Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:54 issue:3

Article
Extraction and Purification of Vibrio Cholerae Enterotoxin and Study its Cytopathic Effect on Some Mice Organs
استخلاص وتنقية السم المعوي لبكتريا Vibrio cholerae ودراسة تاثيراته المرضية في بعض اعضاء الفئران

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Abstract

Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin was extracted by cooling centrifugation and filtration with milipore filter (0.22um) and was purified by using Sephacryl –S- 6 gel filtration,the content of protein was estimated . The results showed protein concentration was 28.5 microgram/ml,the present of enterotoxin was detected by infant suckling mouse method. .The cytopathic effect of enterotoxin was studied by injecting a number of mice with purified enterotoxin, It was found caused shortening the villi of the intestine at concentration 55 and 45 ug /ml of purified enterotoxin, while the effect on liver showed degenerative change with necrosis at 55 ug/ml of enterotoxin and caused necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells at 45 ug /ml, the effect on spleen tissue was represented by widening of white pulp, and reduction or disappearance of red pulp also inflammatory cells wre found i.e. lymphocyte and hypoplasia of white pulp at the two concentrations of the enterotoxin .


Article
Anatomical study for leaves and Epidermal properties in Athionema R.BR. species (Brassicaceae) in Iraq
دراسة تشريحية لأوراق وصفات البشرة في انواع الجنس Athionema R.Br. من العائلة الصليبية(Brassicaceae) في العراق

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Abstract

The research included anatomical study of nine wild species of the genus Athionema R.BR. from BrassicaceA family in Iraq, and these species are: A.arabicum (L.), A.carneum (Banks et sol.),A. cordifolium (DC.), A.fimbriatum (Boiss.),A. froedinii (Rech. F.), A. speciosum (Boiss. et Huet), A. syriacum (Boiss.),A. grandiflorum (Boiss. et Hoh.) , A.trinervium (D.C.).The research covered the anatomical characteristic of the leaf Epidermis as well as leaves venation, also transvers sections for leaves were studied ,and revealed that some anatomical characteristics have taxonomic importance in distinguishing the species. This research also showed the presence of important variations in internal charecters for leaves anatomy as it was characterized as Bifacial and variation between the Palisade layer and spongy layer in term of their cell thickness ,as some species were distinguish by interfering of palisade and spongy layer .The study also showed differences in stomatal complexes pattern , and the characteristics that related to the shapes of the Epidermal cells of leaf and leaf venaition have also important taxonomic and diagnostic value in the species under study


Article
Ability test of two algae Chlorella vulgares. Proscott and Navicual busiedtii. Kützing in reduction water salty excessive for river arabs
أختبار قابلية طحلبي Proscott . Chlorella vulgares و. Kützing Navicual busiedtii في خفض ملوحة المياه المصرفة الى شط العرب

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Different concentrations prepared 2,4,8,16,32 ppt from flow water to Shatt-Al-arab by adding Chlorella vulgares and Navicual busiedtii as alone for each concentration. The results showed that the concentrations of salinity reduced to 0, 1.78, 9.45, 15 ppt after 10 days, with removed percentage 100, 100, 77.75, 40.93, 37.12 % respectively for Chlorella vulgares the cell numbers of Chlorella vulgares reached to 58.123, 60.123, 69.712, 37.234, 30.546 ×104/ml comparing with the control 55.652 ×104/ml while the absorbability of salinity reached to 0.378, 0.391, 0.489, 0.231, and 0.192 nm comparing with 0.342 as control. The external cell wall of Chlorella vulgares was swelling at 32 ppt. the removal percentage of salinity reached to 100, 100, 75 , 66, 45 % for Navicual busiedtii with cell numbers reached to 97.113, 120.903, 178.024, 231.112, 77.132 ×104/ml respectively comparing with 91.362 ×104/ml as control, while the absorbability of salinity ranched to 0.354, 0.367, 0.484 and 0.123 nm without change at cell wall of Navicual busiedtii.


