Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2013 volume:44 issue:4

Article
STABILITY ESTIMATES OF SOME MAIZE CROSSES BY GR AND AMMI EQUATIONS
تقدير الثبات في بعض تضريبات الذرة الصفراء باختبار معادلتي GR وAMMI

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Abstract

This paper deals with the identification of the optimum cross and the cross next to it by applying two equations, GR (genotypic resultant) and AMMI. That was on three- way crosses of maize developed in the fall of 2009 on the fields of State Board of Agric. , in Abu- Ghraib. Ten three–way crosses were planted at ten sites (environments) in spring of 2011 to study their genotype × environment interaction. The equation of GR=(1-(S.D)⁄(X ̅i.)() (X ̅i.)⁄(X ̅..)) and the well-known AMMI equation were applied on data of crosses plant grain yields . The ANOVA explained that G×E interaction was significant. Both equations have identified that the cross G10 was the optimum one, and G8 was next. G10 had 157.2 g/plant while G8 had 143.8 g/plant. However, the GR equation was simple and efficient to identify these two crosses as compared to AMMI. Thus, it was recommended to apply GR in studies on G×E interaction for its simplicity and efficiency to identify the optimum cross and next to it as compared to the (ideal) which is theoretically of higher performance and 100% stability.


Article
GENETIC VARIATION OF SOME TRAITS OF SORGHUM UNDER POPULATION DENSITIES 1- FIELD TRAITS
تغايرات معالم وراثية لبعض صفات الذرة البيضاء تحت كثافات نباتية 1- الصفات الحقلية

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Abstract

To estimate the extent of genetic variability of some sorghum characters under different plant population, a field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Dept. of Field Crop science, Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad during fall 2011 and spring 2012 using three different populations 71.4, 95.2, and 143 thousands plants per ha.. The cultivars were Lelo improved and original. The experiments were factorial and laid out in completely randomized block design with four replicates. Several traits were studied in terms of plants’ performance and variations aspects, observations were recorded on ten plants in each treatment. The values of genetic, environmental variance, genetic and phenotypic coefficient variation, stability and the heritability of sorghum were calculated .The highest genetic variation environmental variation were 27.0, 12.18, 10.11, 6.40 and 5.15 for dates to maturity, number of functional leaves, total dry matters, leaf area index, crop growth rate, stalk dimension, respectively, while the lowest rates were 0.79, 0.89,2.0, 2.33 for stalk dimension, effective filling period, dates to flowering and plant height correspondingly. The highest heritability was for dates to maturity 96% and the lowest was stalk dimension 44%. The highest phenotypic stability was dates to maturity 96% for improved cultivar during fall season. The population density has significantly affected the entire studied traits in both seasons, the improved cultivar was superior in the whole traits under study apart from plant height, there was a significant interaction cultivars X population in fall season for the traits of dates to maturity, crop growth rate, number of functional leaves, and plant height, while the traits of dates to flowering, effective filling period, leaf area index, total dry matters, and stalk dimension were non significant. We conclude that some traits are more affected by environmental factors; therefore we recommend considering the total dry matters and crop growth rate as a criteria in measuring grains’ production ability of sorghum.


Article
GENETIC VARIATION OF SOME TRAITS OF SORGHUM UNDER POPULATION DENSITIES 2- YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS
تغايرات معالم وراثية لبعض صفات الذرة البيضاء تحت كثافات نباتية 2- الحاصل ومكوناته

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Abstract

To estimate the extent of genetic variability of some sorghum characters under different plant population, a field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Dept. of Field Crop science, Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad during fall 2011 and Spring 2012 using three different populations 71.4, 95.2, and 143 thousands plants per ha.. The cultivars were Lelo improved and original. The experiments were factorial laid out in completely randomized block design with four replicates. Several traits were studied in terms of plants’ performance and variations aspects, observations were recorded on ten plants in each treatment. The values of genetic, environmental variance, genetic and phenotypic coefficient variation, stability and the heritability of sorghum were calculated .The highest genetic variation environmental variation were 43.0 and 25.32for grains' yield, and number of grains per area respectively, while the lowest rates were 3.34 and 7.85 for panicle length and grain’ weight correspondingly. The highest heritability was for grains’ yield and grain' weight (both were 98%) while, the lowest was for panicle length 77%. The highest phenotypic stability was 96% for grain's weight given by the improved cultivar during fall season. The population density has significantly affected the entire studied traits in both seasons, the improved cultivar was superior in the whole traits under study, there was a significant interaction cultivars X population in fall season for the traits of grains' yield and number of grains per area, while the traits of panicle length and grains weight were non significant. We conclude that most of yield components traits are affecting more by the genetic factors apart from panicle length; therefore we recommend considering number and weight of grains as a criteria in measuring grains' production ability of sorghum.


