Table of content

iraq journal of market research and consumer protection

المجلة العراقية لبحوث السوق وحماية المستهلك

ISSN: 20713894
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Scientific Referred Journal Published by Center for Market Research and Consumer Protection, University of Baghdad.
Date of First Issue (2009)
No. of Issue Per Year (2)
No. of Issue Published Between 2009-2014 (10)

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Contact info

phone Number: 07700646083
E.mail: jour.mracpc@uobaghdad.edu.iq
website: iraqimarket.net

Table of content: 2010 volume:2 issue:3

Article
Studying the Classification of Iraqi coastal lands using satellite images and GIS
دراسة تصنيف الأراضي الساحلية العراقية باستخدام صور الاستشعار عن بعد ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Abstract

Basrah city is the capital of Basrah province that located on the Arab gulf of the southern coast of Iraq, it is considered as a multi natural resources city that supports the Iraqi government economy, besides it is considered as the southern gate of Iraq to the Gulf and world, in addition to potential capabilities such as tourism due to its beach and calm marine environment, and virgin lands for tourism projects. To make a sketch for Basrah coast as it harmonizes with littoral resources, it was important to determine the delineation between sea water and adjacent lands, and land classification, that is included in urban planning and designs, and leads to lessen the changes in environment and negative effects if it, and all that is comported with the sustainable tourism. To reveal such goals, thresholding procedure was applied to classify the natural features that relates to the tourism development. Data collected using remotely sensed imagery and field information.

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Article
Electromagnetic Pollution
التلوث بالمجالات الكهرومغناطيسية

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Abstract

This study included the investigation of the effect of static magnetic field within the range (0.1T-0.5T) on the integrity of normal healthy people leukocyte, whose blood were used for lymphocyte transformation and also test the lymphocyte transformation for Lymphocyte stimulated with phytoheamagglutinine(PHA),at different time of exposure to static magnetic field. The results showed that not stimulated lymphocyte transformation cells exposed to static magnetic field are significantly increased compared to normal healthy lymphocyte (control), and decreased for lymphocyte transformation cells stimulated with PHA exposed to 0.2T static magnetic field for (30min-180min) compared to stimulated lymphocyte cells not exposed to magnetic field, the same results obtained for exposure to different time (30min-180min).

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Article
Effect of laboratory chemical effluents on the charictristics of hospitals effluents.
تأثير كيمياويات مطروحات المختبرات على الخصائص النوعية لمطروحات المستشفيات

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Abstract

This paper focuses on the effect of laboratory chemical effluents on the charictristics of hospital effluents for three hospital (Ibn seena, Ibn alatheer, Alkhansaa). From the comparisin of the effluent discharge with total effluents. The laboratory discharge assumulated about (7-20)% of total discharge effluent of the hospitals. Three locations have been chosen in each hospital,in order to study the characteristic of effluent the pH value is different. Besides the ratio of in the laboratory effluent is higher than other places because of the discharge of chemicals and detergents that used in the laboratory which rise the value of COD in the total hospital effluents and effect on the biological treatment plant.The phenol concentration was about (0.65-2.7)mg/l. The study reach to follow the regular method of casting and handling laboratory chemicals.

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Article
Influence of old sewer system of wastewater on the environmental condition(Alshorja markets as a model)
أثر قدم شبكات الصرف الصحي على الواقع البيئي(أسواق الشورجة إنموذجا)

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Abstract

This research is about the sewer system and its deterioration condition in Iraq generally. It causes many different problems on the environmental harm to humans. The researchers present the impact caused by sewage in the case of fully manholes or leakage to the soil of the including sewage networks in general. The study was circulated to the reality of Iraq as a result of the suffering of the Iraqi citizen provided by the networks where the subsurface water of Manholes and leakage into the soil, in addition, to causing air pollution and the environment odor due to carry the gases of methane and hydrogen sulfide and CO2. The Research considered Al-Shorja market as a case study, The researchers theorized to consider the overflowing Manholes at a selected site(The street blockaded between the holding of the Christians town and the Arab market) as a sedimentation tanks because of their failures as manholes. A mathematical study was done to determine the efficiency of sedimentation at these manholes and the most efficient geometry shap to remedy the situation if not allocated a budget to change networks in the near future, It was found that the efficiency of sedimentation are poor under the degree of 50% and this means that the proportion of sediment and organic materials at high rates, bursting to the surface and cause many environmental problems contained in the body of research. this research has provided a number of proposed solutions to rid the streets and may be circulated to all areas affected by the situation.