Article
Anti Obesity and Lipid - Lowering Effect of Lactobacillus Spp. as Probiotic on the Obese Rat
تاثير المعزز الحياتىLactobacillus spp. كمضاد للسمنة وخافض للدهون لدى الجرذان السمينة

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Abstract

The effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casi and Lactobacillus rhomunas on the body weight and lipid metabolism on obese rats were evaluated. In the body weight, the results showed significant deference between rat groups, the group that consumed 3 probiotic strains showed reduction in the body weight with ratio 16.63% while the group consumed 2 probiotic strains showed decreasing with ratio 17.62% compared with control group which increased in the body weight.In the effeci of probiotics on lipid metabolisim the results showed significant deference between rat groups, the group that consumed 3 probiotic strains showed decreasing in the cholesterol with ratio 50.7%, triglyceride with ratio 48.8 %, LDL with ratio 51% and elevated of HDL level with ratio 45%, while the group consumed the 2 probiotic strains showed decreasing in the cholesterol with ratio 48.3%, triglyceride with ratio 43.3 %, LDL with ratio 27.4% and elevated HDL level with ratio 26%. The study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic and anti obesity effects in rats. These strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time

Keywords

lipid --- anti obesity --- probiotic


Article
The effect of Serratia marcescens protease on human lymphocytes transformation
تأثير إنزيم البروتييز لبكتريا ال Serratia marcescens على تحول الخلايا اللمفاوية لدم الإنسان

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Abstract

Fifteen blood samples were collected from healthy males and females (6 males & 9 females), average age (21-34 years) in heparinized sterile tubes. The extracellular protease was extracted from a clinical isolate of Serratia marcescens that was isolated from a patient suffering from urinary tract infection taken from the Central Health Laboratory. The extracted protease was purified partial by two steps, precipitation with 30-55% saturation of ammonium sulfate following with dialysis and ion exchange chromatography DEAE-cellulose. The protease concentration was 0.15 mg/ml. Two concentration 0.25µg/ml and 0.5µ/ml of protease were prepared and applied in current study. Lymphocyte transformation test using whole blood was used in order to study the effect of protease concentrations on human lymphocyte transformation. The results show that these were highly significant differences (P < 0.05) between control samples and lymphocytes stimulating with Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and between control sample and 0.5µg/ml protease,; while there was no significant differences (P < 0.05) between control sample and 0.25 µg/ml protease concentration . That is mean that the higher concentrations of protease have the same effect of PHA on human lymphocyte transformation and it is better in effect on human lymphocyte transformation than the lowest concentration


Article
New record species- from the family Euphorbiaceae in Iraq
نوع من العائلة السوسبية Euphorbiaceae جديد على العراق

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Abstract

The present work included morphological, anatomical, and palynological characters for the new species Acaalypha australis L. specimens, which belong to the family Euphorbiaceae. The species recorded in the study for the first time in Iraq. The plants of this species are annual herbs with green, striated or sub –polygonal stem, and branched near bases, Leaves are simple spirally alternate and lanceolate in shape. Flowers are unisexual, arranged in the axial of distinct leafy and cordate bracts, female flower arranged at the bracts bases and each flower with trileafed perianth and superior ovary with trilobed stylar stigma which has dense and coiled stigmatic hairs. Male flowers are arranged as a mixed verticellate inflorescence and enclosed by tetraleafed perianth. Each perianth leaf is similar to that of the female flowers. Each male flower has eight free stamens, each with two separated anther sac. Pollen are spherical and belong to the small size and they are tri-tetra-colporate with vague sculpturing. Anatomicaly, section of root and stem characterized the presence of secondary growth and vascular cambium, in addition to collenchyma and seclerenchyma as a supported tissue. Druses crystals are also present in the epidermal and cortical cells. Vertical section of leaves are characterized by similarity of tissue layers of petiole and leaf midribe, and presence of oil bodies within the mesophyll.


Article
Prevalence of S.epidermidis and S.aureus and their biofilm ability among Iraqi patients suffering from urinary tract infection
انتشار العنقوديات الذهبية والعنقوديات البشروية وقدرتها على تكوين الاغشية الحيوية للمرضى العراقيين الذين يعانون من خمج المجاري البولية

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Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by methicillin resistant staphylococci are a growing problem for many health care institutions especially when it correlates with biofilms formation of these isolates on living and nonliving surfaces. The prevalence of staphylococci from UTI were studied and it was found that S.epidermidis are higher prevalence than S.aureus 55.5% ( 10 out of 18) and 26.6% ( 8 out of 30) were methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates (MRSA) and methicillin resistant staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), respectively. Biofilm formation on microtiter plates revealed that MRSE isolates was more efficient in biofilm production than its counterpart MRSA.


