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The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2013 volume:44 issue:5

Article
GENETIC VARIATION OF SOME TRAITS RELATED TO WATER DEFICIT STRESS TOLERANCE IN OATS
التغايرات الوراثية لبعض الصفات المرتبطة بتحمل شد عجز الماء في الشوفان

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Abstract

To determine the degree of tolerance to water stress deficit of some oats cultivars and to identify best traits of higher genetic variance related, a field experiment was carried out through two consecutive winter seasons in 2011-2013. That was on the farm of Dept. of Field Crops, Coll. of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad. Three depths of irrigation, 5, 7 and 9 cm (main plots), and three cultivars, Hamel, Pimula and Genzania (sub-plots) were used with RCBD in a split-plot arrangement. The experiment plots were watered 5 times from planting till physiological maturity to give seasonal water of 250, 350 and 450 mm. Genzania cv. gave higher grain yield (5.16 t.ha-1) as average of both years, 121 d to flowering and 151 d to maturity. This cultivar gave 428 racemes.m-2, 30 mg. kernel-1 and higher kernels.m-2 (17800). Crop growth rate increased with increasing water. The depth of 5 cm gave 10.6 while depth of 9 cm gave 12.0 g.m-2.d-1. Irrigating the crop with 7 cm gave best results in raceme.m-2 (419), kernels.m-2 (18500) and grain yield (5.14 t.ha-1). The best combination of cultivars x irrigation depth was with Genzania cv. when irrigated with 7 cm, it gave 464 racemes.m-2 and 5.67 t.ha-1 grain yield. Increasing depth of irrigation from 7 to 9 cm disrupted source/sink relationship, so, harvest index decreased for increased total dry matter. Pimula cv. gave higher dry matter (18 t.ha-1) and lower grain yield. Irrigating with 250, 350 and 450 mm gave 17.6, 15.0 and 10.5 kg/ha grains/mm of water, respectively. Days to flowering and physiological maturity were characterized by higher ratio of genetic to environ-mental variance, and then harvest index and total dry matter. These three traits had 87% or higher h2b.s. However, these traits had similar values of P.C.V% and G.C.V%. It was concluded that these four traits could be used for selection to improve water stress tolerance for this crop, and that water consumptive use of 350 mm.season-1 is the best, and increasing water more than that will increase vegetative growth on the account of reproductive growth.


Article
EFFECT OF IRON AND MANGANESE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF COTTON
تأثير الحديد والمنغنيز في نمو وحاصل القطن

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Abstract

In order to know the effect of different concentrations of Fe, Mn and their interaction on growth and yield of cotton Lashata cultivar, a field experimental was conducted 2011, 2012 at the Field Crops Science Dept. College of Agriculture–University of Baghdad, Randomized complete block design with four replication was used to compare the treatments: control(without spraying), Fe spraying 100, 150 Mg.L-1, Mn50,100 Mg.L-1., the combination of Fe100+Mn50, Fe100+Mn100, Fe150+Mn50, Fe150+Mn100. The result showed high response of spraying treatments on control in all characteristics of study except boll weight, length and micronere readings when spraying Fe, Mn separately or together for both seasons. The combination of treatments spraying Fe150+Mn100 gave high significant values in the content of chlorophyll in leaves 44.95 and 45.93 spad, plant high 122.22 and 126.87 cm, number of sympodia.plant-1 13.20 and 14.64 branch, leaf area 2092.00, 2215.11 cm2, number of open boll 12.81, 14.72, seed cotton yield 2464.30, 2802.50 Kg.ha-1, lint cotton yield 914.74, 1064.15 Kg.ha-1, the ginning percentage %37.12, %38.00 and the lint strength 20.32, 21.38 gm.tex-1 in comparison of control for both seasons, while no response showed especially in boll weight, length and fineness lint with spraying in Fe and Mn separately or together for both seasons. We conclude from these results that the foliar application with Fe and Mn separately or together on shoot system it is important when these elements are not available in Iraqi soil and there is a response in cotton plant to concentration that used in this research. So we recommend adding Fe, Mn foliar spraying on shoot system with combination Fe150+Mn100 for high yield and best lint quality.


