Table of content

Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences

مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية

ISSN: 20779798
Publisher: University of Kufa
Faculty: Veterinary Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Kufa j. vet. Sci. is a scientific and refereed journal published by the college of veterinary medicine , University of Kufa , Kufa ,Iraq. It publishes in English original and distinguished research papers , communications , research notes , case reports and reviews in all aspects of veterinary sciences .
Manuscript shall be considered for publication only with the understanding that they are neither under concurrent consideration by any journal nor have been published else where . Manuscript are subjected to peer review for their scientific merit .accepted manuscript will become the property of Kufa j . vet. Sci . the journal is published two times a year.

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البريد الإلكتروني لرئيس التحرير
vetmed@uokufa.edu.iq
أو البريد الإلكتروني للمجلة
kj.vs@uokufa.edu.iq
أو للإستفسار الإتصال بمسؤول المجلة على الرقم 07810115211

Table of content: 2013 volume:4 issue:2

Article
Study of cellular immune responses to the Internalin B protein extracted from Listeria monocytogenes in Mice
دراسة الاستجابة المناعية الخلوية لبروتين Internalin B المستخلص من جرثومة Listeria monocytogenes في الفئران

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Abstract

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the immunological activity of internalin B (InLB) protein which extracted from the cell wall of Listeria monocytogenes. Immunological activity was determined in vitro by the phagocytic activity assay and in vivo by bacterial clearance test in ninety six male white Swiss BALB/C mice were divided into five equal groups, G1 intrapertonailly injected with 0.5ml of InLB 50µg/ml;G2 intrapertonailly injected with 0.5ml of InLB 50µg/ml and inoculated with 1.2×103CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes.; G3 intrapertonailly injected with 0.5ml of InLB 50µg/ml followed by L. monocytogenes 24 hours later; G4 intrapertonailly injected with1.2×103CFU/ml L. monocytogenes a positive control; G5 intrapertonailly injected with 0.5ml of PBS a negative control, The results of the in vitro study showed the InLB at 50µg/ml induce the phagocytic activity by increase the Nitric oxide (NO) production as compared with Phytohemagglutinin-p (PHA); the results of the in vivo study was carried for 2weeks; at 4,8and 12days bacterial clearance assay; tissue of the internal organs (liver) of the G3 showed decrease in number of the bacteria at 12days (6×10-2 CFU) as compared to G2 and G4 (2×10-3CFU and 1.8×10-4CFU) respectively.The result presented in this study contribute for the first time in Iraq; that internalin B given intrapertonailly injection in mice for 12 days improves the immune responses by decreasing the bacterial number in liver tissue.


Article
Effect of prostaglandin F2α &oxyotocin on semen charistrics of alawassi ram
تأثير البروستوكلاندين و الاوكسيتوسين في صفات السائل المنوي للأكباش العواسية

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Abstract

Abstract: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine / University of Qadisiyah five Awassi Rams converged for the purpose of reconstruction see the effect of injection hormone prostaglandin F2α and oxytocin in semen recipes for Awassisheep. The current study included 5 Awassi Rams semen collection using artificial vagina injected Group prostaglandin F2α and the oxytocin (0.5 mg / 50 kg of body weight prostaglandin F2α ) (10 IU oxytocin). And has been collecting semen from animals study by F in every two weeks for a ten week (ie three collections, first before injecting the hormone (T1), and the second half an hour after injection (T2) and third two weeks after the injection T6-T5-T4-T3) T7-) has been analyzing samples that have been collected in the laboratory, showed the results of the study on the mixing prostaglandin F2α hormone oxytocin latest effects highly significant (P <0.05) in the concentration of sperm and semen volume with low percentage of abnormalities of sperm and increase the vitality of sperm than shown by the injection of any of hormones alone.

