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp at Al-Saqlawya 60 KM to the west of Baghdad, during spring 2012. to evaluate the efficacy of biocont-T ( Trichoderma harzianum) , Paecilomyces lilacinus , fytomax-N(Neem), and the chemical pesticide rugby against (RKN) on eggplants Solanum melongena L.. The biocont at 19×107 spores/g and P.lilacinus at 1010 spores/g were added at 100 g/replicate (12 plants), Rugby 10% was mixed with the soil at 15 g/replicate, Fytomax-N was added around the roots at 2.5 ml/L and repeated every 20 days. The growth parameters, foliage and root length, fresh and dry weights for both root and foliage/plant, were estimated after 3 months eggs and juvenile numbers were also calculated. Results showed that all control agents have increased significantly root lengths compared with control, whereas no effect of control agents on foliage length was observed. no effects on fresh and dry weights root by the control agent were observed accept that rugby induced significant reduction in fresh and dry weights of root. Biocont caused significant increased in fresh and dry weights of foliage whereas no effects of the other control agents on these factors were observed. It has been observed that P.lilacinus was the more efficient in reducing disease severity and root knot index (27.60%, 2.76), eggs number (11841 egg/ 5g root), juvenile 2 numbers (105 juvenile/100 g soil), followed by biocont and rugby compared with disease severity 92.40%, root knot index 9.28, eggs number (167980 eggs/5 g root) and juvenile 2 numbers (1485 juvenile/100 g soil) in control. We concluded that root knot nematode, represent a serious problem on eggplants and the possibility of using biological agents to manage this problem. We recommend the addition of bio to the soil before cultivation.


Article
IDENTIFICATION OF SOME SPECIES OF WIREWORM AGRIOTES SPP (COLEOPTERA: ELATERIDAE) IN CENTRAL IRAQ
تشخيص بعض انواع الجنس Agriotes spp (Coleoptera: Elateridae) في بعض مناطق وسط العراق

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الخلاصة

Wireworm, the common name for larval click beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are serious soil-dwelling pest of many different crops all around the world. This study was conducted to identify the species that belong to genus Agriotes spp and determine their seasonal abundance by using pheromone traps. This study were carried out in three different fields in the middle of Iraq to identify and determine the seasonal occurrence of Agriotes spp Nine sex pheromone of Agriotes spp were used for each of these species which baited with the specific pheromone from 1/9/2008 – 1/9/2009 in the College of Agriculture –Abu- Graib / provenance of Baghdad and Al Nile /provenance of Babylon, while in Al Radhwania / Baghdad were used during May-June/ 2009. Pheromone lures were replaced every 6 weeks, six Agriotes species: A. proximus, A. sputator, A. obscures, A, brevis, A. ustulatus and A. litigious were caught by Sex pheromone traps in addition to A. lineatus wich was recorded by Al-jorany (under publishing paper). Anew recorded of these species in the middle of Iraq. The most abundant species were A. proximus and A.lineatus. Pheromone traps also showed not presence of two types A.sordidus and A.rufipalpus in all three studid areas in spite of uses special pheromone for both types for a full year. We identify some morphological characteristics of wireworms male to distinguish between agriotes species. The characters are : average of adult length, hair color which covers the body, frontal line (carina)which extend from compound eye to labrem , in addition to rate of length and width of pronotum. The study concludes the importance of pheromones in the detection of insect types in a particular environment and recommended to use other types of pheromones belonging th the same genus to make sure of its existence.


Article
EFFECT OF SOME PLANT SPECIES VOLATILE OILS IN SOME OF THE QUALITIES
تأثير الزيت الطيار لبذور بعض الأنواع النباتية في بعض الصفات الحياتية لدودة الشمع الكبرى