Article
CONTRIBUTION OF FRUITING POSITION ON GROWTH,YIELD, QUALITY OF COTTON AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH NITROGEN
مساهمة المواقع الثمرية في نمو وحاصل ونوعية القطن وعلاقته بالنتروجين

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Abstract

A field experiment was conducted on the experimental farm of the Dept. Field Crop Sci.–Coll. of Agriculture-University of Baghdad during summer seasons of 2011 and 2012. That was to determine the contribution of each fruiting position in the yield of cotton of lashata cultivar and the effect of nitrogen in this contribution. The study included two factors, the first one nitrogen with three levels (150, 200 and 250) kg N.ha-1 as main plots, and the second factor was the technique of fruiting form removal with four levels (Rm0; control without removal, Rm1; keeping on first fruiting position and remove all the others, Rm2; keeping on second fruiting position and remove all the others and Rm3; keeping on third fruiting position and remove all others sites) as sub-plots. Complete randomized block design was used under split plots with four replications. Increasing nitrogen level to 250 kg N.ha-1 led to the highest average of number of total boll (11.79 and 13.59) boll.plant-1, number of open boll (5.67 and 6.66) boll.plant-1, boll weight (3.53 and 3.86) gm, therefore, the yield of plant was increased (19.79 and 25.88) gm, seed cotton yield (995.63 and 1332.75) kg.ha-1, lint cotton yield (348.12 and 473.55) kg.ha-1, lint length (28.20 and 27.60) mm, lint strength (19.33 and 20.73) gm.tex-1 for both season, respectively, as well as gave highest average of micronare of lint (4.36) in the first season in comparison with the treatments 150 and 200 kg N.ha-1. While the level fertilizer 150 kg N.ha-1 gave the highest ratio of shedding (17.42 and 15.71) % for both season, respectively. The results showed a significant effect of bud removal in all characteristic studied. The Rm1 treatment gave highest average for boll weight (3.56 and 3.88) gm and lint length (28.18 and 27.27) mm, while the control treatment Rm0 gave highest average for number of total boll (27.99 and 32.01) boll.plant-1, ratio of shedding (34.16 and 32.80)%, number of residual boll (18.49 and 21.50) boll.plant-1, number of open boll (10.04 and 13.05) boll.plant-1, cotton yield per plant (37.80 and 49.01) gm, seed cotton yield (1853.81 and 2482.75) kg.ha-1, and cotton lint (621.02 and 845.52) kg.ha-1, and there are non-significant effect of removal treatment in lint strength and micronaire. There are significant interactions between nitrogen and removal treatment. The levels of fertilizer level 150 kg N.ha-1 with Rm0 gave highest ratio of shedding (37.10 and 34.30) %, while the level of fertilizer 250 kg N.ha-1 with Rm0 gave highest average for yield per plant at second season (52.56) gm, seed cotton yield (2012.00 and 2680.56) kg.ha-1 and lint cotton yield (694.94 and 938.19) kg.ha-1 for both seasons, respectively. We can conclude that the first fruiting site contributes about 61-64% from the yield and gave best properties for lint quality in comparison with the others fruiting position and the nitrogen addition led to increase contribution ratio and improve the quality. So, we recommend the breeder to take this concept in confederation in order to produce cotton cultivars having one or two fruit positions on plant with high quality of fiber properties.


