Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:54 issue:4

Article
Quantum Mechanical Calculations of R-O Thermal Bond Rupture Energies in Some Ampicillin Prodrugs
حسابات ميكانيك الكم لطاقات التكسير الحراري للآصرة R-O في بعض مشتقات الامبيسيلين الدوائية

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PM3 and Unrestricted Hartree Fock (UHF) quantum mechanical methods are carried out for the estimation of reaction path for the breakage of (R-O) bond rupture energies, for twelve ampicillin ester prodrugs derivatives, at their calculated equilibrium geometries, in addition to some physical properties such as heat of formation, total energy, dipole moment and the energy difference of EHOMO and ELUMO (ΔEHOMO-LUMO) energy levels, using the Gaussian-03 program. Comparisons were done between the total energies of the reactants, products, activation energies and transition states. The results show non possible use of some substituted organic groups as a carrier linkage for acidic ampicillin drug, whereas others show possible use as a carrier linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at a B3LYP/6-311G level were carried out for assignment IR vibration frequencies of R-O bond and for some important modes, for all ampicillin derivatives, depending on the pictures of its modes obtained from calculated IR spectra.


Article
Studying of Frequencies, Normal Modes of Vibration and Electronic Charge Densities of 5Radialene molecule
دراسة ترددات الاهتزاز و الاحداثيات الداخلية و كثافة الشحنة الالكترونية لجزيئة 5 راديالين

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Abstract

PM3 and DFT (6-311G/ B3LYP) level calculations were carried out for the 5Radialene molecule, which is exhibit D5h symmetry. The obtained equilibrium geometry was applied for the calculation of all 3N−6 vibration frequencies, and for the analysis of its normal coordinates and symmetry species, in addition to some physical properties such as heat of formation, total energy, dipole moment and energy difference of HOMO and LUMO levels (ΔELUMO-HOMO), using Gaussian-03 program. The so calculated frequencies according to DFT (6-311G/ B3LYP) fall in the ranges; CH2 str. (3016-3098 cm-1), C=C str. (1662-1709cm-1), ring (C-C str.) (1268-1464 cm-1). δCH2 (890-1317cm-1), (δCCC) (562-631cm-1), γCH2 (738-946cm-1) and γring (γCCC) (14-805cm-1), and according to PM3 fall in the ranges; CH2 str. (3124-3138cm-1), C=C str. (1873-1939cm-1), ring str. (C-C str.) (1289-1430cm-1). δCH2 (946-1503cm-1), (δCCC) (549-777cm-1), γCH2 (673-1007cm-1) and γring (γCCC) (54-785cm-1). Other interesting correlations were also be obtained for the frequencies of similar vibrations. Distribution of electronic charge density on atoms of 5Radialene molecule were also calculated and studied. Keywords: 5Radialene, Frequency, Electronic Charge Density.


Article
Synthesis, Evaluation Antimicrobial Activity of Some New N-substituted Naphthalimides Containing Different Heterocyclic Rings
تحضير وتقييم الفعالية المضادة للميكروبات لبعض N-معوضات نفثالئيميدات الجديدة الحاوية حلقات غير متجانسة مختلفة

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A series of new 1,8-naphthalimides linked to azetidinone, thiazolidinone or tetrazole moieties were synthesized. N-ester-1,8-naphthalimide (1) was obtained by direct imidation of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride with ethylglycinate. Compound (1) was treated with hydrazine hydrate in absolute ethanol to give N-acetohydrazide-1,8-naphthalimide (2). The hydrazine derivative (2) was used to obtain new Schiff bases (3-7). Three routes with different reagents were used for the cyclization of the prepared Schiff bases. Fifteen cyclic Schiff bases (8-22) with four- and five-membered rings were obtained. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were identified by their FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectral data and some physical properties. Furthermore, these compounds were screened in three concentration for their in vitro antimicrobial activity measurements against both Gram (+ve) such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus and Gram (-ve) Escherichia Coli, pseudomonas aeuroginosa bacteria and against Candida albicans fungal and they were found to exhibit good to moderate antimicrobial activities.