المؤلفون: K. O. Al-Omairy خالد أعميري العميري
الصفحات: 367-472
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of some essential oils of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis, cumin Cuminum cyminum, anise Pimpinella anisum, thyme Thymus vulgaris, coriander Coriandrum sativum and caraway Carum carvi in the percentage of the number of eggs and the percentage of hatching and incubation period eggs greater wax worm Galleria mellonella. Results Showed superiority volatile oil seeds caraway and cumin to give the highest expulsion of female worm wax major reached 100% at all concentrations used where once did objection to lay eggs by evidence efficient lay eggs on the surface treatment with the highest rate of the number of eggs when treatment comparison by 414.66egg. I also found significant differences between all transactions to reduce the percentage of eggs to hatch superiority treatment oil caraway pilot to reach 53.42% and the highest percentage hatching of thyme oil pilot by 96% with more than focus 2% morally at all concentrations, including treatment comparison of the proportion of hatching then 72.28%, while for overlap between the transactions and concentrations focus may be greater than %. 2% of caraway oil pilot morally on all transactions and a hatching rate of 13.67As for the duration of incubation, there were significant differences between the transactions used to reach higher for 9 days when using volatile oil seeds caraway and less length when using oil rosemary pilot by 7 days and also outperformed all concentrations moral treatment comparison to swallow a longer incubation period 8.28 days at concentration of 2% for the overlap has excelled caraway oil treatment pilot at 2% morally focus on all transactions where the incubation period was 10 days. We conclude from the foregoing that the volatile oils used were of Tatergad to develop eggs greater wax moth as well as incubation period and hatchability particularly volatile oil seeds caraway who gave excellent results for the rest of the oil and we recommend that you use to control the greater wax moth for easy extraction in large quantities on the one side as well as for being honeston humans and animals on the other side.


Article
EFFECT OF HARROW TYPE AND DRILL SEEDER'S SPEEDS AND DEPTHS ON SOME MACHINERY UNIT TECHNICAL, ECONOMICAL AND ENERGY REQUIREMENT INDICATORS
تأثير نوع المنعمة وسٌرع وأعماق البذار في بعض المؤشرات الفنية والأقتصادية ومتطلبات القدرة للوحدة الميكنية

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted in the fields of Agriculture College-University of Baghdad in 2009 in silt-clay loam soil in order to study the effect of Harrow type, speeds and depths of drill seeder on some economical, technical performance indicators and energy requirements for machinery unit. The tractor "New Holland" and the drill seeding “Stegested” were used as a machinery unit with two Harrow types .The study consists of three factors included: first factor was Harrow Type with two levels included Rotary Harrow and Spring Spike tooth Harrow which represented the main plots, second factor was drill seeding speeds with three levels included 6.28, 7.61, and 11.43 km/h which represented the sub-plots and the third factor was three drill seeding depths included 3, 6 and 9 cm which represented the sub- sub plots. Some technical performance indicators for machinery unit were studied in this study. Effective field capacity, fuel consumption per unit area as well as calculating the total operation costs and energy requirements for machinery unit. Some technical performance indicators for machinery unit were studied which include: effective field capacity and fuel consumption per unit area, as well as calculating the total operation costs and energy requirements for the machinery unit. The experiment was carried out by using split split-plot with complete randomized block design in three replicates. The results showed that drill seeder after Spring spike tooth harrow was superior on drill seeder after Rotary harrow in giving higher rate of effective field capacity (0.823 ha/h) and lower rate of fuel consumption per unit area (10.193 l/ha) and lower rate of total operation costs for machinery unit (18322 id/ha) {id=iraqi dinar} with lower rate of energy requirements for machinery unit (36.870 kw.h/ha). The third speed of Sowing (11.43 km/h) was superior on other sowing speeds in giving higher rate of effective field capacity (1.080 ha/h) and lower rate of fuel consumption per unit area (8.111 l/ha) and lower rate of total operation costs for machinery unit (13593 id/ha) with lower rate of energy requirements for machinery unit (29.399 kw.h/ha). The first depth of sowing (3) cm was superior on other sowing depths in giving higher rate of effective field capacity (0.865 ha/h) and lower rate of fuel consumption per unit area (8.830 l/ha) and lower rate of total operation costs for machinery unit (16720 id/ha with lower rate of energy requirements for machinery unit (30.34 kw.h/ha). As for the bilateral and trilateral overlaps between treatments were significant effects for all parameters. We conclude that using the seeder after Spring Spike Teeth Harrow, increasing in sowing speed and decreasing sowing depth, all lead to specific increasing in effective field capacity and specific decreasing in fuel consumption per unit area, total operate costs and energy requirement for machinery unit. There for, we recommend using the seeder at the third sowing speed and first sowing depth after harrowing by using the Spring Spike Teeth Harrow which gave the best indications foe technical, economical and energy requirement for machinery unit.


Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF DATES TRANSPORTATION MODEL BETWEEN IRAQI PROVINCES WITH MINIMUM COST
تحليل اقتصادي لأنموذج نقل التمور بين محافظات العراق بأقل كلفة ممكنة

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الخلاصة

Date palm needs a special kind of climate where rain fall and humidity are at lowest level in addition to its need to high temperature. Such climate dose not exist in the north of Iraq and there is demand for date commodity therefore there is a necessity to transport the surplus from production centre's to the Provinces where there is no production of dates. The transportation process between different region is related with the cost incurred by transportation, therefore it is necessary to choose transportation routes which minimize the cost. The objective of this research is to use transportation model to find the optimum solution for surplus date transportation among Iraqi Provinces by formulating two models for date transportation and by applying three methods of transportation methodology which are northern west corner, least cost and Vogel's approximation by considering the production season 2011 data. The first model considered 13 Provinces or supply centre's for date distribution and five Provinces or demand centre's for date. Supply and demand sides of this model were equated by using only 6% of the surplus of date produced Provinces to be transported to the Provinces with deficit of date production and the total supplied and demanded quantity of this model was 33323 tons of date. The second model considered 13 Provinces of date supply and six Provinces of date demand and this model was equated by adding sixth slack demand centre and the total quantity of supply and demand for this model was 532515 tons of date. The results showed that the optimum solutions for both models achieved least costs for transportation among Provinces of about 1101742 and 705868 thousand dinars respectively for the three methods of transportation. Therefore it was recommended to consider these methods to solve the transportation problems related to dates for future by decision makers.


Article
EFFECT OF BREAD YEAST ON THE YIELD AND SOME CHEMICAL CONTENTS OF OYSTER MUSHROOM FOR TWO AGRICULTURE SUBSTRATES
تأثير إضافة خميرة الخبز لنوعين من وسط الزراعة في الإنتاج وتركيز بعض المركبات الكيميائية للفطر المحاري

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الخلاصة

The experiment was carried out at a special farm in Homs Governorate, Syria from 24/10/2011 to 10/1/2012 by planting Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), by using two of substrates (coarse wheat straw, sawdust). Bread yeast has been added in two concentration (1 or 2)g/kg wet substrate. Each of those two substrate has treated by three treatment (control, adding 1g bread yeast /kg wet substrate, adding 2g bread yeast /kg wet substrate).The results showed remarkable increasing in dry matter percentage, ash and protein in oyster mushroom fruit bodies. As bread yeast addition in two different concentration for both two substrates significantly increased fruit body weight, yield and BE of oyster mushroom compared to control. While for coarse wheat straw substrate, the yield increase 16.92% (whereas it reached up to 2.35 kg/7kg wet substrate) and 21.89%(it reached up to 2.45 kg/7kg wet substrate) by adding (1g/kg wet substrate) and(2g/kg wet substrate) bread yeast respectively, while production reached up to 2.01 kg/7kg wet substrate at control treatment. For sawdust substrate, the yield increase 12.61%( it reached up to 1.34 kg/7kg wet substrate) and 24.37% (it reached up to 1.48 kg/7kg wet substrate) when bread yeast has been added by 1,2 g/kg wet substrate respectively, while production reached up to 1.19 kg/7kg wet substrate at control treatment.


Article
USING SERIEN PROTEASES EXTRACTED FROM THE DIGESTIVE CANAL OF SILURIS GLANIS FISH IN PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE FROM SILURIS GLANIS VISCERA
استخدام بروتييزات السيرين المستخلصة من القناة الهضمية لسمك الجري في إنتاج متحللات بروتينية من أحشاء السمك نفسه وتوصيفها

