Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:54 issue:5

Article
Synthesis of new 9H-Carbazole derivatives
تحضير مشتقات جديدة ل9H -كاربازول

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Abstract

The aim of the present work is to synthesis of new 9-ethyl carbazole derivatives .The 3-acetyl-9-ethyl carbazole was achieved by the reaction of compound (1) with acetyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride to give compound (2). Reaction of compound (2) with a ppropriate aromatic aldehyde yielded 3-(3-Phenyl -1-Oxy propen-1-yl)9-Ethyl carbazole(3a-3h).The reaction of (3) with hydrazine hydrate gave 3-(5-aryl-4, 5-Dihydro-3-pyrozolyl)9-Ethyl carbazole(4a-4h). Also compound (3) reacted with phenyl hydrazine gave 3-(1-phenyl-5-aryl-4-pyrozoline-3-yl)9-Ethyl carbazole (5a-5h). The reaction of compound (3) with guanidine carbonate in presence of NaOH (40%) gave the 3-(2-amino-6-aryl-4-pyrimidinyl)9-Ethyl carbazole (6a-6h). The prepared compounds were conformed by TLC, FT-IR and some of them 1H-NMR.


Article
Physical–Spectroscopic Study of Charge-Transfer Complexes of Some Purine Derivatives with (π) and (σ) Electron Acceptors
دراسة طيفية فيزيائية لمعقدات انتقال – الشحنة لبعض مشتقات البيورين مع مستقبلات الإلكترون (π) و (σ)

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Charge-transfer (CT) complexes of adenine (Ade.), guanine (Gua.), xanthine (Xan.), and inosine (Ino.) as electron donors with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (Bromanil)(BA) as π – electron acceptors and iodine (Iod.) as σ – electron acceptor were studied and their electronic spectra recorded .In each case one (CT) band was observed and recorded. These spectroscopic investigations made in ethanol solvent at (20°C) temperature. The values of equilibrium constant (KCT), change in standard free energy (ΔG°), molar extinction coefficient (εCT(, absorption band energy (hνCT) of CT complexes and the association energy of the CT complexes-excited state (W) were calculated and studied with discussed. The ionization potential of the donors (IP) were calculated and discussed from the CT complex band lowest energy. The oscillator strength (fCT), transition dipole moment (μCT) and resonance energy (ER) were also calculated and discussed.


Article
Anticancer Activity of Sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) Seeds oil against cell lines
فعالية زيت بذور زهرة الشمس (Helianthus annuns L.) ضد الخطوط الخلوية السرطانية

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Abstract

This study investigated the role of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) seed extracts as a cytotoxic agent against two cell lines (RD and L20B) using different concentrations of sunflower seeds oil 1.3 , 2.6 , 5.2, 10.4 , 20.8, 41.6 , 83.2 and 166.4 µg / ml for different exposure time (24 ,48 and 72 hrs). The results revealed a clear cytotxoic activity of sunflower seeds oil on growth of RD cancer cell line, and the effect was concentration-dependent. The signification inhibition (P<0.05) was obtained at a concentration of 83.5 and 166.4 µg / ml as compared to control. In addition, the growth of RD cell line was more sensitive to sunflower seeds oil in comparison with the growth of L20B transform cell line. In conclusion, the extract showed inhibitory effect on cancer cell line and it is promising to use as anticancer drug.


Article
Extraction and Purification of Staphylolysin enzyme produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
استخلاص وتنقية أنزيم Staphylolysin المنتج من بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from various clinical samples included urine, sputum, stool, ear, wound & burn swabs. Detection of the ability of local isolates to produce staphylolysin enzyme was studied, on Tryptic soya agar + 0.2% (wt./vol.) of heat killed Staphylococcus. aureus at temperature 100oC. medium and the diameters of lysis zone ranged from 5-22mm, then the isolate P16 was chosen to extract staphylolysin A (LasA) and its specific activity reaches 8.59 unit /mg protein, whi1e the isolate P5 was chosen to extract staphylolysin D (LasD) where it's specific activity reaches 0.66 unit /mg protein since the two isolates were the most production of enzyme. Staphylolysin enzyme was extracted by cooling centrifugation and partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation in saturation percentage of 80%, this step was followed by Ion exchange chromatography technique by using DEAE- cellulose column, results showed that the enzymatic activity (Staphylolytic activity) of the staphylolysin A appeared in first peak with purification folds and recovery of 10.74 fold and 14.2% respectively, while the second peak appeared the activity for staphylolysin D with purification folds and recovery of 9.1 fold and 18.14% respectively.