Article
Serological relatedness among clinical and environmental Acinetobacter baumannii isolates isolated from hospitals in Baghdad
القرابة المصلية بين العزلات البيئية والسريرية لبكتريا Acinetobacter baumanniiالمعزولة من مستشفيات في بغداد

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During 2011, 1900 clinical specimens (urine, wounds, burns, blood and sputum) and 240 hospital environment specimens were collected from four hospitals in Baghdad/Medical city including: Baghdad Teaching Hospital, The Martyr Gazi Al-Hariry Hospital, Welfare Teaching Hospital and The Burn Specialist Hospital. All specimens were cultured and 128 Acinetobacter baumannii were obtained from clinical and environmental specimens in a ratio of 6.05% (n=115) and 5.42% (n=13), respectively. These isolates were identified using microscopic examination, biochemical tests and Api 20 E system.The slide agglutination technique for rabbit immune sera and A. baumannii bacteria was used and our data analysis revealed a serological relatedness among the isolates. We found 22 different serotypes for 128 clinical and environmental A. baumannii isolates. The most common serotype was serotype 1 which included 34 isolates (26.56%) and there were 40 (31.25%) miscellaneous isolates which isolated from different specimens, departments and hospitals. Notably, they didn’t arrange within any of the 22 serotypes. Upon such findings we may conclude, there is a wide variation in serological characteristics of the locally isolated A. baumannii.


Article
Mitigation of drought stress effect on growth and productivity of mung bean by foliar application of sorghum water extract
تخفيف تأثير الجفاف في نمو وحاصل ألماش بالرش بالمستخلص المائي للذرة البيضاء

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Field trial was conducted in Research Field equipped with rainfall transparent shade, Biology Department, College of Science, Baghdad University during the growing season of 2012 to test the potential of sorghum water extract in improving yield and yield components of local cultivar of mung bean crop grown under different moisture deficit stresses. The water stresses were applied by irrigated the plots to field capacity and withheld the next irrigation until the soil water deficit reaches 80, 50 and 30% of field capacity for control, mild water stress and higher water stress, respectively. Foliar application of sorghum water extract at 0 ( control), 2.5 and 5% (W/V) was made at preflowering, flowering and fruiting stages. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with four replications for each treatment. The sorghum water extract rates were kept in the sub plot while moisture deficits were assigned as main plot. Results showed that drought stress significantly reduced the averages seed yield , dry matter accumulation, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and plant height. Foliar applications of sorghum extracts significantly increased seeds yield, dry weight biomass, number of seeds per pod and plant height. The interaction of drought stress and sorghum water extract treatment significantly affected seed yield , dry matter accumulation, number of pods per plant, total chlorophyll content and plant height. Application of sorghum water extract under severe moisture deficit stress (i.e., 70% field capacity) increased seed yield, dry weight biomass and plant height , number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod by 37.8%, 48.9%,64.3%,8.7% and 5.1%, of control, respectively compared the reduction achieved by the sever moisture deficit applied alone which was 58.50% , 56.06% , 57.17% , 48.05% and 14.78 % of control for the aforementioned parameters respectively. Chlorophyll content was found to be increased by effected by application of sorghum extracts at control moisture treatment. Proline content of leaves was significantly increased by high drought stress when water extract applied alone. However, such differences disappeared when sorghum extract was applied, suggesting another mechanisms could be responsible for the stimulatory effect of sorghum extract under drought stress.


Article
Morphological study pollen grain belong to cultivated spp. of the family Fabaceae grown in Baghdad University campus/ Jadiriya.
دراسة مظهرية لحبات لقاح مجموعة من انواع العائلة البقوليةFabaceae المستزرعة النامية ضمن مجمع الجادرية / جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Palynological characters of eleven cultivated species of the family Fabaceae grown in Baghdad University campus has been presented in this work. The study included two kind of single pollen grain. Tri.colporate in Bauhinia variegata L., Cassia fistula L., Lablab purpureus(L.)sweet, Vigna mungo(L.)Hepper , and Tri-Colpate in Cassia acutifolia L., Mimosa pudica L., Vigna sinensis,L. Vicia faba L. ,and polyad in Acasia cyanophylla Lindl, Acasia famesiana(L.)wild, Albizia lebbeck (L.)Benth.,A study focused on the shape of colpi and endoaperture are variable, shape of pollen show variation in polar and equatorial view for single species and for front and side view for polyad one, The study determind size of pollen grain very small, medium and large in size. Pollen wall ornamentation was distinct in to two kinds Reticulate and Striate with variation among each group of the species. Depending on what has been mentioned above, it was found that these characters are taxonomically important