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الخلاصة

This study aimed to prepare protein hydrolysate from Siluris glanis viscera using the crude extract of serine pro-tease extracted from the same fish digestive duct after identifying the optimum pH and temperature of enzyme extract activity and stability ,then studying some of the obtained hydrolysates properties. The processing methods included four treatments, namely T1, T2 fish samples were digested with 0.2M acetate buffer and pH 4.5 at 6 and 12 hour, and T3, T4 were digested using the crude extract of serine protease 120 unitml and pH 6.5, 0.2 M at 6 and 12 hour respectively. The undigested residues were removed by centrifugation and the clarified digests were pasteurized at 80c°/10min, cooled and the solidified fat layer removed then the pH adjusted to 6.5. The obtained hydrolysate was dried under vacuum at 50c°, and four samples were obtained and designated as P1, P2, P3 and P4. The percentages of moisture, ash, fat and protein were for P1 6, 1.10, 0.40, and 92.5%, respectively, and for P2, P3 and P4 were 6.2, 1.45, 0.45, and 91.9 %, 5.4, 1.62, 0.48, and 92.5%, 5.3, 1.70, 0.5, 92,5%, respectively. The percentages of peptone nitrogen, total proteose nitrogen, secondary proteose nitrogen, primary proteose nitrogen and amino acid nitrogen were 3.1, 1.95, 0.30, 1.65 and 0.4% respectively for P1, 4.5, 3.01, 0.36, 2.65 and 0.6 % for P2, 5.1, 2.5, 0.37, 2.13 and 0.65 % for P3, for P4 7.3, 3.5, 0.40, 3.1and 0.8%. The degree of hydrolysis for P1 and P2 were 35.5and 39 % respectively, while for P3, P4 were 52.6 and 60.1% respactively. The results of functional properties showed that the water holding capacity was 2% for P1, P2, P3 and P4 respactively. The solubility values were 74.6, 85.5, 92.2, and 93.3% for P1, P2, P3 and P4, respectively. The emulsion capacity values were 22, 20, 16 and 14 ml for P1, P2, P3 and P4 respectively.


Article
INTEGRATED TREATED WATER WITH FRESH WATER FOR ALFALFA PRODUCTION
تكامل المياه المعالجة والمياه العذبة في ري الجت

المؤلفون: Ilham M. Baddur إلهام منير بدور
الصفحات: 414-421
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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of treated sewage water from natural oxidation bonds as wall as aquatic plants on yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) compared with fresh water for the period of nine months. It can be used as alternative for fertilizer and increasing the yield of crops. The result showed that using sewage effluent as irrigated water increased markedly the height and the diameter of stem, thus increasing the yield by percentage around 8%. Far the more, the yield increased by 17% by using the natural oxidation bonds as well as the aquatic plants comparing with fresh water only. The premating results of this study were indicated the importance of increasing use of treated waste water to minimize the environmental pollution by safe and economic approach, and depend on it as a main source of agriculture water resources in Arab world which have a big role in supporting a traditional limited water sources and minimizing the use of chemical fertilizer, in addition to verification food and water security.


Article
AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS IN IRAQ
دراسة وبائية وتشخيصية لطاعون المجترات الصغيرة في العراق

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الخلاصة

One thousand one hundred thirty eight blood samples of small ruminants (sheep & goats) were used. These samples were collected randomly from different Iraqi provinces. Competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) test was performed on the serum of those samples to detect the special antibodies ofPeste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV). The virus was diagnosed at the first time in Iraq by using Immuno Capture ELISA (IC-ELISA) technique. Thirty hundred fifty five serum samples were positive with the percentage of 31.19% in Iraq as a whole. Nineveh and Salahddin provinces were showed an incident of rate 64.41% with a significant difference from other provinces, a matter, which led to consider them as the possible source of infection. In Baghdad, Wasset, Diyala, Anbar and Babil provinces the percentage was 36.25%. Whereas the percentage in Thi-Qar, Najaf, Qadissiya, Muthanna and Meisan provinces was 8%. (IC-ELISA) technique has proved to be successful in diagnosing the virus and consequently isolating it from four samples. Out of 27 different samples taken from small ruminants suspected to be infected with PPR. These samples were inoculated in tissue cultures for previously prepared lamb kidney cells (LK). Three days later, they showed the cytopathic effects. When samples of those cultures were re-tested by using IC-ELISA, they were also positive. It was concluded from this study that the incidence of the disease (PPRV) was high and ELISA could be used for their diagnosis.

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