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Article
Histological Changes in the Duodenum of Mice Treated with Cobalt
التغيرات النسجية في الأثني عشر للفئران المعاملة بالكوبالت

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The present study was conducted using 16 adult male Swiss albino mice (weighing 40-50g). They were equally divided into four experimental groups. The first group was only given tap water as control during experimentation period (40 days). Group II, group III and group IV of mice were daily given a subcutaneous injection of cobalt as cobalt chloride (CoCl2) at a dose of 20mg, 40mg, and 60mg /Kg body weight respectively. The examination of the histological sections of the second experimental group of mice (low dose group) showed no particular changes in the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum of mice. The examination of the histological sections of the third experimental group of mice (moderate dose group) showed abundant degenerative changes in the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum of mice such as increased size, presence of spaces, and dark appearance of the nucleus while these changes were more abundant in the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum of the fourth experimental group of mice (high dose group) in comparison with the third experimental group such as increased size, presence of spaces, and dark appearance of the nucleus.

Keywords

Cobalt --- Carcinogenicity --- Duodenum --- Mice


Article
Induce mutations for Bavistin resistance in Trichoderma harzianum by UV-irradation
استحداث طفرات في الفطر Trichoderma harzianum مقاومة لمبيد البافستين باستخدام الاشعة فوق البنفسجية

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The present study was conducted to induce mutations by UV- light in Trichoderma harzianum for tolerance of Bavistin fungicides which are commonly used to control soil born phytopathogens. The mycelium growth of T. harzianum T1, T2 was inhibited completely by 30 µg (a.i.) /ml PDA of Bavistin. Two isolates of Trichoderma harzianum T1 and T2 conidia suspensions 104 conidia / ml were irradiated by UV lights at 254, 320, 365nm wavelength for 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 min using UV dark room cabinet and spectrophotometer and cultured on PDA media containing 50, 60, 75, 100, and 150 µg (a.i) / ml Bavistin. A thirty one unstable mutants tolerant to Bavistin were obtained after irradiation the T. harzianum T1, T2 conidia suspension 104 conidia / ml by using UV dark room cabinet. While about 76975 Bavistin tolerant mutants were obtained by using UV spectrophotometer. Only twelve were stable and named (TAm1, TAm2, TAm3, TAa1, TAa2, TAa3, TAa4, TAa5, TAa6, TAa7, TAa9 and TAa11). Results daily radial growth and sporulation rate of stable mutants on fungicide culture media (Bavistin) revealed that the stable mutant TAa2 and TAa1 achevied the maximum average of (daily radial growth rate and sporulation). The stable mutants TAa1, TAa2, TAa3, TAa4, TAa5 and TAa7 which tolerates 150 µg (a.i)/ml Bavistin increased their ability to tolerate Bavistin up to 200 µg(a.i)/ml by using adaption technique.


Article
An Evaluation of Some Risk Factors and ABO Blood Groups in Breast Cancer Patients
تقييم بعض عوامل الخطورة ومجاميع الدم في مريضات سرطان الثدي

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The study involved 120 women, who were distributed into two groups of breast tumor patients (30 malignant and 30 benign) and a group of controls (60 women). The patients were referred to the Center for Early Detection of Breast Tumor at Al-Alwayia Hospital for Gynecology and Obstetrics (Baghdad) during the period June-December 2011. They were investigated for the frequency of ABO blood group phenotypes, menopausal status, oral contraceptive use, body mass index and family history of breast cancer or other cancers. The results demonstrated that 60.0% of malignant cases clustered after the age 50 years, while it was 20.0% in benign cases. Fifty percent of malignant breast tumor patients reached menopause, while in benign cases, the corresponding frequency was much lower (20.0%). It was also observed that 60.0% of malignant patients used oral contraceptives, while such frequency was lower in benign patients (20.0%). Overweight and obese cases were observed with a frequency of 43.3 and 26.7%, respectively in malignant patients, and the corresponding frequencies in benign patients were 36.7 and 33.3%, respectively. Positive family history of malignant breast cancer accounted for 43.3% in malignant cases, while in benign cases; it was less frequent (20.0%). The distribution of ABO blood group phenotypes demonstrated a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between malignant patients and controls, but not between benign patients and controls. Such significant difference was mainly contributed by an increased frequency of B phenotype (36.7 vs. 16.7%) and a decreased frequency of O phenotype (26.7 vs. 55.0%) in malignant patients.