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Article
Effect of alcoholic extracts ( Cuminum cyminum,Thymus vulgaris and Menthe pulegium) and tri mixed and di mixed extracts on enterobactericea (E. coli , Brucella abortus, Salmonella entridius) growth in vitro
تأثير المستخلصات الكحولية ( للكمون، النعناع والزعتر ) وخليطها الثلاثي والثنائي على نمو البكتريا المعوية ( E.coli , Brucella abortus , Salmonella entridius ) في الاطباق

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Abstract

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of alcoholic extracts of ( Cuminum cyminum,Thymus vulgaris and Menthe pulegium) activity against some of enterobactericea of gram negative stain (E. coli , Brucella abortus Salmonella entridius) ,at a varying concentration of 10 mg/ml by using agar well diffusion methods. Different chemical detection methods indicate that Cuminum cyminum contained Flavonoids, Thumus vulgaris contained Reins and Saponins while Menthe pulegium contained Flavonoids. The result showed that Brucella abortus more sensitive for antimicrobial activity alcoholic extract of Menthe pulegium and equal to tri mixed alcoholic extracts and di mixed, one of( Cuminum cyminum and Menthe pulegium), Cuminum cyminum alcoholic extract and Thymus vulgaris alcoholic extract that showed zone inhibitions of (38.66, 26.66 , 24, 19.33, 8.66) mm respectively. E. coli was found to be sensitive for di mixed alcoholic extract of (Menthe pulegium and Thumus vulgaris) rcoreded zone inhibition 26.66mm although sensitive from di mixed of (Cuminum cyminum and Thumus vulgaris) alcoholic extract by zone inhibition 17.33mm while Cuminum cyminum alcoholic extract showed zone inhibition of 9.33mm. Bacteria Salmonella entritidis was found only sensitive for di mixed of (Cuminum cyminum and Thumus vulgaris) alcoholic extract recorded zone inhibition 16.66mm.


Article
The effect of Simvastatin in attenuation of Myocardial Ischemia/ Reperfusion injury
تأثير السمفاستاتين في تضعيف الإصابة القلبية جراء نقص ألارواء وإعادته لعضلة القلب

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Article
Effect the addition of Anis seed(Pimpinella anisum L.) powder on production performance and some blood and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens
تأثير أضافة مسحوق الينسون الى العليقة في الأداء الإنتاجي وبعض الصفات الدمية والكيموحيوية في فروج اللحم

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Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted at commercial farm for broiler which is located in Diwaniya city,from 1/4/2013 to 20/5/2013 to estimate the effect supplementation of two concentration of Anis seeds powder to feed on production performance and some blood traits and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens by using (150) broiler chicken (Hubbard) at one day old which have been randomly distributed to three treatments by two replication per treatment(25 chicks per replication),this chicks divided into the following: T1:representing controle group eating the basal feed without addition of Anis seeds, While T2 representing the group which eating the basal feed plus 50 mg/kg of Anis seeds powder to feed along the period of experiment and T3 representing the group which eating the basal feed plus 150 mg/kg of Anis seeds powder to feed along the period of experiment. The results were revealed that Anis seeds powder supplementation to the feed in the (T2,T3) showed high significant increase( p<0.05) in body weight,gain weight,feed intake,dressing percentage compared with control treatment and significant decreasing( p<0.05) in mortality rate in T3 compared with control group.The addition of Anis seed powder lead to high significant increasing (p<0.05)in Hb concentration and packed cell volume %,total protein,albumin,globulin in treatment groups compared with control group.


Article
Antimicrobial resistance pattern and RAPD profile of Salmonella Ohio isolated from broiler farms in Al-Najaf and Al-Muthana provinces
نمط المقاومة للمضادات الجرثومية و هيئة الـRAPD لجراثيم السالمونيلا اوهايو المعزولة من مزارع دجاج اللحم في محافظة النجف الأشرف والمثنى