Article
A PROGRAM TO DEVELOP BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS VIA HYBRIDIZATION AND MUTATIONS
استنباط أصناف من حنطة الخبز بالتهجين والطفرات

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Abstract

This scientific program carried out during (1996-2009) at three locations (Latefiya, Twaitha, and Tikreet). Seeds (75) g of F3 generation from wheat hybrids (1)- (Lachis x Saberbeg), (2)- (Najah x Mexipak), (3)- {(Saberbeg x Mexipak) x Abughraib} (4)- (Purline of Mexipak), were irradiated with gamma rays (100Gy) for number 1, 2, and 4 hybrids and fast neutron (400 Gy) for number (3) crosses. The program involved induction of genetic variability, and selection of useful mutants to develop new varieties with better agronomic traits and suitable to local conditions. The results revealed that (1158, 1016, 1312, and 1290) variants were selected from the above irradiated hybrids respectively in (M2) generation. After process of isolation, screening, and selection to seventh generation (M7), better 10 mutants had been given new names and numbers as following: 2 mutants (335-Sali and 816) from (1) irradiated hybrid and 2 (N-35 and M-66-Alaize) from (2) and 3 (128-Tamuz-3, 324-Tamuz-2 and 512) from (3) and 3 (14, 255 and 278-Al-Iraq) from (4). All these mutants we surpassed its parents in yield and yield components. Yield potential of these new varieties were studied for three seasons (2007-2009) after registration and release, at two locations. The results revealed that new variety Alaize-66 surpassed the other in early flowering and maturity (115.6 and 146.9 days) and Tamuz-2, in number of spik/m2 (283.7), Tamuz-3 and Al-Iraq in number of kernels/spike (45.3 and 45.2), Al-Iraq and Tamuz-2 in weight of 1000 kernels (44.3 and 43.3 g) and Al-Iraq in yield (4.85 T/ha), in Latefiya location (furrow irrigation). As well as at Tikreet location (sprinkler irrigation), the same behavior had happened in the previous location almost. It should be mentioned that these new varieties were superior on its parents at three environmental locations, which refers to the genetic stability and the suitability of the local conditions.


Article
DEVELOPMENT OF A BREAD WHEAT CULTIVAR OF HIGH PRODUCTIVITY AND RESISTANT TO LEAF RUST IN CENTRAL AND NORTHERN IRRIGATED AREAS IN IRAQ
استنباط صنف حنطة الخبز عالي الانتاجية ومقاوم لصدأ الاوراق في المنطقة الأروائية لوسط وشمال العراق

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Abstract

Wheat breeding program began in 1998 to obtain new variety with high productivity. The F2 of sixty crosses between different parents from ICARDA were introduced. The selection purification was done during the period 1998-2003 by using pedigree method. Series of experiments and field demonstration carried out during two con-secutive seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012) with application of selection index to selected inbred lines superior over the local variety (Sham 6). Results showed that selection J53 (Al-Fayad) from cross (ACSAD 875 // URES *2 / PRIS) was superiority in grain yield ranged between (5153.9 - 7329.4 kg.ha-1) over the sham 6 by 46% - 174.8%. The high grain yield of this variety related to its components, in addition to variety resistant to leaf rest since the degree of resistance to disease according to loegering scale ranged (R to 5R), of what added the staibility to the productivity of developmented line J53 over seasons and locations of evaluation, whereas the variety Sham6 gave sencetive degree (65 S) according to loegering scale over seasons and locations of evaluation, which led to de-creasing the productivity of the variety Sham 6. We conclude that the genotype J53 have higher potential to su-perior grain yield per area unit, and its resistance to the disease of leaf rust over the seasons that spread the dis-ease with endemic form at Hawija and Tikrit compared to the certified variety at that area. Therefore we rec-ommend registering and adoption of this genotype with name "Al-Fayad", because of its copious' productivity.