Article
EFFECT OF WATER STRESS AND POTASSIUM ON YIELD, YIELD COMPONENTS AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN SUNFLOWER
تأثير الشد المائي والبوتاسيوم في الحاصل ومكوناته وكفاءة استخدام الماء لزهرة الشمس

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Abstract

A field study was conducted at the experimental farm of Field Crop Department of College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during two spring seasons 2011 and 2012. That was to study the effect of different irrigation and potassium levels in yield and yield components and water use efficiency of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cv. Euroflore. A RCBD was used in the arrangement of a split-plot with three replications. Irrigation treatments: control treatment (a depletion of 50% of available water) and 75%, 50%, 25% of the water amount of the control treatment were assigned in the main plots while potassium levels (0, 60, 120, 180) kg K.ha-1 were assigned in the sup-plots. Results showed that, the possibility of saving 25% from fall irrigation that was about 950 m3.ha-1 without significant reduction in seed yield when irrigation with 75% watering amount of the control treatment which gave 3.25 and 3.43 ton.ha-1 in the first and second season respectively. However watering with 50% and 25% amount of water of the control treatment caused a reduction in seed yield reach an average (33.07%, 36.95%) and (55.28%, 51.74%) for two season respectively, and significant increase in water use efficiency by 1.08 and 0.90 , 1.16 and 1.03 kg seed/m3 water in the first and second season respectively. The application of potassium significant increased all studied triats. Fertilization with 180 kg K.ha-1 gave the height capitulum diameter(16.26 and 15.83), seed number per captiulum (823 and 922) seed, seed yield (2.92 and 3.14) ton.ha-1, water use efficiency (0.92 and 1.08) kg seed/m3 water for two season respectively. The results show that under water stress treatment specially I4 the application of potassium significant increase from more traits ex. seeds yield, harvest index, water use efficiency more than in control treatment. That show too in all most studied traits was less in the second season than in the first season. It was concluded that application of potassium with 180 kg K.ha-1 might mitigate the deleterious effect of water deficiency on sunflower productivity.


Article
SIMPLIFIED METHODS TO MEASURE LEAF AREA AND GRAIN DIMENSIONS OF SOME CEREALS
طرائق بسيطة لقياس مساحة الاوراق وابعاد الحبوب في بعض محاصيل الحبوب

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Abstract

A simple well-done instrument was found out to measure wheat, barley, rice and oat leaf area smoothly and precisely. The idea depends on knowing the total surface area of geometric cylinder then dividing it to an equal distances each represents (1cm2), the wheat leaf roll up on the cylinder from zero line till the end of the leaf, then knowing the area of the wrapped leaf. Also a simple quick method for measuring seed dimensions (length, width, thickness) had been found depending on fixing the grain samples longitudinally, latitudinal or laterally i.e.(sideward) in modeling clay or any adhesive tape to complete measuring easily. The results illustrated that there was no differences in the area of ten wheat leaves measured by a created method (cylinder method) and the two conventional standard methods i.e.(transcript and computer methods). Also the dimensions of two replicates (ten grains for each) which were measured with a new method (using adhesive tape or modeling clay) are congruent and coincided to a conventional method by using electronic micrometers. In general, accurate results obtained by using the created new methods, beside the easiness of these two methods comparing with the conventional methods.


Article
SOME CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL AND TURKISH AWASSI SHEEP IN SEMI-INTENSIVE SYSTEM
بعض صفات الذبيحة لدى أغنام العواسي المحلية والعواسي التركية في ظروف التربية شبه المكثفة