Article
Rapidly growing non-tuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) in sputum samples of Iraqi T.B. patients in TB reference lab. in Baghdad
المتفطرات سريعة النمو في قشع المرضى العراقيين المصابين بالسل الرئوي في المختبر المرجعي للتدرن في بغداد

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Non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) present in the environment, mainly in water and not transmitted from human to human. The lung is the most common target of NTM infections in human. The symptoms of NTM infection are: fever, weight loss and abdominal pain. 114 sputum samples were examined microscopically using Ziehl-Nelsen stain, all were positive. They cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen media. The results of this study indicate presence of 3 (2.6%) of rapidly growing mycobacteria, phenotypically they resemble T.B. bacilli. They were diagnosed by biochemical tests, they were positive for catalase and pyruvate, negative for niacin, nitrate reduction test, sensitive for Thiophene-2-carboxyl acid hydrozide test& resistant for Para nitro Benzoic acid test. Drug susceptibility test showed that two of these isolates were resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin (MDR/multidrug resistance) while one isolate sensitive to all drugs. This study is a part of a subject aiming to estimate MDR-TB in Iraqi patient.

Keywords

NTM --- MDR.


Article
Urokinase – type Plasminogen Activator System in Human Breast Cancer
نظام منشط البلازمينوجين نوع يوروكاينيز في أورام الثدي

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Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) are essential for metastasis, and overexpression of these molecules is strongly correlated with poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumors. This study revealed direct correlation between immunohistochemical expression of uPA with pathological stage. No significant association of immunohistochemical expressions of uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 with immunohistochemical expressions for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor -2 (HER-2/neu), and direct association between immunohistochemical expressions of (uPA and uPAR) as well as between immunohistochemical expressions of (uPA and PAI-1).

Keywords

Breast cancer --- uPA --- uPAR --- PAI-1 --- Tissue microarray


Article
Isolation, Identification and Detection of Some Virulence Factors of Staphylococci in milk and cheese in Baghdad
عزل وتشخيص والتحري عن بعض عوامل إمراضية المكورات العنقودية في الحليب و الجبن في مدينة بغداد

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During 2011; 300 milk and white cheese samples were collected from Baghdad markets. Out of 200 staphylococcal isolates isolated from milk and white cheese samples, the predominant species was Staphylococcus aureus 97 isolates (48%), followed by S.chromogenes 82 (41%) and 21 (11%) S.epidermidis isolates. S. aureus isolates were DNase, coagulase, protease, urease, lipase, gelatinase and slime layer producers, other species were variable in the production of such virulence factors. S. chromogenes was the most prevalent isolated staphylococcal species from milk samples; while cheese samples contaminated mainly by S. aureus.


Article
Study on Aeromonas spp. Isolated from raw and drinking water in Baghdad city
دراسة لانواع Aeromonas spp المعزولة من المياه الخام ومياه الشرب في مدينة بغداد