Article
CONTROL OF CHARCOAL DISEASE ON BROADBEAN USING AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE AND BOKASHI
مكافحة مرض التعفن الفحمي على الباقلاء ببكتريا Azospirillum brasilense والبوكاشي

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This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense and bokashi against Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot on broadbean, on cultural medium and under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the addition of A. brasilense into potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 3x106 CFU/ml caused an inhibition of 63.3% in fungal radial growth compared with zero inhibition in control (without bacteria). The biological activity of A. brasilense was 69.2% against the fungus on PDA after 7 days of incubation at 25 + 2 oC. The bacterial filtrate of A. brasilense induced a significant reduction in fungal dry biomass which attained 61.8 mg compared with 125.8 mg in control. The addition of A.brasilense suspension containing 6x106 CFU/ml at 100 ml / pot found to be the more efficient than the other treatment in reducing the infection percentage (33.3%) compared with 100% in control under greenhouse conditions, while the addition of bokashi into the soil gave the lower disease severity (18.3%) compared with 68.3% in control. The amendment of potting soil with bokashi was found to be more efficient in increasing the fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids in broadbean plants which were 140, 41.33 gm, 25.66, 27.61, 53.27 and 21.39 mg/ml compared with 110, 16.67 gm, 21.71, 25.02, 46.73 and 17.62 mg/ml in control respectively.


Article
PATHOGENICITY EVALUATION OF FUSARIUM SPP ISOLATES, CAUSAL AGENT OF CROWN ROT DISEASE IN WHEAT
تقييم امراضية عزلات مختلفة للفطر Fusarium spp المسبب لمرض تعفن التاج في القمح

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This study was carried out, at the greenhouse of plant protection department of college of agriculture university of Baghdad, to test the pathogenicity of 75 isolates of Fusarium spp causative agent of wheat crown rot. Wheat plants showing yellowing and brown coloring of lower internodes were collected, from several governorates of Iraq. The lower internodes were cutting to small pieces of 1 cm length, sterilized in sodium hypochlorite 1% for 3 min., rinsed in sterile distilled water and dried on filter papers. The pieces were cultivated on PDA amended with mixture of Ampicillin and Tetracycline at 100 mg/L, in petridishes of 9 cm diameter. The petridishes were maintained at 25±2Cº for 7 days and the growing Fusarium spp were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Fusarium spp were grown on sterile wheat seeds in petridishes of 11 cm diameter at 25±2Cº for 21 days. Surface sterile wheat seeds were sowing in mixed soil contaminated with Fusarium spp, grown on wheat seeds, at 0.5% in pots of 6 cm diameter (3 seeds/ pots). The pots were maintained at the greenhouse and the disease incidence, disease severity, rate of fungus aggressiveness and DON toxin production in plant tissues were determined after 35 days of sowing. Results of isolation showed that Fusarium graminearum was more prevailing at 92% compared with 8% of Fusarium pseudograminearum. The isolates showed obvious variation in pathogenicity on wheat seedling under greenhouse conditions. The highest of disease severity, disease incidence and fungus aggressiveness rate, 0.856, 100% and 5.67 were found for the isolate 28 of F.graminearum isolated from Baghdad. Also the highest of disease severity, disease incidence and fungus aggressiveness rate 0.362, 100% and 4.94 were found for the isolate 151 of F. pseudograminearum isolated from Erbil. The concentration of mycotoxin produced by the isolates was found to be ranging from 0.002 to 0.807 µg/g. A significant correlation between DON mycotoxin concentration with disease severity, disease incidence and fungus aggressiveness were registered, r= 0.431, 0.409 and 0.556 respectively. Negative effects in most growth parameters of wheat seedling including plant highs, leaves number and dry weight upon treating with the fungus isolates were manifested.


Article
KNOWLEDGE NEEDS FOR RURAL WOMEN IN HOLDING LAYING HENS IN CAGES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF IRAQ
الحاجات المعرفية للنساء الريفيات في تربية الدجاج البياض بالأقفاص في المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