Article
Screening of bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) to water deficit stress under field conditions
غربلة أصناف من حنطة الخبز(Triticum aestivum L.) لتحمل شد نقص الماء تحت ظروف الحقل

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Field trial was conducted during the growing season of 2011-2012 at the Research Field, Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad University to test the performance of wheat cv Rabyaa, Latifiya, Al-Iraq, Tummose 2, Abu-Graib 3, IPA 99 and Sham 6 grown under different soil water deficit stresses. Several agronomic and physiological traits and yield and yield components of the test cultivars were determined. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with five replications for each treatment. The cultivars were kept in the sub plot while water stress treatment was assigned as main plot. Water stress was applied by irrigated the plots to the soil field capacity (FC) then withheld next irrigation until the soil moisture of the respective plots depleted to 50 (control), 25 and 15% of FC. Results indicated that the water deficit stress significantly reduced biological yield, grain yield and yield components, plant height and number of tillers. Also, drought significantly reduced leaf area and chlorophyll content and increased proline accumulation of the all test cultivars. In most cases, the reduction increased with the increased water stress. The results also showed significant differences among the test cultivars in most of the aforementioned parameters. Under higher drought stress, cultivars Rabyaa, Latifiya and Abu-Graib 3 were superior in grain and biological yields and most of yield components (number of spikes/m2, number of grains/spike and 1000-grain weight) compared to other cultivars including Sham 6 and IPA 99 which recorded lower values of these traits. Subsequent analyses revealed the drought tolerant cultivars (Rabyaa, Latifiya and Abu-Graib 3) showed increased with high significant in grain and biological yields, yield components, plant height, number of tiller, leaf area, accumulation of proline and total chlorophyll content than non-tolerant cultivars (Sham 6 and IPA 99). This suggests that the these characters are useful criteria that may be used for screening wheat genotypes for drought tolerance


Article
Protective Effect of Vitamin A against Oxidative Stress Caused by Methotrexate
التاثيرالوقائي لفيتامين أ ضد الجهد التاكسدي المتسبب عن الميثوتريكسيت

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Methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist agent, is mainly used in treatment of malignant tumors and autoimmune diseases. The present study was undertaken to determine whether antioxidant vitamin (vitamin A) could ameliorate methotrexate-induced oxidative stress in male rabbits. Twenty male rabbits were randomly assigned into four groups. Group 1: control group, Group 2: MTX-treated group (received 20 mg/kg MTX intraperitoneally), Group 3: Vit.A treated group received 5000 IU Vit.A orally) and Group 4: MTX+Vit.A treated group received MTX 20 mg/kg plus 5000 IU vit.A). After 4 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine the serum malondialdehyde (MDA), as a good indicator for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. The results showed that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum MDA level in MTX-treated group compared with control group. Also, the results revealed that there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum MDA level in MTX+Vit.A treated group in comparison with MTX-treated group. The present study suggests that the administration of vit.A with MTX is associated with reduction in oxidative stress, and therapeutic role in reduced toxicity of MTX.


Article
Comparison Study for the Effect of Interleukin -6 and Carbimazole Drug in Rat Thyroid Gland Functions
دراسة مقارنة لتأثير مادة بين إبيضاض6- وعقار الكاربيمازول في وظيقة الغدة الدرقية في الجرذ

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Since the inflammatory factor IL-6 known by its critical role in different metabolic reactions in the body, therefore, this study was designed to detect it is effect in the thyroid gland function by injecting three groups of rats, the first with IL-6 , the second with carbimazole (antithyroid drug) and the third with normal saline (Control).The experiment included three groups of rat; each was injected with recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6), Carbimazole, or normal saline (Control). The results of experiments showed that both IL-6 and carbimazole caused a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) in animal sera, and a significant decrease in animal body weight, but had no effect on the liver weight.There was a significant decrease in glucose level in the animals injected with carbimazole, while in the IL-6 treated animals there was no change in glucose level. There was a significant increase in serum level of triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the animals treated with IL-6, while in the animals treated with carbimazole, there was no such change. Additionally, injection of the animals with IL-6 or carbimazole caused a significant increase in lymphocyte apoptosis of peripheral blood