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Article
Study of Some Physiochemical and Microbial Properties of Local and Imported bottled Water in Baghdad City
دراسة بعض الخصائص الفيزيوكيميائية والمايكروبية للمياه المعبأة المنتجة محليا والمستوردة في مدينة بغداد.

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Abstract

The physiochemical and microbial properties and the percentage of failure in the application of physiochemical and sanitary demands which is stated in confirmed Iraqi standards were studied for 400 local and imported bottled water samples which is the most used in Baghdad city. The results of this study clarified the rising in values and concentrations of turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids. total hardness, calcium, magnesium, lead, and iron in local samples in the comparison with the imported one; while the monthly average of chloride concentrations were rising in imported samples in the comparison with local samples which recorded the highest percentage of failure in the application of sanitary demands .While the imported samples recorded the highest percentage of failure in the application of physiochemical demands. The results of this study clarified the presence of high significant positive correlation among the studied microbial properties and high significant negative correlation between these properties and lead concentrations averages and between the last one and pH values averages.

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Article
The evaluation of heavy metals pollution in agricultural lands in Jisser Diyala district
تقييم التلوث بالعناصر الثقيلة في الاراضي الزراعية الواقعة في منطقة جسر ديالى

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Abstract

plants grown in contaminated site can expose consumers health to danger, this research was done to evaluate the contamination with heavy metals in part of Diyala River, soil, plants in agricultural lands located on the both side of the Diyala River and irrigated from this river, 12 samples of irrigation water, 12 samples of soil and another 12 samples of plants like celery, radish. malt and clovers were taken and analyzed to find the concentration of some heavy metals Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn and Cu, results show that the average concentration of Cd in irrigation water was 0.0215 mg/l and more than the acceptable level for WHO, while the average concentration of Ni in soil was 109.87 mg/kg which is more than WHO limit, on the other hand most of these heavy metals concentration in the surface layer of soil were more than their concentrations in the below layers, this lead to say metals can move and translate through the layers of soil, results for plants show that the average concentration of Pb in all samples was more than WHO limit, it was 1.85, 1.8, 1.375 and 1.04 mg/kg in celery, radish, malt and clovers respectively, therefore the increasing of consumption for this contaminated plants by community could cause health problems in the future.

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Article
Field Surveying Study for Chemical and Microbial Pollution of Drinking water in AL-Sofrania and AL- Sadder Town
دراسة مسحية ميدانية للتلوث الكيميائي والمايكروبي لشبكة مياه الشرب في مدينتي الزعفرانية والصدر.

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Abstract

Abstract This research was prepared for and carried during. (Nov.2008- June 2009), because this study believes in the importance of field work and investigation of chemical and microbial con contamination in of the water network in Baghdad, starting with this the highly suspected area (due to their demographic and socioeconomic status), resulting in the emergence of many diseases because of this suspected pollution. The parameters (Temp C°, pH, EC, TDS ,SO4,CL.CL-)were examined to measure the level of chemical pollution and microbial parameters (Coliform ,E.coli) were examined to measure the level of bacterial contamination, in addition to surveying pathological parameters for microbial and mixed infection, The results showed no evidence of bacterial contamination in the drinking water of AL-Sofrania, this could be due to renewal of drinking water net work, and the disease cases recorded in AL- Sofrania hospital may be caused by other sours of pollution that should be investigated, while there were clear evidences of pollution in some section of AL-Sadder town because of the break downs in the drinking water pipes and renewal was not carried on in all sections of the town at that time. The chemical lab. Results showed low values for(CL-) in AL-Sofrania compared to Iraqi and international standards ,and that might help in spreads and transmission of pathogens through water net and reduce the efficiency of its renewal which could assist in pH and high TDS values was clear in drinking water in AL-Sadder town which may be due to mixing of drinking water with sewage because of breakdowns in pipes.

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Article
Environmental Study to Used The Aquatic Organisms as Bioindicators to Euphrates River Pollution by Heavy Metals.
دراسة بيئية لاستخدام الأحياء المائية كأدلة حياتية لتلوث نهر الفرات بالعناصر الثقيلة.