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The research aimed to identify the knowledge needs of rural women beneficiaries of the rearing laying hen's project, and to determine the differences of these needs according to personal and social variables. To achieve the objectives of the research. Fifth scale was prepared to measure knowledge needs assessment which consist of 25 items and were distributed among three axes: preparing cages, period growth of chicks, period of egg production. The highest measurements degree was 125 degree and the lowest was 25 degree. Data were collected as a questionnaire by mean of sample proportional rate of 30% of the research community out of 290 researchers and by 88 women rural from provinces of the central region of Iraq by interview method. The research revealed that the average degree of knowledge needs of women respondents in breeding hen's cages was 89.9 degree and 54.5% of rural women respondents were at the high level of whose arrange between 76-100 degree and the highest need in the period of egg production axis. The results also showed there were significant differences in knowledge needs according to age, educational level, while there were no significant differences according to social situation, the level of the contribution of project in family income, and concluded there was a large need knowledge of all rural women beneficiaries of the project, the lack and poor educational and training services provided to rural women in general. Recommend upon results of the research to support and encourage small enterprises and productive family programs, as well as the importance of the participation of civil society organizations in support of the economic role of rural women.


Article
THE IMPACT OF PACKAGING ON THE MARKTING OF MANUFACTURED FOOD PRODUCTS IN KHARTOUM STATE - SUDAN
أثر التعبئة والتغليف على تسويق المنتجات الغذائية المصنعة بولاية الخرطوم السودان

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Packing is the protection all kinds of food by vessels have been designed to isolate the content of external influences, a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, distribution, storage, retailing and end use, means of ensuring safe delivery to the ultimate consumer in sound condition at optimum cost. The packaging has a very important role in keeping food products (naturals or manufactured), making it easier to transfer and circulation from the producer to consumer Where its positive impact on the nutritional, health and economic aspects, the main purpose of food packing is to protect the food from microbial and chemical contamination, oxygen, water, vapours and light. The paper attempted to know the role of packaging in the marketing of process food products and this is main objective of the study from the consumer and producer standpoint with an indication of the problems faced by. There is enormous variety of food packaging used ranging from plastic, paper and paperboard. The paper was depend on primary sources (personal interviews and a questionnaire designed for this purpose), and secondary sources (scientific references and relevents) to collect information’s, and then analyzed this data through a simple statistical analysis. The paper is set up with some results and the most important one is the packaging affects on the marketing of processed food products and that their impact on attracting consumers, the glass packaging have a higher cost than other packaging materials while the plastic packaging have a less cost, and that the seller’s would prefer a ready-made because it’s more economical of time. In the light of previous results the study advanced by some recommendations and the most important one is encourage investment in the field of packaging, reduction customers duties and taxes on packaging machines, and well as to encourage farther studies in this field.


Article
USING FORECASTING ACCURACY CRITERIA TO DETERMINE OPTIMUM METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MISSING VALUES (AGRICULTURAL RESEARCHES DATA AS A CASE STUDY)
استخدام معايير الدقة التنبؤية في تحديد الطريقة المثلى في تقدير القيم المفقودة (بيانات البحوث الزراعية انموذجا)

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Missing data in time series is considered as an important issue especially in the process of mathematical and statistical model estimation and consequently its forecasting. Arriving at certain results through the analysis based on the estimation of missing values by using different methods would have great effect on decisions based on the results especially in agricultural researchers. This requires studying the methods of missing data estimation represented by time series average method, arithmetic mean for adjacent values, median for adjacent values , linear interpolation and regression imputation and testing them by using forecasting accuracy criteria such as mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean square error (MSE) in addition to using simple regression models. Then comparing some statistical tests resulted from these results such as F- test , -test and - test to support the resulting results from forecasting accuracy tests to judge for the best methods in estimating missing values. The results of this research showed the suitability of regression imputation method according to its advantage in forecasting accuracy tests in addition to simple linear regression model tests which this research is advising to be used within the condition explained within the research text. It is necessary that data are suitable to get valuable results.


Article
ESTIMATION OF SOME HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF GYPSIFEROUS SOIL USING PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS
تقدير بعض الخصائص المائية لتربة جبسية باستخدام دوال Pedotransfer