Article
Removal of Iron (Iii) Ion from Aqueous Solution using Polyacrylic Acid Hydorgel Beads as Adsorbent
إزالة ايون الحديد الثلاثي من المحاليل المائية باستخدام حبيبات الجل المائية لمتعدد حامض الاكريلك كمادة مازه

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Abstract

This research focuses on the removal and adsorption of Fe (III) ion using a low cost commercial polyacrylic acid hydrogel beads as adsorbent. The effects of time, initial concentration and pH on the metal ion adsorption capacity were investigated. The regeneration of the hydrogel bead and recovery of the metal ion adsorbed were study. The adsorption isotherm models were applied on experimental data and it is shown that the Langmuir model was the best one for Fe (III) ion removal. The maximum capacity was calculated. First-order and second- order kinetic models were used and it is shown that the experimental data was in reliable compliance with the first- order model with R2 value of (0.9935, 0.9011, 0.9695, 0.9912) for all concentrations which were used in this study (100, 200, 300, 400) mg.L-1 respectively.

Keywords

Removal --- Polyacrylic acid --- Hydrogel


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives Based on 3,4,5,6 Tetrachlorophthalimide
تحضير وتشخيص بعض من مشتقات 4,3,1 - اوكسادايازول و -4,2,1ترايازول الجديدة اعتماداً على المركب 6,5,4,3 – رباعي كلوروفثال ايمايد

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Abstract

Several new derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles linked to 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorophthalimide moiety were synthesized through following multisteps. The first step involved preparation of 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorophthalimide via reaction of 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorophthalic anhydride with urea at high temperature. Treatment of the resulted imide with ethyl chloroacetate in the second step afforded tetrachlorophthalimidyl ester which inturn was introduced in reaction with hydrazine hydrate in the third step, producing the corresponding acetohydrazide. The synthesized acetohydrazide was introduced in different synthetic paths including treatment with phenyl isothiocyanate or reaction with carbon disulfide in alkaline solution then with hydrazine hydrate to afford the new 1,2,4-thiazoles, while introducing of acetohydrazide in reaction with carbon disulfide in alkaline solution under reflux or in reaction with benzaldehyde producing a new Schiff base. Treatment of the new Schiff base with acetic anhydride afforded the new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles.

Keywords

synthesis --- imide --- 1 --- 3 --- 4 – Oxadiazole --- 1 --- 2 --- 4 - Triazole


Article
Synthesis and characterization of some 2-sulphanyl benzimidazole derivatives and study of effect as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in sulfuric acid solution
تحضير وتشخيص بعض مشتقات السلفانيل بنزايميدازول ودراسة تأثيرها كمثبطات تآكل لحديد الفولاذ في محلول حامض الكبريتيك

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Abstract

This research involves the synthesis of some sulphanyl benzimidazole derivatives (Ia-c), which were prepared from reaction of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole substituted benzyl halide, and structures were identified by spectral methods[FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR].These compounds were investigated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1M H2SO4 solution using weight loss, potentiostatic polarization methods; obtained results showed that the sulphanyl benzimidazole derivatives retard both cathodic and anodic reactions in acidic media, by virtue of adsorption on the carbon steel surface. This adsorption obeyed Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The inhibition efficiency of (Ia-c) ranging between (65-92) %. By using different Ib derivative concentration and temperature, the carbon steel corrosion rate was decreased with increasing Ib concentration and the highest inhibition efficiency reach to 92.8% by using 4.6×10-4 M Ib concentration at 308 K,the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing temperature ranging(308-338)K.


Article
Imipenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients and hospitals environment in Baghdad
بكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii المقاومة للأمبينيم المعزولة من مرضى و بيئة مستشفيات بغداد

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Abstract

During 2011, 1900 clinical specimens and 240 hospital environment specimens were collected from four hospitals in Baghdad. 128 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were obtained from clinical and environmental specimens in a percentage of 6.05% and 5.42%, respectively. The highest percentage of isolation, 38.26% was of sputum specimens and lower percentage of burns specimens 5.22%. The lowest incidence was of age range (71-80) years old group whereas the highest incidence was of age range (31-40) years old group. Also we found that the incidence was higher in males (66.96%) than that of females (33.04%) and the frequency of positive A. baumannii isolates was higher in intensive care units (ICUs). Results revealed eleven different resistotype patterns* designated arbitrarily from A-K and all our isolates showed multidrug resistance to those antibiotics. We found the highest percentage (85%) of imipenem resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) isolates were isolated from blood disease (leukemia) department followed by ICU, RCU, Burns, surgical and other departments, respectively.