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Abstract

Atotal of 551 water samples drinking( five Water Treatment Plans (WTPs) and raw water( from different sites on Tigris river) were collected.According to morphological characteristics and a set of biochemical tests, one hundred twenty eight of Aeromonas spp isolates were obtained In this study The percentages of Aeromonas recovery from river water was 72.52%, from wells water was (35%).Total percentage of positive aeromonas samples of treated water(Filtration &chlorine tank, supply water of WTPs, distribution system, reserviores and other samples not related to WPTs) was 8.8%.Count of Aeromonas in positive aeromonas samples ranging from 1 to 175 cfu 100 ml. The results showed that generally no significant correlation between presence of aeromonas in distribution system water and other indicators (total heterotrophic plate counts and fecal pollution), also negative correlation between residual chlorine and recovery percentage were detected. Seasonal pattern for the incidence of isolates investigated that higher rate took place during summer months, while the lower rate occurred during winter. The results of identification to species level were: the most predominant species is A. hydrophla 63 isolates(49.21%), A. trota 21isolates(16.41%), A. veroni12 isolates(9.37%) A. salmoncida 11 isolates(8.59%), and A. schubertii, A. sobria, A. cavia four isolates for each(3.13%), and unidentified Aeromonas SPP nine isolates(7.03%). Aeromonas hydrophila isolates revealed higher resistant for most antibiotics used in the study


Article
Effect of Ethephon, Boron and Zinc Spray on Anatomical Characters of Sunflower Crop (Helianthus annuus L.)
تأثير الرش بالأثيفون والبورون والزنك في بعض الصفات التشريحية لمحصول زهرة الشمس ((Helianthus annuus L .

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The experiment field was carried out during spring season of 2006 on experimental farm of Field Crop Science Department College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, to study the effect of foliar applications of Ethephon, Boron and Zinc on the number of vascular bundles in stem and some characteristics of xylem- in sunflower hybrid (ZahratilIraq). By using the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight treatment were used: control treatment (with water spray only), Ethephon (0.480 kg.a.i/ha), Boron (200 g/L), Zinc (50 mg/L) and the interaction between them. The results revealed significant anatomical changes in disc peduncles of plants caused by the foliar applications of Ethephon, Boron, and Zinc treatments. Boron and Zinc increased the total number of vascular bundles and xylem vessels rows compared with control. However (Boron+Zinc) treatment caused higher increment in number of vascular bundle, xylem rows and their vessels. It is assumed that this results should be find their effects, some how positively, on growth, development and yield of sunflower crop.


Article
The Extraction and Partial Purification of Wedelolactone from Local Eclipta alba Plant
الاستخلاص والتنقيه الجزئيه لماده الWedelolactone من النبات المحلي العرندس

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Eclipta alba is a weed growing in damp, moist puddles distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions, so the most weight of the plant is water, which reached in to 90%. The extraction method by using different solvents (Methanol, Ethanol, Hexane and Aqueous) showed, the best yield with methanol reached to 76%, and the yield decreased with ethanol and hexane reached 55% and 53% respectively, while the minimum yield observed with aqueous hot and cold extraction reached 11% and 5% respectively. The phytochemical compound characterization showed the compounds (Coumarines , Flavones ,Volatile Oil ,Tannins , Saponines , Glycosides ,Carbohydrates ,Alkaloids , Resins) with different percentage. The thin layer chromatography detection for wedelolactone showed appositive result according to the appearance of purple to a violet color under UV .light, and the value of RF was reached to 0.56 cm .The purification method showed one main peak between the fractions (7-22). The melting point for wedelolactone was 328. The HPLC result showed compatibility between both sample and standard wedelolactone in shape, and the retention time for the sample was 2.157 which is closely related with the standard one 2.163 , and the concentration of the wedelolactone was 99.27


Article
Potential use of Dry Metallic Copper and Colloidal silver solution to reduce survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from healthcare environment
استعمال النحاس المعدني ومحلول الفضة الغروي في تقليل تواجد بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa في بيئة الرعاية الصحية

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of dry metallic copper and colloidal silver solution to reduce the viability of P.aeruginosa isolates compared with stainless steel as a control. Three clinical isolates of P.aeruginosa (108, 110 and 111 ) which were multi antibiotics resistant tested by inoculating 107 CFU/ml on to coupons( 1cm x 1cm) of copper and stainless steel and incubated at room temperature for various time periods ranging from 30minutes up to 180 minutes .Bacterial viability was determined by plate viable count CFU/ml. The results on copper coupons shows complete killing of isolates after 120 min in contrast to stainless steel, viable organisms were detected after 180 min, indicating a significant P value (P > 0.0001) . To the evaluation of colloidal silver activity on P.aeruginosa isolates, 107 CFU/ml of the resistant bacterial isolates were tested against 5ppm and 10 ppm of colloidal silver solution at room temperature for various time periods ranging from 30min up to 180 min also by using agar dilution method and killing rate technique .The results shows that bacterial isolates were sensitive to colloidal silver in both concentrations and complete killing of microorganisms achieved using 10 ppm concentration after 180 min with a significant P value (P >0.0001) .