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Abstract

أجريت هذه الدراسة في محطة تربية وتحسين الأغنام والماعز، الهيئة العامة للبحوث الزراعية، وزارة الزراعة في منطقة عكركوف، 25 كلم الى الغرب من بغداد خلال الفترة الممتدة شهر شباط 2010 إلى آب، 2011. كان الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تقييم ومقارنة صفات الذبيحة بين سلالة أغنام العواسي المحلية والعواسي التركي، ربيت المواليد في ظروف الإنتاج شبه المكثف، إذ التغذية أفضل، وبرنامج للسيطرة على الأمراض والسكن الجيد. تم ذبح عدد 50 مولودا من الذكور إذ ذبحت خمسة ذكور من الأغنام العواسي المحلية وخمسة ذكور من العواسي التركية في كل من الأعمار3 و6 و9 و12 و18 شهرا. وجرت دراسة صفات الذبيحة التي شملت وزن الذبيحة الحار ونسبة التصافي ومساحة العضلة العينية وسمك الطبقة الدهنية ونسب قطعيات الذبيحة الرئيسة وقطعيات الذبيحة الثانوية والفصل الفيزيائي لنسب اللحم والعظم والدهن في قطعتي الفخذ والأضلاع. أظهرت النتائج وجود فروق معنوية (P<0.01) في وزن الذبيحة الحار في عمر 18 شهرا إذ تفوقت ذكور أغنام العواسي التركية معنويا بالمقارنة مع ذكور الأغنام العواسي المحلي في حين لم تظهر فروق معنوية عند عمر3 و6 و9 و12 شهرا. تفوقت ذكور العواسي المحلية معنويا(P< 0.05)على ذكور العواسي التركية في نسبة الفخذ (30.0% مقارنة مع 26.9%) وفي نسبة الكتف (19.4% مقارنة مع 16.7%) ولم تكن الفروق معنوية بين المجموعتين الوراثيتين عند الأعمار 6 و9 و12 و18 شهرا في نسب القطعيات الرئيسة, إذ كانت النسب المئوية لهذه القطعيات متقاربة في هذه الأعمار، ولم تظهر فروق معنوية بين المجموعتين الوراثيتين في نسبة التصافي ومساحة العضلة العينية وسمك الطبقة الدهنية ونسب القطعيات الثانوية والفصل الفيزياوي لقطعتي الفخذ والأضلاع عند الأعمار 3 و6 و9 و12 و18 شهرا. يستنتج بأن ذكور الأغنام العواسي المحلية والتركية متشابهة في صفات الذبيحة في ظروف التربية شبه المكثفة.


Article
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL AND TURKISH AWASSI SHEEP IN SEMI-INTENSIVE SYSTEM
صفات التناسل لدى أغنام العواسي المحلية والتركية في ظروف التربية شبه المكثفة

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The investigation was carried out at Sheep and Goat Breeding Station, State Board of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture in Agargouf, 25 km west of Baghdad, during May, 2009 to June, 2011. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare reproductive performance characteristics between local Awassi and Turkish Awassi breeds (150 ewes each breed group). The two flocks reared under semi-intensive production system, were better feeding under sanitary control out of diseases, and suitable housing were provided. The rams joined ewes during mating season of 2009/2010. Early embryonic mortality, fertility (percentage of ewes lambed out of ewes exposed to rams), twinning percentage (number of ewes bearing twins, expressed as a percentage of the ewes that lambed), lambing percentage (number of lambs born per ewes exposed to rams), mortality (lambs died expressed as percentage of lambs born), prolificacy at lambing (lambs borne per ewes lambed), prolificacy at weaning and total weights of lambs weaned per ewe exposed. Imported Turkish Awassi ewes had significantly (p<0.01) surpassed local Awassi ewes by 11.3% in lambing percentage (114.6% vs. 103.4%).Imported Turkish Awassi ewes had significantly (p<0.01) surpassed local Awassi ewes by 15.3% in lambs weight/ewe lambed at weaning (25.35 kg vs 23.72 kg). It was concluded that imported Turkish Awassi ewes were superior to Iraqi Awassi in many physiological and reproductive traits under semi-intensive System so that It was recommended to distribute Turkish Awassi breed for accelerated lambing in semi-intensive production.