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The objective of this experiment was to evaluate and drive some hydraulic characteristics for gypsiferous soil using Pedotransfer Functions concept (PTFs). Soil samples of different gypsum content were used to measure soil moisture tension curve (SMTC). van Genuchten model (eq.1) was used to fit the SMTC data through obtain best model parameters. Water capillary rise (h) of soil samples were measured for 200 hr and mean effective pore radii (r) were determined (eq.3). Also, r was estimated as a function of θ from SMTC (eq.4) which correlates between eqs.1 and 3. The work also extended to derive eq. 1 to measure hydraulic capacity function [Cw(h)] using RETC software. Results showed that good fitting was obtained between measured and predicted θ of SMTC for all gypsum contents. The values of r calculated from eq.4 increased by 27-104% compared with that calculated from eq.3 for 60 cm height( tension). As well as, r values were higher for all tension and θvalues. Values of Cw(h) were near zero at high water tension, while ranged from 0.0057 to 0.0068 cm-1 at low water tension where the SMTC is nearly level. It reaches a maximum in the capillary region where the slope is steepest. Also, the results of Cw(h) explained that most of the pores have radius equal or slightly larger than 0.15 cm. Cw(h) increased with an increase in the gypsum content, and ranged from 0.019 to 0.027 cm-1. It is obvious that pedotransfer functions use is a developed approach to evaluate the soil hydraulic characteristics where it gave an accepted fitting between measured and calculated values which means it is dependable to describe the concepts of transporting in soil, especially in gypsiferous soil.


Article
RESPONSE OF CUCUMBER UNDER ORGANIC FARMING TO THE SPRAYWITH SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE OR SOME CANDIDA ISOLATES EXTRACT
استجابة الخيار المنتج بالزراعة العضوية للرش بمستخلص خميرة الخبز الجافة أو بعض عزلات الخميرة كنديده

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This experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design in plastic house of College of Agriculture of Univ. of AL-Anbar during 2011 and 2012 to enhance yield of cucumber grown under organic farming. Four organic substrates prepared from the plants and animal wastes were locally available with foliar spray once or twice after Seedling by 2g/l yeasts extracts .The results indicate that organic substrate prepared from ( 50% corn cobs + 25% poultry manure + 25% cows manure ) with amendments of 2% rock phosphate and 1% Trichoderma fungus inoculate gave better values in plant length, leaves number, leaf area, chlorophyll content ,nods number and plant dry weight. There were 335 cm, 41.07 leaves/plant, 31.84 dcm2, 88.56 Spad values, 41.92 nod/plant and 288 g dry mat., respectively. While, organic substrate amendment with only 1% Trichoderma gave a high yield 4.999 kg per plant compared with control which gave 4.053 kg. On the other hand, foliar spray with yeasts extracts increased plant length, nods number, chlorophyll content, fruit weight and plant yield. Foliar spray twice with mixture of three candida isolates gave high values; 319.9 cm plant lenght, 91.65 Spad values, 38.87 nods/plant and 5.034 kg yield per plant. While, the treatment foliar spray once with S. cerevisia had given larger leaf area was (28.75 dcm2) compared with control which gave 26.14 cm2. Interaction between organic substrate and spray twice by isolates of candida gave better results with most studied proprieties


Article
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY OF GRASS MOWER
قياس الاهتزازات وكفاءة أداء آلة قطع الأعشاب

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The experiment was conducted in field of the University of Baghdad, Jadryia region, Baghdad to measure vibration and performance efficiency of grass mower (machine cutting grass). Vibration in three axes are longitudinal X , lateral Y and vertical Z in four places of mower machine during cutting grass and Practical Productivity, Efficiency and Fuel Consumption measured in this experiment . Factorial design (3 x 2) used, mower speeds included 1.9 3.6 and 6.4 km/hr and engine load included idling and full load according to randomized complete design were used in this experiment. Least Significant Design (LSD) 0.05 was used to compare the mean of treatment. Result were showed that the mower speed 6.4 km/hr recorded high productivity (0.6557 ha/hr), low fuel consumption (1.62 l/ha), least efficiency ( 83.97 %), vibration values for three axes X,Y and Z (8.28, 7.85) and (5.35 m/sec²) for mower seat, (6.25, 7.05) and (4.80 m/sec²) for steering wheel and (14.78, 13.8) and (11.58 m/sec²) for mower chasses and (21.45, 20.05) and (16.15 m/sec²) for cover blades. Engine full load recorded high productivity (0.4080 ha/hr), efficiency (84.47%), and high vibration values for three axes X, Y and Z were (5.46, 5,03) and (3.56 m/sec²) for mower seat , (4.56, 5.30) and (3.36 m/sec²) for steering wheel, (13.30, 12.32) and (10.93 m/sec²) for mower chasses and (18.13, 17.03) and (13.83 m/sec²) for cover blades,Then these result a cross legislated permissible vibration exposure limits in the world.

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