Article
Assessment of pollution with some heavy metals in water, sediments and Barbus xanthopterus fish of the Tigris River–Iraq
تقييم التلوث ببعض العناصر الثقيلة في مياه ورواسب وسمك الكَطان في نهر دجله في مدينة بغداد

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In this study, four sampling stations were selected on the Tigris River (Baghdad region) in order to determine concentrations, seasonal variation and pollution intensity assessment of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Mn) in water, sediments and Barbus xanthpterus fish in this river. The study results showed that the mean concentration of dissolved heavy metals (cadmium, zinc and manganese) were 0.004 ppm, 0.023 ppm and 0.007 ppm, respectively. Whereas, their concentrations in sediments were 1.38 ppm, 86 ppm and 231.4 ppm respectively. Irregular seasonal variation for concentrations of these metals in both sediments and water. The mean concentration of these metals in tissues of fish muscles were 0.0043 ppm, 0.0023 ppm and 0.03 ppm for cadmium, zinc, and manganese respectively, while the mean concentration of these metals for tissues of intestine was 0.01 ppm, 0.0023 ppm and 0.029 ppm, respectively, whereas for tissues of gills the mean concentration of these metals was 0.0121 ppm, 0.0026 ppm and 0.087 ppm, respectively. The results of present study showed the metals concentration in tissues of muscles, intestine and gill higher than water and less than it level in sediments. According to Geo-accumulation index, Contamination factor, Enrichment index and potential ecological risk index used in this study the results explained that Cd was more the metals and existing increased in average from background value and caused high risk to aquatic environment, while the use of Pollution load index and Contamination degree to identify to pollution severity by total heavy metals and explained the station one and two were unpolluted to slightly polluted, whereas the station three and four were polluted by studied heavy metals.


Article
Pomegranate Peels as Biosorbent Material to Remove Heavy Metal Ions from Industerial Wastewater
استخدام قشور الرمان كمواد مازة لإزالة أيونات العناصر الثقيلة من مياه الفضلة الصناعية

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Pomegranate peels were used to remove zinc, chromium and nickel from industrial wastewater. Three forms of these peels (fresh, dried small pieces and powder) were tested under some environmental factors such as pH, temperature and contact time. The obtained results showed that these peels are capable of removing zinc, chromium and nickel ions at significant capacities. The powder of the peels had the highest capability in bioremoving all zinc, chromium and nickel ions while dried peels had the lowest capacity again for all metals under test. However, the highest capacities were found in a sequence of chromium, nickel and zinc. Furthermore, all these data were significantly (LSD peel forms = 2.761 mg/l, LSD metal ions = 1.756 mg/l) varied. In case of chromium, these figures were 69.7 ± 0.9 mg/l, 58.0 ± 2.4 mg/l and 49.7 ± 0.5 mg/l for powder, fresh and dried peels respectively. Regarding nickel ions, the data were 58.7 ± 1.1 mg/l for peel powder, 50.7 ± 2.0 mg/l for fresh peel and 42.0 ± 1.2 mg/l for dry peel. While for zinc ions, the biosorption capacity was 48.4 ± 2.2 mg/l, 39.4 ± 0.8 mg/l and 32.0 ± 1.6 mg/l for powder, fresh and dry peels respectively. However, some examined factors were found to have significant impacts upon bioremoval capacity of pomegranate peels such as pH, temperature, and contact time where best biosorption capacities were found at pH 4, with temperature 50 Cº and contact time of 1 hour. Regarding pH, the highest bioremoval ability was found at pH 4 for all heavy metals, but with the sequence of Cr, Ni, and Zn and the data were 68.1 ± 1.5 mg/l, 56.0 ± 0.5 mg/l and 47.88 ± 1.21 mg/l respectively. Similar pattern of bioremoval capacity was detected for temperature which was 50 Cº giving capacities of 72.0 ± 0.0 mg Cr/l, 60.0 ± 1.84 mg Ni/l and 54.0 ± 1.72 mg Zn/l. In case of contact time, these capacities were again similar to those of pH and temperature and found to be 76.0 ± 3.0 mg/l , 64.0 ± 1.82 mg/l and 60.0 ± 2.0 mg/l for Cr, Ni, and Zn respectively but at 1 hour contact time.