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Abstract

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and resistance patterns of S. Ohio isolates. All the Ohio isolates were resistant to more than three of the antibiotics, upto 10 antimicrobial agents. Overall, the highest proportions were found for resistance to the following agents: Tetracycline (100%), Nalidixic acid (94.7%), Doxycycline (94.7%), low level resistance to Ciprofloxacin (89.4%),Kanamycin (84.2%), Sulphafurazole (78.9%), and Co-Trimoxazole(52.6%).A total of 11 (DI = 0.958) antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed among 19 isolates of S. Ohio, with a MAR index value ranged between 0.2 to 0.43. The frequency of resistance to Te/Cip/Na/Dox was found in 17 (90%) of the 19 MDR S. Ohio isolates. Genotyping of S. Ohio isolates using 10-mer arbitrary primer, p1254 revealed five RAPD types, denoted by English letters from A to E yielding DI of 0.53, whereas RAPD analysis with primer OPA-4 discriminated only four patterns which assigned F to I (figure), yielding DI of 0.44. When the results of RAPD (with two primers) and antibiotic susceptibility tests are combined, 19 isolates of S. Ohio could be divided into 12 different profiles (DI=0.97). The finding of this study indicated that the broiler chicken can serve as a zoonotic reservoir of MDR bacteria which can be transmitted to human. This is an important implication for human health, because infections with MDR bacteria are difficult to treat and often requires expensive and long term therapy. The RAPD technique can be a useful tool for the analysis of S. Ohio strains. The method might be used as easy, faster, and cost-effective tool for molecular epidemiology research in each laboratory.


Article
Effect of usage camel milk on some physiological and immunological parameters in rabbits treated with indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal ulcer
تأثير إستخدام حليب الابل في بعض المعايير الفسلجية والمناعية للأرانب المعاملة بدواء الإندوميثاسين المسبب لقرحة المعدة والأمعاء

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Abstract

Abstract: The present study was undertaken in Najaf province during aperiod from 18/11/2012 to 22/12/2012. To find the effect of orally gavage of raw camel milk on some physiological and immunological parameters in femal rabbits treated with indomethacin drug . Atotal of 32 femal rabbits(local breed) aged ranged between 2-3 months with an average intial body weight 1410.623 gm were used in this study. The animals were divided randomly into four equal groups (8) rabbits of each group as follow:- - Control group C . - First treatment group T1 :- Received orally 5ml/day of raw camel milk. - Second treatment group T2 :- Received orally 20mg/kg b.w of indomethacin drug, one dose/day. - Third treatment group T3 :- Received orally 5ml/day camel milk and 20mg/kg b.w indomethacin drug, one dose/day. The results of study showed the T2 demonstrated a significant reduction ( P< 0.05) in white blood cell mean as compared to the T1 while don’t show a significant diffirent as compared to control and third treatments . And the same treatment T2 has been shown a significant reduction(P< 0.05) in lymphocyte percentage , haemoglobin and packed cell volume as compared to other treatments.


Article
Effect of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate as a Replacement of Sodium Chloride Salt on Some Blood and Physiological Parameters of Broilers Experimentally Infected with Eimeria
تأثير استعمال بيكاربونات الصوديوم كبديل لملح كلوريد الصوديوم في العليقة على بعض الصفات الدمية والفسلجية لفروج اللحم المصاب تجريبيا بالايميريا

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Abstract: This study was conducted to determined the effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate as a replacement of sodium chloride salt on some blood and physiological parameters of broilers experimentally infected with Eimeria. A totally of 120 one-day old chicks were divided into three groups, 40 chicks in each . The first group fed standard ration supplemented with 0.3 % sodium chloride salt, second and third groups were fed standard ration supplemented with 0.3 and 0.6 % sodium bicarbonate salt respectively. Blood samples were collected from all groups after experimentally infected with Eimeria. The results revealed that dietary sodium bicarbonate as a replacement of sodium chloride salt did not affected blood and physiological parameters of broilers before Eimeria infection, when as replacement of sodium bicarbonate salt (T2 and T3) groups significantly (P<0.05) increased blood Hb, RBC, Lymphocyte cell and serum enzymes activity in comparison with control (T1) . This indicated the important of dietary sodium bicarbonate as a replacement of sodium chloride salt to improve health and physiological status of broilers experimentally infected with Eimeria.