Article
Simulation of Gaussian Pulses Propagation Through Single Mode Optical Fiber Using MATLAB
محاكاة لانتشار نبضات غاوس خلال كابل ضوئي احادي النمط باستخدام MATLAB

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Computer-aided modeling and simulation software programs are essential tools to predict how an optical communication component, link, or network will function and perform. This paper aims to investigate the various effects on pulses propagation in optical transmission systems utilizing the MATLAB program. Dispersion and Attenuation effects are explored. The simulation of Gaussian pulses propagation through single mode optical fiber, simplifies the design of optical communication system and make the design process more efficient, less expensive, and faster.


Article
Influence of the Beam Size Radiation on the Depth Dose by Using 60Co
تاثير حجم الحزمة الاشعاعية على جرعة العمق باستخدام الكوبلت 60

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Radiotherapy is medical use of ionizing radiation, and commonly applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control cell growth. The amount of radiation used in photon radiation therapy called dose (measured in grey unit), which depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated. In our work, we studied the dose distribution given to the tumor at different depths (zero-20 cm) treated with different field size (4×4- 23×23 cm). Results show that the deeper treated area has less dose rate at the same beam quality and quantity. Also it has been noted increasing in the field increasing in the depth dose at the same depth even if the radiation energy is constant. Increasing in radiation dose attributed to the scattered radiation, which is expected, proportionately with increase in the beam size. The aim of work studies the relationship between the depth dose and the radiation source beam size

Keywords

Beam size --- 60Co


Article
Effect of Thickness and Thermal Annealing on Optical Properties of Sb Thin films
تاثير السمك وحرارة التلدين على الخواص البصرية لأغشية الانتيمون

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Antimony (Sb) films are fabricated by depositing (Sb) on glass substrates at room temperature by the method of vacuum evaporation with thickness (0.25 and 0.5µm), with rate of deposition equal to (2.77Å/sec), the two samples are annealed in a vacuum for one hour at 473K. The optical constants which are represented by the refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k) were determined from transmittance spectram in the near Infrared(2500-3500 )nm regions. The tests have been shown that the optical energy gap increases with increasing of annealing temperature for the two samples


Article
Study of Planktonic Foraminferal biostratigraphy and depositional environment of Khasib, Tanuma and Saadi Formations in well Agel -12- Northeastern Tikrite
دراسة الطباقية الحياتية للفورامنيفرا الطافية والبيئية الترسيبية لِتكوينات سعدي وتنومة وخصيب في بئر عجيل -12- شمال شرق تكريت

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The present study deals with the biostratigraphy and depositional environment of (Late Turonian – Early Campanian) represent dy Khasib, Tanuma and Saadi Formations in well Agel -12- Northeastern Tikrite. Determination of three microfacies in Khasib, one microfacies in Tanuma and three microfacies in Saadi Formations. Depending on microfacies the paleoecologe of Khasib Middle shelf – Upper Bathyal environment, Tanuma Shelf Margin environment and Saadi Formations sediment in Middle shelf – Upper Bathyal. Twenty planktic foraminiferal species belonging to eight genera have been identified within the studied well. Depending on the stratigraphic distribution of planktic foraminiferal species, the succession was divided into five biozones. These zones are correlated (locally and regional) with similar planktic foraminiferal 1- Marginotruncana sigali interval Zone. 2- Dicarinella primitive interval Zone. 3- Dicarinella concavata interval Zone.h 4- Dicarinella asymetrica Total Range Zone. 5- Globotruncanita elevata Partial Range Zone. Age of Khasib Late Turonian, Tanuma Coniacian and Saadi Santonian - Early Campanian.