Article
Prevalence of Toxoplasmosis of Males Blood Donors in Baghdad
انتشار داء المقوسات للرجال المتبرعين بالدم في بغداد

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Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is intracellular parasites, which infect a large proportion of the world's population, but uncommonly causes clinically significant disease .The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Iraqi male. Venous blood samples were collected from healthy male age between (18-57) years attended the National blood transfusion centre in Baghdad from Oct, 2011 to Jan. 2012. Latex agglutination test (LAT) and Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA), were used to detect anti-Toxoplasmosis IgM and IgG antibodies. The results showed significant differences between seropositive toxoplasmosis infections between LAT, 136/400 (34%) and ELISA - IgG, 121/400 (30.25%). The blood group phenotypes of the infected male blood donors high light the role in toxoplasmosis infection and the AB blood group characterized by the highest significant percentage of infection. Chronic and actue toxoplasmosis infection in married males included in this study was significantly higher, 101(83.47%) and 7(70%) respectively than unmarried males 20 (16.52%) and 3(30%) respectively. However married males showed significant difference between fertile and infertile infected males, they were 31(30.69%), 6(85.71%) and 70 (69.30%), 1 (14.28%) by ELISA IgG and IgM respectively. Private worker males revealed highly significant percentages of chronic and acute toxoplasmosis 91(75.20%), 2(20%) respectively compared with government worker, 30(24.79%), 8 (80%) respectively. Chronic seropositive toxoplasmosis was higher in males inhabited rural regions, 111(91.73%), than in males inhabited urban regions, 10(8.26%.


Article
Biological effects of Chitin synthesis inhibitor Applaud (buprofezin) on Culex quinquefasciatus in polluted water
التاثيرات الحيوية لمثبط تخليق الكايتين Applaud buprofezin)) في بعوض Culex quinquefasciatus في المياة الملوثة

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the biological effects of chitin synthesis inhibitor, applaud (Buprofezin); on immature stages of mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. The study showed that the chitin synthesis inhibitor applaud caused biological effects represented in molting failure of larva to subsequent phase or to pupal stage, pupa to adults and mortality. The percentage of the effects differed depending on concentrations used; significantly increased with increasing of concentrations. Also the failure of molting significantly increased compared with mortality at low concentrations and inversely at high concentrations, due to lethal effect of buprofezin at high concentrations. The study of the accumulative death of the first and late inster of larva positively correlated with the time (days after treatment), in addition, the proportion of mortality increased in pupal stage compared with larval stage, also the result indicated that the inhibition of adults emergence increased with concentrations, reached to 95.5% at the highest concentration (1 mg/ L.).


Article
Comparison between Cefoxitin disk diffusion, Crome agar and EPI-M Screening Kit for Detection of Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
المقارنة بين Cromeagar, Cefoxitin disk diffusion وEPI-M Screening kitلاجل التحري عن بكتريا المكورات العنقودية المقاومة للمثسلين

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Specimens have been collected from one hundred and seventeen patients residing in local hospitals, 33 with burns and 84 wound injuries,. Three different methods ,Cefoxitin disk diffusion, EPI-M Screening Kit and Crome agar (MeReSa agar)with selective supplement were used to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . A comparison was made between these 3 methods according to the results. It was found that the results of the Cefoxitin disk diffusion test were compatible with the results of culturing on Crome agar, while those obtained from the EPI-M Screening kit were not accurate and some of them gave false negative results.

Keywords

MRSA --- Burns --- wounds --- EPI-M --- Cefoxitin --- MeReSa agar


Article
Effect of seed oil Ricinus communis on E. coli isolated from Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
تأثير زيت بذور الخروع Ricinuscommunis في بكتريا E. coli المعزولة من التهابات المجاري البولية المتكررة

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This study was conducted in Wasit governorate for the period between February 2012 to February 2013 to determine the impact of Castor seed oil at different concentrations 100, 75, 50 and 25% in inhibition of the growth of E. coli isolated from 52 male and female patients (2-70 yrs) attending Al Zahra Hospital and Al Karama Hospital in Kut city. Oil was extracted from seeds of Castor had the ability to inhibit E. coli isolated from patients presented with recurrent urinary tract infections . Zone of inhibition accomplishing was 9.06 mm in diameter.HPLC analysis revealed that the content of α-linolenic in Castor seed oil (18.90 µgml) was higher than other fatty acids followed by oleic. Perhaps this is why it able to inhibit E. coli; which affect the cellular components in bacteria.