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to used some aquatic organisms as bioindicators Euphrates river from Al-Hindia dam to south of Al-Kufa city (a distance of 15 Km) in the middle of Iraq, in seven selected sites along. The investigation was to study the concentration and distribution of some heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the tissues of four aquatic plants species Ceratophyllum demersum L.; Potomogeton pectinatus L., Typha domingensis Pers. & Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Steras. Accumulation of heavy metals in soft tissues of two freshwater clam species: Corbicula flumina (Muller 1774), Unio tigridis (Bourguignat 1852) and inner tissue and carapace of freshwater crab Sesarma boulengeri (Calman), were also studied. Mean concentration of heavy metals were similar in studied aquatic plants and there were seasonal variations. The highest concentration among heavy metals was for Fe (1176.10) μg/g in Potomogeton pectinatus and lowest concentration was for Ni (0.38) μg/g in Phragmites australis, and this concentration was higher than that in water and sediments. Values of bioconcentration factor (BCF) were higher than those for biosedimentation (BSF) in all mentioned plant species. The results also showed an increase in the concentration of heavy metals in soft tissues of two species of fresh-water clam (Corbicula flumina and Unio tigridis) which was correlated with the heavy metals in particulate state or phase in water because filter feeding of these organisms. The present study recorded high values of heavy metals in fresh water crab Sesarma boulengeri which ranged between (0.21) μg/g for (Ni) and (589.50) μg/g for (Fe) in inner tissues and carapace, but these concentrations were lower than in clam and aquatic plants. The results showed higher values of BCF than BSF in inner tissues and carapace of crab (3-6.99), (0.57-1.01) respectively in inner tissues and (3.7-6.98), (0.70-1.08) respectively in carapace.

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Article
Detection of Microbial and chemical contaminants of the plastic bottled drinking waters.
التحري عن الملوثات الميكروبية والكيمياوية لمياه الشرب المعبأة بالقناني البلاستيكية

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Abstract

Abstract The study included 47 products of domestic and imported drinking water packed in different plastic bottles. The study focused on two aspects; the first deals with detecting for microbial contaminants in water, accounting the total number of aerobic bacteria, signs of pollution bacteria that represented in Coliform Group, Streptococcus Sp., yeasts, molds and, parasites as well. The second aspect concentrates on detecting inorganic chemical pollutants to include toxic mineral elements like; Chrome, Copper, Cadmium, Lead, Zinc, Magnesium and, Iron. The value of pH and TDS has estimated as well. The morphological tests demonstrated that 27 product of the tested samples were polluted and invalid for human consumption in a failure rate reached to 57.5% of the total samples. The tests included that, out of 20 sample, 18 product of drinking water packed in plastic bottles capacity 20 liter were polluted by signs of pollution bacteria, molds and, elementary free-livings protozoa, in a rate of 90%. Whilst samples of drinking water packed in plastic bottles capacity 1.5 liter showed that, out of 12 sample, 5 product were polluted by signs of pollution bacteria in a rate of 41.7%. Out of 15 product, 4 sample of drinking water packed in plastic bottles capacity 500ml were polluted by bacteria and molds, in a rate of 26.7%. Detecting results for inorganic chemical pollutants demonstrated that concentration of toxic elements for entire samples of study were within limits allowed and, free from organic chemical pollutants as well. The values of pH for all samples ranged between 6.5–8.4 and, 33–524 mg/l for TDS which falls within the limits allowed by the Iraqi Standard of Packed Drinking Water No. IQS,1937/1995.

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Article
Statically study for effect of some coefficients on chromium removal in leather waste
دراسة إحصائية لبعض العوامل المؤثرة على إزالة أملاح الكروم في فضلات الصناعات الدباغية

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Abstract

Leather wastewater considered the more dangerous industrial waste because of its toxic contain as sulphate ,chromium. Chromium removed by lime settling .which depended on many coefficients as pH value, rapid and slow mixing rate . rapid and slow mixing time , settling time. Study focuses on founding statically correlation between chromium concentration and these coefficients .from (R2) value and correlation coefficient (t) in to find results depending and (F) value to find amoral differentiation of value . results appear that pH value , Rapid settling rate and settling time considered as in depended coefficient and its have a strong linear correlation with chromium remained concentration as shown at F value) 86.69(73.3, 168.29,. while slow mixing rate and rapid and slow time considered as depended coefficients and have a weak correlation with chromium remained concentration and non moral differentiation value at F ) 0.895, 0.4120.13 ) . at mixing of liming waste with leather waste at different mixing ratio note that non linear correlation between chromium remained concentration and mixing ratio and non moral correlation at F (0.07) . but a strong linear correlation mixing ratio and sludge volume and amoral correlation at F(100.09).