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING TWO VERTICAL FINS ON MOLDBOARD PLOW KNIFE IN PARTITIONING OF SOIL SLIDE AND PULLING FORCE
تـأثير إضـافة زعنفتين عموديتين على سـكين المحراث المطرحي في تقسـيم شريحة التربة ومقاومة السحب

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The objective of this research was to study the influence of adding two vertical fins on each knife of three–moldboard plow with Tractor New Hollnd and 80 and puller MF 650 with three factors. The first factor involve plow without fins and plow with two vertical fins put them on each of its three knifes in parallel of the land side. The first fin was put if 168 mm away of the land side while the second fin was put if 115 mm away of the first fin and in parallel with it. Each fin was 6 mm thickness. The metal of the fin was similar to the knife metal. The second factor was the speed. Three different speeds (5.2, 4.5 and 5.5 km/h) were employed in this study, The third factor was the tillage depth. Three depth levels were used namely 10-15, 15-17 and 17-20 cm. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of fins in soil partition with three speeds and three tillage depths of plow with fins. The experiments were designed using split-spliy plot with complete randomized designed. The fins were regarded as the main factor while the speeds were secondary factors and depths as the sub-secondary factors. The results did revealed that the three-dimensional plow without fins led to significantly increased the depth from 10 cm to 15 cm and to 20 cm. The draft force was changed from 90 kg to 112 kg to 135 kg as increasing of speed from 3.2 km/h to 4.5 km/h and to 5.5 km/h were led to increase the pulling power from 970.2 N to 1107.4 N and to 1411.2 N When using three-dimensional plow, the significant increase in tillage depth from 10 cm to 15 cm and to 20 cm led to increase in pulling force from 1087.8 N to 2332.4 N and to 3038 N Increasing the speed from 3.2 km/h to 4.5 km/h and to 5.5 km/h led to increase the pulling force from 1675.8 N to 2136.4 N and to 2704.8 N The higher pulling power was achieved by interacting of the depth (20 cm) with speed (5.5 km/h). When using the plow with vertical fins, a significant differences were noted in increasing in the soil mass from 5.8 cmm2 to 6.3 cmm2 and to 7 cmm2 with increasing the depth from 10 cm to 15cm to 20 cm. The reason behind was the increasing the solidity of the soil with increasing the depth. On the other hand, a significant decreasing in soil mass from 7.2 to 6.5 and to 5.5 cm/m^2 with increasing the speed from 3.2 km/h to 4.5 km/h and to 5.5 km/h due to the existence of fins that partition the soil slides into three parts.


Article
SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM (LIB.) DEBARY
بعض الصفات المظهرية للفطر SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM (LIB.) DEBARY

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The aim of this research was to study some phenotypic characters for isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum under laboratory conditions . The study included four isolates SSR1, SSR2, SSR3, and SSR4 . Isolates showed difference in formation of sclerotia after 6 -7 days of inoculation in sclerotia size , irregular shap of sclerotia hardness and seceretion of colorless liquid during formation of sclerotia . Results indicated that superiority of isolate SSR1 which was isolated from eggplant in plastic house at College of Agriculture in fungal growth 8.1 cm after 3 days of inoculation . There was no significant difference between isolate SSR1 and SSR2 and SSR3 fungal growth 7.4 and 7.3 cm respectively. However there was asignificant difference between SSR1 and SSR4 fungal growth 6.5 cm . Also the isolate SSR1 was superior in number and size of sclerotia at rate 34.33 sclerotia /petridish and 0.55g./petridish respectively. However number of sclerotia for isolates SSR2, SSR3, SSR4 were 15.67, 25.33 and 11.67 sclerotia /petridish respectively. While weight of sclerotia were 0.288, 0.412, 0.234 g./sclerotia respectively. The isolate SSR3 which was isolated from eggplant in greenhouse in Al-Aeshia district , Abu-Ghraib was superior in formation 15 ascocarp/dish compared to isolates SSR1 , SSR2, SSR4 in formation 4.67, 5.07 and 1 ascocarp/dish . Also results of laboratory revealed that isolate SSR3 produced heighest number of ascocarp 13/dish in PDA compared to sterilized distilled water , sterilized wet cotton and peatmoss were number of ascocarps 10, 8.67 and 0.0 /dish respectively.

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