Article
Study of the Thermal Durability of Refractory Mortar Prepared from Local Clay Mixed with Different Percentage of Silica
دراسة قوة التحمل الحراري للاسمنت الناري المحضر من الاطيان المحلية والمخلوط مع نسب مئوية مختلفة من السليكا

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Refractory mortar was prepared from the mixing of locally fire clay with different percentage of silica powder (30,40,50,60)wt% by using Pyrometric Cone Equivalent PCE . According to the U.S. Standard ASTM C24, the samples were prepared by using Hand – molding method and dried at temperature 110⁰C and finally firing at different temperature (1000,1100,1200,1300)⁰C according to burning program to study the effect of temperatures for these specimens on the thermal durability .It was shown that the increasing in the percentage of silica content increased the durability of heat specimens, and the best degree of burn was 1300°C.

Keywords

Refractory --- Mortar --- Clay --- Silica --- Refractoriness


Article
Effect of Argon Gas on the Structure and Optical Properties of Nano Titanium Oxide Prepared by PLD
تاثير غاز الاركون على الخصائص البصرية و التركيبية لاوكسيد التيتانيوم النانوي المحضر باستخدام طريقة الترسيب بالليزر النبضي

Authors: Farah A. Hattab فرح انور حطاب
Pages: 1102-1107
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In this research the effect of laser energy by using argon gas on the some physical properties of semiconductor film of TiO2, was studied used Q-Switch Nd:YAG laser in different energies (600-1000) mJ with temperature 100 0C for glass substrate under vacuum nearly 10-3 mbar. From X-ray diffraction we found the film characterized as crystal with plane (110) at 2-θ equal to 27.3̊, and by AFM test the roughness of films increased when the energy of laser increased too. The values of roughness between (6.77-13) nm, therefore the thicknesses increased to change from (34.88 - 165.48) nm, so the absorption of film increased because of the thickness of the film increased and we can get the optical energy gap between (3.6-3.9) eV.


Article
Simulation and Evaluation of Soliton Signal Effects In Fiber Optics
حساب ومحاكاة تأثيرات الموجة الانفرادية في الألياف البصرية

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A soliton is a solitary wave whose amplitude, shape, and velocity are conserved after a collision with another soliton. Solitons, in general, manifest themselves in a large variety of wave/particle systems in nature: practically in any system that possesses both dispersion (in time or space) and nonlinearity. Solitons have been identified in optics, plasmas, fluids, condensed matter, particle physics, and astrophysics. Yet over the past decade, the forefront of soliton research has shifted to neuroscience. The Soliton model in optical fiber is a recently developed model that attempts to explain how signals are propagated within optical fiber without dispersion. In this research, it proposes that the signals travel along the Single Mode Optical Fiber in the form of certain kinds of sound (or density) pulses known as solitons. The three pulses are generated by the Korteweg-deVries equation with Matlab Program. The results of simulation represent the behaviors of the soliton signal in Fiber Optics. Computer simulation results demonstrated that the soliton signal can be successfully used to reduce the dispersion and attenuation effects and travel for a far distance along an optical fiber compared to Gaussian Signal.


Article
Study of rock slope stability of formation outcrops in Hamrin Anticline /NE Tikrit.
دراسة استقراريه المنحدرات الصخرية للتكوينات المنكشفة في طيه حمرين الشمالية / شمال شرق تكريت

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This Study aims to engineering geological evaluation of Fatha and Injana Formations in northern Hamrin anticline throughout geological and engineering geological Survey including Preparing engineering geological map (Scale1:90000) and Studying rock Slopes Stability in (6) Stations ,representing all types of failures (taken place and possible).General Survey for rock Slopes included Classification and engineering description according to [1], [2]. The slopes in the area are Classified based on the direction of the Strike Slopes and Strike of beds into Parallel, Oblique Lateral and orthogonal Slopes according to [3].Classification and the Slope Types are Concordant Slope and discordant Slope . The rocks in the area consists of two engineering geological units on basis of unconfined Compressive Strength(which derived from point load test),these units are: 1-Moderately Strong Compressive Strength and 2-Weak-Very Weak Compressive Strength.The main reasons for failures occurring are differential Weathering Which Cause to over hanging Slopes by under Cutting ,using rocks in various purposes and the role of the discontinuities which exist in the rocks..