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Article
Biodegradation of Some Organic Matters in Wastewater Using Fungi
التحلل البايولوجي لبعض المواد العضوية في المياه الملوثة باستخدام الفطريات

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Abstract

Two types of pesticides were selected as organic matter for their negative influence on human health and aquatic life. Two aquatic fungi Saprolegnia parasitica, Achlya sp. were used to examine their ability to degradation the insecticide Diazinon and herbicide Glyphosate with initial concentrations 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 ppm in water, of laboratory conditions of 20 Co and pH 7.2-7.6 in batch culture system for 6 days treatment period. Saprolegnia parasitica showed high capability to reduce Diazinon concentrations by 66.6%, 62.3%, 43.7%, 34.1%, 23.8% and Glyphosate concentrations by 75.4%, 61.8%, 47.8%, 37.5% and 30.5%.While, Achlya sp. showed lower ability to reduce Glyphosate concentrations by 62.2%, 52.3%, 42.4%, 32%, 23% and Diazinon concentrations by 43.2%, 39.3%, 25.1%, 24.6% and 21.8%. This study proved that aquatic fungi Saprolegnia parasitica, Achlya sp. have no ability to survive in pesticides concentration of 100 ppm.

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Article
Study of effect Al-Masab Al-Aam project upon chemical characters of the closed soil
دراسة تأثير مشروع المصب العام في الصفات الكيمياوية للترب المحاذية له

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Abstract

The study was included collection of soil samples from nine locations located on different distances0-100m,100-200m and 200-300m along one side of the Al-Mosab Al-Aamm river to study the chemical characteristics as to as water sample of river. Properties were study include pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts ,concentration of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, chloride, nitrate ,sulfate, phosphate and elements of sodium, potassium The dangerous of salinity ,sodium ,bicarbonate and boron were measured. The results showed the response of conductivity and concentration of sodium and chloride whereas variation other Properties. The result showed that found high dangerous of salinity and sodium in these zones.

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Article
Study in fact of drinking water in some regions of Baghdad city
دراسة واقع مياه الشرب في بعض مناطق مدينة بغداد

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine total hardness ,total dissolved salts, chloride, microbial tests and many elements concentrations were determined (lead, copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium magnesium, calcium, and sodium) in ten samples of drinking tap water from different regions of Baghdad city .the study′s regions are (talbia, Cairo Q., aladamia, alzafarania, alsadar city, aldora, alhureaa, alqadesia, alturath Q.and aljamiaa Q.) during September 2009,and comparison the results with the requirements of the Iraqi standard specification 417 for drinking water, the results showed a rising in the rate of total dissolved solids more than the acceptable limits of Iraqi specification ,it was in the range (3320-5590) ppm ,the rates of total hardness, and chloride were in the range (244.2-294.9) ppm and (532-975) ppm respectively .there wasn't any concentration of lead, Chromium and Copper in each of test′s samples except one sample of aladamia region was reach to (0.0032) ppm. Cadmium concentration was in the range (0.0004-0.001) ppm and Zinc concentration was in the range (0-0.66) ppm. and Iron concentration was in the range (0.033-0.53) ppm. Magnesium concentration that determinate by titration method was in the range(20.9-30.6) ppm that was disparate with the values of Magnesium concentrations that determinate by using atomic absorption apparatus in the range (23.33-36.66) ppm. Calcium concentration determinate by titration method was approach to the Calcium concentration that determinate by flame photometer and it was in the range (56.5-81.8) ppm. Sodium concentration was in the range (53.8-85) ppm .active material and microbial contamination with coliforms ,E-coli ,fecal coliforms , and Salomnella wasn’t found in all samples of this study.

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Article
Pollution, A Hurdle For Development, And Threat For Population
التلوث البيئي معوقاً للتنمية ومهدداً للسكان

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Abstract

The man who lives on earth is a part of environment by affection, exploiting, improving or misusing it by smoke, garbage and epidemics pollution. There is no doubt that the environment is the natural theatre for all human activities and events on earth. Therefore, the environment is affected by them and vice versa. When the human lives safely in a civilized atmosphere in a society, this causes variable degrees of impacts on the environment according to the degree of development and cultural progress in that society. This research studies how pollution hurdles and threatens population life. To get this goal, the research includes two chapters. The first chapter includes three subjects. The first subject is: The Methodical And Theoretical Frame For This Research. The second includes Environment Sociology. As for the second chapter which is entitled; Environmental Security of Iraqi people. It includes two subjects. The first is; pollution in Iraq. as for the second, it is; the Efforts Exerted To Treat pollution problems. Finally, here are the most important results and recommendations.

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