Article
Epidemiological study for Toxoplasmosis andLeishmaniasis in stray dogs in Diwaniya city/Iraq

Authors: Ghydaa Abass Jassem
Pages: 31-39
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Abstract

Abstract: A total of 175 blood sample of stray dogs from urban and rural in Diwaniya city /Iraq were examined for detection of Toxoplasmosis by Latex test and dipstick test to visceral Leishmaniasis , with Mercaptoethanol test to detect acute and chronic infection for both disease. The total rate infection that recorded was 48% positive to Toxoplasmosis in urban and rural , 63% acute and 36.9% chronic to the disease in urban and rural , and from the total 45% was acute in female with 51.6% acute in male . In conclusion of samples recorded 46.8% positive for Leishmaniasis in urban and rural, 28% Acute and 71.9% chronic for disease . According to the sex 64.4% female acute and 35.5% chronic for disease with 45.9% Male acute and 54% chronic for disease , the mixed infection of Leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis show 42.6% in urban and 18%in rural .


Article
Effect of the probiotics , vitamins A and E on growth performance and some blood parameters in broiler chickens
تأثير المعزز الحيويprobiotics مع فيتامينAوE على أداء النمو وبعض معايير الدم في فروج اللحم

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Abstract

Abstract: This study was carried out to know the effect of adding the Iraqi probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacilli spp , Bacillus subtilus , Saccharomyces cervisa) , vitamins A and E to diet on some productive features and blood parameters of Ross broiler, An experiment of 42 days duration was conducted with a flock of 200 chick one day-old , The chicks were distributed randomly into four equal treatments (50) chicks per each treatment with two replicates (25) chicks per each as follow : T1 : Control group fed on basal diet only . T2: Fed on basal diet + probiotic (5 gm/ kg feed) . T3: Fed on basal diet + vitamin A (12000 IU /kg feed ) + vitamin E (300 mg/kg feed ) . T4: Fed on basal diet + probiotic (5 gm/ kg feed) + vitamin A (12000 IU /kg feed ) + vitamin E (300 mg/kg feed ) . The results were showed a significant improvement in averages of body weight , weight gain and feed conversion efficiency for the treatments : probiotic , vitamins A and E and the mixture (probiotic + vitamins A and E) comparative with the control , The results of weights (carcass , liver and gizzard ) showed significant increased for treatments of T2 , T3 and T4 comparative with the control , no significant difference were found among four treatments in weights of the heart , in addition there were no difference among(T2 , T3 and T4 ) in dressing percentage and mortality , the results showed a calculation increase for these treatments in the dressing percentage and a calculation decrease in the mortality percentage comparative with the control , were for treatments ( T2 , T3 and T4 ) impact in improving rates of RBC , PCV and Hb significantly or calculation comparative with the control , not differ of these three treatments in the rates of RBC and PCV, while T4 were gave a significant increase in blood haemoglobin concentration from T2 and T3 that did not appear significant difference between them .


Article
Evaluation levels of IgG and some biochemical parameters in water buffalos vaccinated with HS vaccine in Al-Qassem Town
تقييم مستوى البروتين المناعي IgG وبعض معايير الكيمياء السريرية لمصل الدم في جاموس الماء الممنع بلقاح الانتان الدموي في مدينة القاسم

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Abstract: The current study was conducted on sixteen water buffalos to evaluate some serum enzymes, metabolic product, bilirubin and minerals during the last period of pregnancy and the effect of pregnancy on level of IgG after immunization with HS vaccine. The buffalos were divided equally into two groups: pregnant group (P) and control group (C), each group included eight buffalo. Thirty two blood samples were taken buffalos, sixteen samples from each group; between each drew one month intervals. All buffalos of group (P) were in the last period of pregnancy. The buffalos were vaccinated with HS vaccine. Bilirubin, Alanine Aminotransferase ( ALT), gamma-glutamyl Transferase (GGT), potassium (K+), Creatinine and urea were examined by using Reflatron apparatus, as well as IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion plate (IgG RID). The results revealed that there were no difference between levels of bilirubin in treated (0.670±0.057) and control (0.762± 0.151) group, ALT levels showed a significant differences between pregnancy group (10,42±0.481) and control group (24.92±0.507), GGT levels revealed no significant differences between pregnancy (7.23±0.59) and control (7.57±0.92), the levels of K+ revealed slightly difference between Pregnancy (5.58±0.96) and control (3.67±0.48), creatinine levels in pregnancy group also showed mild increase in levels (5.66±0.83) as compared with control group (2.63±0.64), while serum urea concentrations were within the normal rang (50 mg/dl±0.72).The result showed that there were a significant differences between the first and second intervals of study (P<0.05). The mean of IgG protein concentrations were (677.076±0.79 mg/dl). The conclusion that the concentrations of IgG in pregnant buffalo vaccinated with HS was not affected by pregnancy and remained within normal values during the last period of pregnancy, while some parameters including liver enzymes, kidney bilirubin and minerals function affected more than others during last period of pregnancy, while the IgG concentrations were still within normal levels during pregnancy periods.