Article
The Microfacies Analysis of Mishrif Formation in Gharraf Oil Field
تحليل السحنات الدقيقة لتكوين المشرف في حقل الغراف النفطي

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Six main microfacies are identified which are Lime Mudstone, Bioclastic Wackeston, Bioclastic Packstone-Wackestone, Bioclastic Wackestone- Mudestone, Pelagic Mudstone–Wackestone, Bioclastic Packstone -Grainston Microfacies in addition to their associated depositional environment. The diagenesis process have affected the Mishrif rocks and played a role in deteriorating reservoir porosity in well Ga-2 and enhancing it in well Ga1,3.These processes include: cementation, micritization, recrystallization,dissolution,compaction pressure solution and dolomitization.


Article
Time Series Analysis of Baghdad Rainfall Using ARIMA Method
تحليل السلاسل الزمنية لامطار بغداد باستخدام تقنية ARIMA

Authors: Sawsan M. Ali سوسن مجيد علي
Pages: 1136-1142
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Monthly rainfall data of Baghdad meteorological station were taken to study the time behavior of these data series. Significant fluctuation,very slight increasing trend and significant seasonality were noticed. Several ARIMA models were tested and the best one were checked for the adequacy. It is found that the SEASONAL ARIMA model of the orders SARIMA(2,1,3)x(0,1,1) is the best model where the residual of this model exhibits white noise property, uncorrelateness and they are normally distributed. According to this model, rainfall forecast for four years was also achieved and showing similar trend and extent of the original data.

Keywords

ARIMA --- Time Series --- Baghdad


Article
The impact of Ground oil Fields on the human resources
تأثير أراضي الحقول النفطية على الموارد البشرية

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This research includes the study of the harsh environment areas in which engineers and workers operate in drilling oil wells, and their own characteristics in terms of nature and the climate and other surrounding factors, that negatively large amount affect on all the staff, present in comparison with other lands, so the study showed the preparations administrative and methodology that must be taken to confront the problems that may arise or for the purpose of avoiding. One of these things should be addressed is the process of adaptation of the staff live in the remote desert land and under difficult living conditions. The study also demonstrated all kinds of diseases and ill health which afflict the staff due to climatic conditions that accompany their daily business and physical stress and intellectual effort. The study explains methods of preventing and treating diseases that occur in such areas simultaneously and rapidly in order not to influence the morale of other workers. The study showed the standard amounts for drinking water and salts to be allocated for each worker Who are exposed to physical stress while working in the pits and the use of heavy equipments through the practical testing some of the engineers and workers drilling to see the impact of this environment and purpose for obtaining the result and estimated the conclusions.

Keywords

impact --- oil field --- human resources.


Article
2D Resistivity Imaging of an oil spill site at Koya town, Iraq-Kurdistan Region
تطبيق صورة المقاومة ذات البعدين في دراسة حالة تسرب النفط في مدينة كويسنجق – اقليم كردستان العراق

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An oil spillage has been a great threat to human life in parts of Koya district, especially through the contamination of domestic water. An attempt was made to find and map the extent of pollution in the area. According to a field survey, more than 17 springs and 34 hand-dug and artesian wells have been contaminated with crude oil. The contamination was recorded recently after loading began of tens of oil tankers in the Taq-Taq oil field, and as a result hundred barrels of oil have spilled into the creeks and soil daily. Hence, 2D resistivity imaging was adopted via four laid-out traverses running normal to the strike of the outcrops. A Wenner-Schlumberger array configuration was used to achieve both vertical and lateral resistivity distributions for the investigated site; profiles were surveyed using 5-metre electrode spacing. The interpretation shows that after one year, contamination anomalies of high resistivity represent the locations of contaminated zones, and the migration of the spilled oil is detected within the dry sandstone of the Enjana (Upper Fars) Formation. So, there is contamination by crude oil of the sandstone above the water table, and after one year this has led to a decrease in conductivity of the contaminated zone owing to the absence of natural bioactivity. The migration paths of the crude oil beneath the subsurface were mapped and were found within the sandstone and siltstone layers, trending NW-SE.