Article
Laboratory Study on the Susceptibility of Locally Bread Wheat Cultivars to Infestation by Green Bug
تقييم حساسية بعض أصناف القمح المستنبطة محلياً للإصابة بحشـــرة مَنْ الحبـــوب

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Five bread wheat cultivars was selected namely, IPA99, Tamouz 2, Rasheed, Abu-ghraib And Iraq, were selected for susceptibility to green bug, Schizaphis graminum R.(Aphididae: Homoptera) infestation. Experiments done in under laboratory temperature 20±2C˚, humidity 65±5 % at 12h light. Results have indicated that IPA99 was highly preferred by in S. graminum and no significant of differences with Rasheed and Abu-ghraib, while Iraq and Tamouz2 came second. Although all wheat cultivars were infested by S. graminum except Iraq cultivar which showed some tolerance when exposed to three densities of 5, 10, 15 aphids ̸ plant during the time of test was 4 weeks. the development time of nymphs were 8, 8, 9, 9.3and 8.3 days for cultivars IPA99, Tamoz2, Iraq, Rasheed and Abu-ghraib respectively with no significant differences. Female longevity of this species was 30, 25, 37.7, 35.5 and 44 days when reared on Iraq, Tamouz2, Abu-ghraib, Rasheed and IPA99 cultivars respectively .The highest fecundity of S.graminum was 82.5 individuals ∕ female on IPA99 and lowest was 48 individuals ∕ female for Iraq cultivar.


Article
Evaluation the Effects of Three Types of Pomegranate Fruit Extracts on Some Biochemical Markers and Cytogenetic Parameters in Mice Administrated With Iron Dextran to Iron Overload
تقييم تأثير مستخلصات ثلاث أجزاء مختلفة لثمرة الرمان في مستوى بعض المؤشرت الكيموحيوية والوراثة الخلوية في فئران مجرعة بدكستران الحديد لاستحثاث فرط الحديد

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This study designed to evaluate the deleterious effects of iron overloaded on organs weights , enzyme activity of liver and bilirubin, iron concentration, total iron binding capacity in serum and on bone marrow cells proliferation in mice. The obtained results showed non significant differences in organ weights (spleen and kidney) in group 1 that treated with three parts extracts of pomegranate except the decreasing in spleen weight subgroup 1-4 , significant increasing in liver and kidney weight in all animals treated with iron dextran (group 2) in comparison with their weights of organs in negative control (group 1). While significant increasing in iron concentrations in serum of animal administrated peel and juice in comparison with their positive control, furthermore , a significant increasing in its concentration extract in serum of animal that induced iron overload. Furthermore the increasing were significant in TIBC in serum of group 2 and that level were reduced to 83.1 % ,33% and 67.1% in serum of mice post treated with seed, peel and juice respectively , and the level of TIBC were at its lowest recorded in serum of group 1, while the highest TS% were recorded in group 1 ,in contrast group 2 that revealed lower TS% especially in animal administrated iron dextran only. The study also showed significant increases in the level of AST and ALP activity and bilirubin in serum of almost all animals administrated by the three typesof pomegranate extracts,but the results also illustrated that the extracts could be reduced the highest levels of AST, ALP and bilirubin in serum of the animals with iron overload when administrated post treatment. On the other hand, the results illustrated that the juice extract induced significantly bone marrow cells proliferation in group 1 and the animals administrated iron dextran, while the administrated animals with peel and seed extracts in group 2 reduced their bone marrow cells proliferation significantly in comparison with the positive control. Non significant differences were recorded in total chromosomal aberration in bone marrow cells in group 1, while the CAs revealed significant differences in group 2 especially in animals administrated iron dextran and the type of aberrations represented was mainly of chromatid break, dicentric, a centric chromosome and ring chromosome.