Article
The Role of (Geoelectric and Hydrogeologic) Parameters in the Evaluation of Groundwater reservoir at South of Jabal Sinjar area
دور المعاملات (الجيوكهربائية والهيدروجيولوجية) في تقييم خزان المياه الجوفية لمنطقة جنوب جبل سنجار

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In this study the (geoelectric – hydrogeologic) parameters which are obtained by the quantitative interpretation of (80) Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) points distributed in six linear profiles within the study area are used in addition to (6) pumping test locations for the groundwater reservoir located to the south of Jabal Sinjar (Sinjar anticline). The studied area covers about 7920Km2. The (VES) field readings were interpreted manually by using the auxiliary point method-partial resistivity curve matching,then the interpreted results enhanced by using computer software specialized for the 1D- (VES) resistivity curves interpretation. The (VES) results analyzed by using modern techniques in order to construct a new predicted hydrogeologic maps through the application of an empirical statistical relations between geoelectric and the Hydraulic parameters. The results of empirical relations represent the predicted hydraulic parameters for the points where no pumping tests achieved. The results represents the predicted hydraulic conductivity (K), Transmissivity(Tr), Specific capacity(Sc) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). A computer software used to display the results as maps to display the calculated hydrogeologic parameters variation across the studied area. This result helps to delineate the most productive and good quality groundwater within the study area.


Article
On Almost Maximum Distance Separable Codes
حول الشفرات المنفصلة ذات المسافات العظمى

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The main goal of this paper is to make link between the subjects of projective geometry, vector space and linear codes. The properties of codes and some examples are shown. Furthermore, we will give some information about the geometrical structure of the arcs. All these arcs are give rise to an error-correcting code that corrects the maximum possible number of errors for its length.


Article
Injectivity and chain conditions on y-closed submodules
الاغماريه وشروط السلسلة على المقاسات الجزئية المغلقة من النمط y-

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Let R be a commutative ring with identity and let M be a unital left R-module.Goodearl introduced the following concept :A submodule A of an R – module M is an y – closed submodule of M if is nonsingular.In this paper we introduced an y – closed injective modules andchain condition on y – closed submodules.


Article
Iteration for a Non-Self -Strongly Pseudocontractive Map
التكرار للدالة من النمط - شبه الانكماشي بشدة

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Let be a Banach space, be a nonempty closed convex subset of , and be self nonexpansive map. The sequence generated by the iterative method , where be a contractive mapping and is a sequence in We generalize the mapping to non-sel -Strongly Pseudocontractive .

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Article
Orthogonal Derivations and Orthogonal Generalized Derivations on -Modules
المشتقات المتعامدة واعمام المشتقات المتعامدة على المقاسات من النمط ΓM -

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Let M be Γ-ring and X be ΓM-module, Bresar and Vukman studied orthogonal derivations on semiprime rings. Ashraf and Jamal defined the orthogonal derivations on -rings M. This research defines and studies the concepts of orthogonal derivation and orthogonal generalized derivations on ΓM -Module X and introduces the relation between the products of generalized derivations and orthogonality on ΓM -module.


Article
On The Static Reliability Of Binary-State And Multi-State K-Out-Of-N:G Systems
حول المعولية الساكنة لنظم k-out-of-n:G ثنائية و متعددة الحالة

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The k-out-of-n:G (or k/n:G) system structure is a very popular of redundancy in fault-tolerant systems, with wide applications in so many fields. This paper presents two states of multi-state k/n:G systems. The first part, we present the definition that introduced by Al-Neweihi et al [1], where the values are the same with respect to all system states and we show that there exists an alternative equivalent definition to Al-Neweihi's definition. In the second part of this paper we give more general definition proposed by Huang et al [2], where it allows different values with respect to different system states and we provide there exists an equivalent definition to Huang's definition when the values are increasing. We show it is simply to generalize the mathematical theory of static reliability of binary k/n:G systems to the multistate k/n:G systems. Several new results are established concerning the evaluation of the stochastic of the system static performance measures, together with their computer algorithm (Belfour algorithm).

Keywords


Article
On Purely У–Extending Modules
مقاسات التوسع النقي من النمط y

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In this note we consider a generalization of the notion of a purely extending modules, defined using y– closed submodules. We show that a ring R is purely y – extending if and only if every cyclic nonsingular R – module is flat. In particular every nonsingular purely y extending ring is principal flat.


Article
The dynamics of two harmful phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton system
ديناميكية نظام يتكون من اثنين من العوالق النباتية الضارة وعالق حيواني عاشب

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In this paper, a mathematical model consisting of the two harmful phytoplankton interacting with a herbivorous zooplankton is proposed and studied. The existence of all possible equilibrium points is carried out. The dynamical behaviors of the model system around biologically feasible equilibrium points are studied. Suitable Lyapunov functions are used to construct the basins of attractions of those points. Conditions for which the proposed model persists are established. The occurrence of local bifurcation and a Hopf bifurcation are investigated. Finally, to confirm our obtained analytical results and specify the vital parameters, numerical simulations are used for a hypothetical set of parameter values.