Article
Reverse *-Centralizers on *-Lie Ideals
تــمركــزات *-العكسية فـي مـثـالـيـات *- لــي

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The purpose of this paper is to prove the following result : Let R be a 2-torsion free prime *-ring , U a square closed *-Lie ideal, and let T: RR be an additive mapping. Suppose that 3T(xyx) = T(x) y*x* + x*T(y)x* + x*y*T(x) and x*T(xy+yx)x* = x*T(y)x*2 + x*2T(y)x* holds for all pairs x, y  U , and T(u) U, for all uU, then T is a reverse *-centralizer.


Article
Fully Principally Extending Module
مقاسات التوسع–FP

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In this work, We introduce the concepts of an FP-Extending, FP-Continuous and FP-Quasi-Continuous which are stronger than P-Extending, P-Continuous and P-Quasi-Continuous. characterizations and properties of FP-Extending, FP-Continuous and FP-Quasi-Continuous are obtained . A module M is called FP-Extending ( FP-Continuous, FP-Quasi-Continuous) if every submodule is P-Extending (P-Continuous, P-Quasi-Continuous) .


Article
Classification of Cardiac Arrhythmia using ID3 Classifier Based on Wavelet Transform
تصنيف الاضطرابات القلبية بأستخدام المصنف ID3 وتحليل المويجة

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Abstract

Accurate detection of Electro Cardio Graphic (ECG) features is an important demand for medical purposes, therefore an accurate algorithm is required to detect these features. This paper proposes an approach to classify the cardiac arrhythmia from a normal ECG signal based on wavelet decomposition and ID3 classification algorithm. First, ECG signals are denoised using the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and the second step is extract the ECG features from the processed signal. Interactive Dichotomizer 3 (ID3) algorithm is applied to classify the different arrhythmias including normal case. Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) Arrhythmia Database is used to evaluate the ID3 algorithm. The experimental result shows that the accuracy of ID3 is 92% in the case of Haar transform and 94% with Daubeshies4 transform.


Article
A Secure Session Management Based on Threat Modeling
نظام أمن لادارة الجلسة بالاعتماد على نموذج التهديدات

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Abstract

A session is a period of time linked to a user, which is initiated when he/she arrives at a web application and it ends when his/her browser is closed or after a certain time of inactivity. Attackers can hijack a user's session by exploiting session management vulnerabilities by means of session fixation and cross-site request forgery attacks. Very often, session IDs are not only identification tokens, but also authenticators. This means that upon login, users are authenticated based on their credentials (e.g., usernames/passwords or digital certificates) and issued session IDs that will effectively serve as temporary static passwords for accessing their sessions. This makes session IDs a very appealing target for attackers. In many cases, an attacker who manages to obtain a valid ID of user’s session can use it to directly enter that session – often without arising user’s suspicion. A secure session management must be implemented in the development phase of web applications because it is the responsibility of the web application, and not the underlying web server. Threat modeling is a systematic process that is used to identify threats and vulnerabilities in software and has become popular technique to help system designers think about the security threats that their system might face. In this paper we design the threat modeling for session’s ID threat by using SeaMonster security modeling software, and then propose a secure session management that avoids the vulnerabilities. The proposed secure session management is designed to give trust authentication between the client and the server to avoid session hijacing attack by using both: server session’s ID and MAC address of the client.Visual Studio. Net 2008 is used in implementing the proposed system.