Article
Processing of Crispy Chicken and Studying Its Quality Properties
تصنيع مقرمش الدجاج ودراسة خواصه النوعية

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This investigation was carried out to examine the Processing and effect of addition of different spices on the sensory and microbial properties of the Crispy Chicken . The results revealed than that of treatments 1 (without spices control) , 3 (anise ) , 4 (Thyme) , 5 (curry) , 6 (black Pepper) , 7 ( ginger) and 10 ( garlic ) gined higher score of overall acceptance than treatment 8 ( carnation ) . Did not significant difference of overall acceptance , between treatments 1 , 2 ( black seed ) , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 9 ( onion ) and 10 and between treatments 2 , 8 and 9 . In regards with microbial tests showed aerobic bacteria highest numbers than adding 2, which amounted to more than 300 the unit cell bacterial cfu / ml and less numbers than adding, which amounted to 6 1 cfu / ml . While not showed bacteria, molds and yeasts than adding 5 and 8 after stored at -18 ° C for 3 days and dissolution at 30-32 º C for two hours and incubation at 37 ºC for 24 hours . And aerobic bacteria appeared the highest numbers than adding 9, which amounted to 6 cfu / ml and less numbers than adding 6, which amounted to 1 cfu/ml . While aerobic bacteria does not appeared than adding 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 after storaed at – 18º C for 30 days and dissolution at 20-22 º C for two hours and incubation at 37 º C for 24 hours . While after incubation at 37 º C for 48 hours aerobic bacteria appeared the highest numbers than adding 2, which amounted to 350 cfu / ml and less numbers than adding 3, which amounted to 1 cfu / ml , Did not show aerobic bacteria than adding 1 . And appeared aerobic bacteria than adding 1 and 2 which amounted large and prepared by the few than adding 4, which amounted to 2 cfu / ml, while not showed aerobic bacteria in other adding after storaed at -18 º C for 2 months and dissolution at 16 - 18 ºC for two hours and incubation 37 º C for 24 hours. While increased growth of aerobic bacteria than adding 6, 7 and 8, which reached numbers 1, 3, and 1 cfu / ml . While aerobic bacteria does not appeared than adding which amounted 3, 9, and 10, after 48 hours of incubation at 37 ºC . As for the bacteria coliforms did not appeared in all adding during the phases storaed except addition 1 which amounted to 1 cfu / ml after storaed at – 18º C for 30 days and dissolution at 20-22 º C for two hours and incubation for 48 hours in 37 º C .


Article
Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on Physical Properties of Composite Material (Al-B4C)
تأثير المعاملة الحرارية السطحية بالليزر على الخواص الفيزياوية لمادة متراكبة (Al-B4C)

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This work study the effect of laser surface heat treatment on physical properties (green density, density after sintering, theoretical density and porosity)of a composite material of an Al powder as a matrix with different percentage of B4C powder as additive material. This work was done by two stages: First stage: Production the maincomposite material which is contain Al powder with grain size 24μm as a matrix and B4C powder with grain size 50μm as additive with different weight percentage (5%,10%,15%,20%,25%,30%), and the powders Maxined for suitable time 15min, after that the mixture compacted with 2ton and sintered at 550C0. Second stage: Laser surface treatment was done for the productive composite material after sintering by using pulse Nd: YAG laser with 1J energy, wave length 1064nm and pulse duration 100ns.Laser surface heat treatment was carried out with one pulse and two pulses respectively. Macrohardness of the composite material was measured after the sintering process and after the laser surface heat treatment with one pulse and two pulses, also photo-micrographies were taken for the specimens by using ordinary microscopic after each of sintering process and laser surface heat treatment. The results show that improvement of physical properties mentioned above and macrohardness after laser surface treatment with two pulses more than one pulse.


Article
Longitudinal and Transverse Electron Scattering Form Factors for 13C Nucleus with Core-Polarization Effects
عوامل التشكيل للإستطارة الألكترونية الطولية والمستعرضة لنواة الكربون-١٣مع تأثيرإستقطاب القلب

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Inelastic electron scattering have been studied for , states in the 13C nucleus. 4He is considered as an inert core with nine nucleons out of it (the model space of nucleus). Form factors are calculated by using Cohen-Kurath interaction for 1p-shell model space with Modified Surface Delta Interaction (MSDI) as a residual interaction for higher configuration. The study of core-polarization effects on the form factors is based on microscopic theory, which combines shell model wave functions and configurations with higher energy as the first order perturbation. The radial wave functions for the single-particle matrix elements have been calculated with the harmonic oscillator potential and the oscillator length parameter is chosen to reproduce the measured root mean square charge radius for nucleus under considered in this work. The inclusion of the core-polarization effects (the effects from out of the core) gives a good agreement with the experimental data.