Article
Local Bifurcation and Persistence of an Ecological System Consisting of a Predator and Stage Structured Prey
التفرع المحلي والإصرار لنظام بيئي يتكون من مفترس وفريسة ذات مراحل عمرية مركبة

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Abstract

In this paper, the conditions of persistence of a mathematical model, consists from a predator interacting with stage structured prey are established. The occurrence of local bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are investigated. Finally, in order to confirm our obtained analytical results, numerical simulations have been done for a hypothetical set of parameter values .


Article
Generalized Amply Cofinitely Supplemented Modules
المقاسات المكملة المنتهية المضاده باسهاب معمم

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Abstract

Let R be an associative ring with identity. An R-module M is called generalized amply cofinitely supplemented module if every cofinite submodule of M has an ample generalized supplement in M. In this paper we proved some new results about this conc- ept.


Article
Automatic Segmentation and Identification of Abnormal Breast Region in Mammogram Images Based on Statistical Features
الانقسام التلقائي وتحديد المناطق غير الطبيعية للثدي في التصوير الشعاعي بالاعتماد على الخصائص الإحصائية

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Abstract

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases among women; Mammography is at present one of the available method for early detection of abnormalities which is related to breast cancer. There are different lesions that are breast cancer characteristic such as masses and calcifications which can be detected trough this technique. This paper proposes a computer aided diagnostic system for the extraction of features like masses and calcifications lesions in mammograms for early detection of breast cancer. The proposed technique is based on a two-step procedure: (a) unsupervised segmentation method includes two stages performed using the minimum distance (MD) criterion, (b) feature extraction based on Gray level Co-occurrence matrices GLCM for the identification of masses and calcifications lesions. The method suggested for the detection of abnormal lesions from mammogram image segmentation and analysis was tested over several images taken from National Center for Early Detection of cancer in Baghdad.


Article
Agriculture Cadaster Map of Al-Shehimea
خرائط الكادسترو الزراعية في الشحيمية

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Abstract

The cadastral map is very important because it has technical and materialist specification of the property borders and these maps which are land registration based on it in Iraq, the problem is an ancient maps and unfit for use, despite its importance, Therefor the updating and digitize the cadastral map is very pivotal, this is what we have done in the present work. In the present work, we have an old cadastral map (as a paper) was made in 1932 with modern satellite image (Quick Bird ) 2006, which has 61 cm resolution for the same area after. Geometric correction technique has been applied by using image-to-image method or (image registration ) and after that we get new agricultural cadaster map and connect them with their own the information for the study area (shehimea) in the medial of Iraq. So that we get new digital cadastral map from old map and satellite image. This research is carried out by using programs ERDAS and ArcGIS


Article
Using GPR Technique Assessment for Study the Sub-Grade of Asphalt and Concrete Conditions
استخدام تقنية رادار اختراق الأعماق لدراسة الطبقات الإسفلتية والكونكريتية

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Abstract

The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is frequently used in pavement engineering for road pavement inspection. The main objective of this work is to validate nondestructive, quick and powerful measurements using GPR for assessment of sub-grade and asphalt /concrete conditions. In the present study, two different antennas (250, 500 MHz) were used. The case studies are presented was carried in University of Baghdad over about 100m of paved road. After data acquisition and radar grams collection, they have been processed using RadExplorer V1.4 software implementing different filters with the most effective ones (time zero adjustment and DC removal) in addition to other interpretation tool parameters. The interpretation results showed that with 250 MHz antenna, the buried plastic pipe and the flexible pavement layer were identified. The later appeared as one layer without identifying the rigid pavement layer. With 500 MHz antenna, the plastic pipe, rigid pavement, appeared clearly. Moreover, the short type of maximum time window using antenna 500 MHz appeared to be the most suitable for detecting some radar anomalies (plastic pipe, and pavement thickness) which were clearly defined. While, the suitable radar wave velocity was 100 m/ns for estimation of the flexible and rigid pavement layer thicknesses respectively. No change is obtained with changing point interval. . Finally, this diagnostic tool of GPR for pavement defects and damages investigations seems very promising, cost effective and efficient in its implementation.

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