Article
Monthly Carbone Monoxide (CO) Distribution Based on the 2010 MOPITT Satellite Data in Iraq
التوزيع السطحي لأول أوكسيد الكاربون (ОϹ) الشهرية في العراق لعام 2010 بالأعتماد على بيانات القمر الصناعي (MOPITT)

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Abstract

Carbon monoxide (CO) plays an important indirect greenhouse gases due to its influences on the budgets of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and Ozone (O3). The atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) observations can only be made on global and continental scales by remote sensing instruments situated in space. One of instrument is the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), which is designed to measure troposphere CO and CH4 by use of a nadir-viewing geometry and was launched aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft on 18 December 1999. Results from the analysis of the retrieved monthly (1ºх1º) spatial grid resolution, from the MOPITT data were utilized to analyze the distribution of CO surface mixing ratio in Iraq for the year 2010. The analysis shows the seasonal variations in the CO surface fluctuate considerably observed between winter and summer. The mean and the standard deviation of monthly CO was (172.076 ± 62.026 ppbv) for the entire study period. The CO value in winter was higher than its values in summer season and its values over Industrial and congested urban zones higher than its values in the rest of regions throughout the year. Maximum values occurred in the northern region (234.105 ppbv) on February at Erbil, were attributed to the increased human activity, geographic nature of the areas and climatic variations. The elevation of CO values on the south-eastern region during the June - November period was due to the emissions from the oil extraction and the burning of agricultural residues in the paddy fields. A greater draws down of the CO occurs over pristine desert environment in the western region (110.047 ppbv) on July at Al Anbar (41.5°log. × 32.5°lat.). The monthly CO surface VMR maps for 2010 were generated using kriging algorithm technique. The MOPITT data and the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of the atmosphere CO concentrations over different regions.


Article
The Effect of SRP and Lunar Attraction on the Inclined MEO Satellite
تأثير ضغط الإشعاع الشمسي وجذب القمر على الأقمار الصناعية الأرضية المائلة المتوسطة الارتفاع

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Abstract

In this paper some perturbations of a satellite orbit with heights more than 10000 km are studied. The two perturbations are due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as Moon as a conservative perturbing forces and from the non-conservative perturbing forces such as SRP for satellite with A=5.1 m2 and m=900 kg. The position, velocity and momentum components are calculated for the perturbed equation of motion at any instant of time and thus calculate the orbital elements of each perturbation. The orbital elements for the perturbed orbit will deviate from initial elements with time. The equations of motion solved numerically using the fourth order of Runge Kutta method. The results show that the secular variation for orbital elements are true but very small.


Article
Study the Variation of Gamma - Ray Backscattered Count Rate for Halley’s Nucleus
دراسة التغير في العد للأستطارة الخلفية لأشعة كاما لنواة المذنب هالي

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Abstract

In this paper, the single scatter model for gamma backscatter densitometer has been used to investigate the materials of Halley’s nucleus. Monte Carlo simulation tool is used for the evaluation and calibration of gamma backscatter densitometer; and also used to calculate the bulk density. A set of parameters effecting detected count rate of γ – ray backscattering, mainly the source energy, the source – detector separation (sonde length), density and composition, were calculated. Results obtained with the present method are compared with experimental data and the computed data may be considered entirely satisfactory.


Article
Remotely Sensing Digital Methods For Dust Storms Monitoring In Iraq
طرق استشعار عن بعد رقمية لمراقبة العواصف الترابية في العراق

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Abstract

In this research, attempt to overcome and quantities the problem of the large number of frequency of dust storms and the areas that generated and then identifying these areas in order to be held by the agricultural areas, as has been the adoption of many of the techniques and methods of processing image in remote sensing and geographic information systems and linking them together to identify those areas in Iraq or the neighbors, especially the northern and north-west wind of the fact that Iraq is in the northern and north - western most days of the year. Research has included the use of images from the satellite (MODIS) with quality (Aqua) and (Terra) with the assembly of the amount of dust, these storms, it was determining the values of size and density of the dust and the amount (> 10μm) and (ρ = 1.58 mg/m3) respectively, note that this dust has collected from the University of Baghdad during a sandstorm brief summary on July 2010, because this month is the most higher month temperature in the year and it was about 50 thousand ton of dust in each dust storm. To extract all the results and information that obtained from the operations account amounts that the soil is expected calculated annually for these storms and to determine the threshold line density of this dust in the air. Finally, developing a system to monitor these storms, depending on the capacity of scientific instruments of modern used in the countries of the world and its establishment in Iraq.

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