Article
Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (Ndvi) To Assessment The Changes Of Vegetations Cover In Surrounding Area Of Himreen Lake
استخدام دليل اختلاف الغطاء النباتي لتقييم تغيرات الغطاء النباتي في المناطق المحيطة لبحيرة حمرين

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The study area lies in the eastern part of Iraq, within Diyala and small parts of Salah Al-Din and Sulamanyah Governorates. The eastern boundary of the map represents Iraqi-Iranian International borders; it covers about 7010 Km2.The present study depends on two scenes of Thematic Mapper (TM5) data of Landsat and one scene of Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) data of Landsat, these data are subset and corrected within the ERDAS 9.2 software using UTM N38 projection. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was adopted as practical tool for monitoring the surrounding area of Himreen Lake. The obtained result shows the distributions of NDVI for period 1976-1992 were positive pattern of (High vegetation density and Moderate vegetation density) and negative pattern of (Low vegetation density).The distributions of NDVI for period 1992-2010 was negative pattern of (High vegetation density and Low vegetation density) and positive pattern of (Moderate vegetation density).


Article
Evaluation of groundwater recharge in arid and semiarid regions (case study of Dibdiba formation in Karballa-Najaf plateau)
تقييم تغذية المياه الجوفية في المناطق الجافة وشبه الجافة (دراسة حالة تكوين الدبدبة في هضبة كربلاء - نجف)

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Abstract

The process of recharge the groundwater is the key factors that need to be addressed as is the foundation upon which the process of groundwater use and management properly, especially in arid and semi-arid, like Iraq, so the values of groundwater recharge calculated vary depending on the method used in the calculation and the more factors calculated in the process of calculating the values of groundwater recharge increased margin of error in these values. In this study were selected four methods to calculate the value of recharge for groundwater (fluctuating water table, water balance of the basin, numerical modeling, and balance of chloride ion mass in unsaturated zone) was applied in the Plateau area of Karbala (Dibdiba formation) has given these methods produce different results to the values of groundwater recharge. has given way balance chloride ion mass in the unsaturated zone give a results are closer to reality through compering with the volume of water that inventories renewed.


Article
Seismicity Evaluation of Central and Southern Iraq
التقييم الــزلزالــي لوسط و جنوب العراق

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Abstract

This study covers the area bounded by latitudes 29° to 34° N and longitudes 39° to 48°E.The seismicity of area for the period 1980–2011 is evaluated. In this study the geological and topography were performed, regarding the historical seismicity. More than (145) events were re-analyzed in Iraqi Seismological Network (ISN) and the recorded data was subjected to statistical analysis. This study shows high activity in the east and very low activity in the west.


Article
On Reverse – Centralizers Of Semiprime Rings
حَــول الدوال التمركزية العكسية على الحلقات شُبــه ألاولـــية

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Abstract

In this paper we study necessary and sufficient conditions for a reverse- centralizer of a semiprime ring R to be orthogonal. We also prove that a reverse- centralizer T of a semiprime ring R having a commuting generalized inverse is orthogonal.


Article
Projectivity on y-closed Submodules
الاسقاطية على المقاسات الجزئية المغلقة من النمط y

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Abstract

In this notion we consider a generalization of the notion of a projective modules , defined using y-closed submodules . We show that for a module M = M1M2 . If M2 is M1 – y-closed projective , then for every y-closed submodule N of M with M = M1 + N , there exists a submodule M`of N such that M = M1M`.


Article
On the Size of Complete Arcs in Projective Space of Order 17
حول حجم الأقواس التامة في الفضاء ألإسقاطي من الرتبة 17

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Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to show that a -arc in and is subset of a twisted cubic, that is, a normal rational curve. The maximum size of an arc in a projective space or equivalently the maximum length of a maximum distance separable linear code are classified. It is then shown that this maximum is for all dimensions up to .


Article
Minimal and Maximal Feebly Open Sets
المجموعات الضئيلة ألاصغرية وألاكبرية

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Abstract

In this paper we introduced many new concepts all of these concepts completely depended on the concept of feebly open set. The main concepts which introduced in this paper are minimal f-open and maximal f-open sets. Also new types of topological spaces introduced which called and spaces. Besides, we present a package of maps called: minimal f-continuous, maximal f-continuous, f-irresolute minimal, f-irresolute maximal, minimal f-irresolute and maximal f-irresolute. Additionally we investigated some fundamental properties of the concepts which presented in this paper.


Article
On Right (σ,τ)- Derivation of Prime Rings
مشتقات- (σ,τ) اليمنى على الحلقات الاولية

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Abstract

Let R be a prime ring and δ a right (σ,τ)-derivation on R. In the present paper we will prove the following results: First, suppose that R is a prime ring and I a non-zero ideal of R if δ acts as a homomorphism on I then δ=0 on R, and if δ acts an anti- homomorphism on I then either δ=0 on R or R is commutative. Second, suppose that R is 2-torsion-free prime ring and J a non-zero Jordan ideal and a subring of R, if δ acts as a homomorphism on J then δ=0 on J, and if δ acts an anti- homomorphism on J then either δ=0 on J or J Z(R).


Article
Boundary Controllability of Nonlinear System in Quasi-Banach Spaces
القابلية على السيطرة لمسألة السيطرة غير الخطية ذات الشرط الحدودي في فضاءات شبه بناخ

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Abstract

Sufficient conditions for boundary controllability of nonlinear system in quasi-Banach spaces are established. The results are obtained by using the strongly continuous semigroup theory and some techniques of nonlinear functional analysis, such as, fixed point theorem and quasi-Banach contraction principle theorem. Moreover, we given an example which is provided to illustrate the theory.


Article
Symmetric Block Cipher Algorithm Using Generated Digital 3D Fractal Image
تعديل خوارزمية التشفير الكتلي ذات المفتاح الواحد باستخدام توليد صورة رقمية كسرية ثلاثية الابعاد

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Abstract

The principal goal guiding any designed encryption algorithm must be security against unauthorized attackers. Within the last decade, there has been a vast increase in the communication of digital computer data in both the private and public sectors. Much of this information has a significant value; therefore it does require the protection by design strength algorithm to cipher it. This algorithm defines the mathematical steps required to transform data into a cryptographic cipher and also to transform the cipher back to the original form. The Performance and security level is the main characteristics that differentiate one encryption algorithm from another. In this paper suggested a new technique to enhance the performance of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm by generate the key of this algorithm from random bitmaps images depending on the increasing of the randomness of the pixel colour, which lead to generate a (clipped) key has a very high randomness according to the know randomness tests and adds a new level of protection strength and more robustness against breaking methods.


Article
Harmony-Scatter Search to Solve Travelling Salesman Problem
البحث الايقاعي المنتشر لحل مشكلة البائع المتجول

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Abstract

This paper presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm which is Harmony-Scatter Search (HSS). The HSS provides Scatter Search (SS) with random exploration for search space of problem and more of diversity and intensification for promising solutions. The SS and HSS have been tested on Traveling Salesman Problem. A computational experiment with benchmark instances is reported. The results demonstrate that the HSS algorithm produce better performance than original Scatter Search algorithm. The HSS in the value of average fitness is 27.6% comparing with original SS. In other hand the elapsed time of HSS is larger than the original SS by small value. The developed algorithm has been compared with other algorithms for the same problem, and the result was competitive with some algorithm and insufficient with another.


Article
Estimated the Seasonal Change of Temperature in Iraq Using GIS Techniques
تخمين التغير الموسمي لدرجات الحرارة في العراق باستخدام تقنيات نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Abstract

Global warming is the scientific evidence that air temperatures the near surface of Earth are rising, and that higher temperatures threaten dangerous consequences earth such as drought, disease, floods, lost ecosystems. This aim of this research is analyzed the monthly means of daily values of air temperature in Iraq for the period of 1979 to 2010 by using GIS techniques. Data were obtained from the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The initial diagnosis showed that there is no significant increase of maximum values of the mean temperature for the four parts( northern, central, western, and southern ) of Iraq for the four seasons so we compared the area of maximum value of mean temperature which covered it and the results show there were an increase in the central and southern part of the country during summer and winter and there were no significant change in the temperature pattern for the northern and western part of the country , while the trend of change of the area of maximum value of mean temperature for spring and autumn and for the three periods were oscillating.

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