Article
Study of some characteristics standard and Physiological features to the testis and epididymis on one Humped Camel (Camelus Dromedarius)
دراسة بعض الصفات القياسية والوظيفية للخصية والبربخ لجمل وحيد السنام(Camelus Dromedaries )

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Abstract: The current study was conducted on(96 samples) of genital organs (testes and epididymis) as well as blood of male mature camels (5-6 years) after the confirmation of their health before and after slaughter, and to make sure from their ages by the dential equation,these sample were collected from abbatoris of AL-Najaf, Afak and Diwaniya) for the full year with (8 samples) per- month for the purpose of determination parameters anatomical parameters for some of the genital system of the testes and epididymis ,physiological parameter (hormonal), the study anatomical results biggest weight, length, width and circumference of the testis and the weight and length of the epididymis , mis recorded in winter significally(p <0.05), which reached(90.041 ± 0.613, 103.904 ± 0.633, 50.541 ± 1.957, 256.812 ± 0.615, 40.500 ± 0.288, 109±0.7), respectively, while less weight, length, width, circumference, weight and length of of the testis and weight length of the epididymis which recorded in the summer significally (p <0.05)and reached (85.666 ± 0.441, 92 ± 0.357,, 40.583 ± 0.220, 242.266 ± 0.15, 35.083 ± 0.083, 94.34 ± 0.45) respectively. The results of physiological and features related with hormonal the measurements that Folicul stimulate hormone (FSH) and lutyal hormone(LH) and (Testosterone hormone) have recorded the highest concentration in the winter and the level of significance( p<0.05) and recorded (5.128 ± 0.455, 2.770 ± 0.3184, 10 ± 1), respectively, while the lowest levels were recorded in summer with level of significance( p<0.05) and recorded(1.633 ±0.130 IU,2.145 ± 0.13 IU, 3.5 ± 0.091 ng/ml) while prolactin hormone has recorded lowest level of significance (p <0.05) in the winter and the highest level in the summer which recorded (102.2 ± 8.405 IU ,244 ± 24.463 IU)respectively.


Article
Antibacterial activity of Phoenix dactylifera L. leaf extracts against several isolates of bacteria
استعمال مستخلص سعف النخيل Phoenix dactylifera L. كمضاد ميكروبي ضد عدد من العزلات البكتيرية

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Abstract: The objective of this research is to find a natural chemical compounds alternative available and free of side effects and high-impact effective against many bacterial species. The crude ethanol extracts of Phoenix dactylifera leaves were tested for antibacterial action against bacterial isolates, the ethanol extracts showed good antibacterial activity against all isolates Enterobacter sp., Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Protus sp. bacterial isolates which had shown zone of inhibition against all plant extracts concentration with exceptions at 25 mg/ml concentration related with Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Protus sp., also the largest inhibition zone were revealed at 100 mg/ml concentration especially with Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolate while Salmonella sp. isolate exhibited the smallest inhibition zone under 50mg/ml concentration.

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Article
The Clinical and Hematological changes in rabbits exposed to leaves of Urtica dioica under experimental conditions
التغيرات السريرية والدموية في الأرانب المعرضة على أوراق نبات القريص ( Urtic dioica ) تحت الظروف التجريبية

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Abstract: The study was conducted on 20 female local breed rabbits , of 1-2 years age , of 1- 2 kg body weight . In first part of the study , 10 animals were randomly divided into two groups of 5 each. The first group was exposed to leaves of Urtica dioica in green phase at a dose rate of 50 grams / kg b.w daily for 10 days , while those of the second group left without exposure as a control group . In the second part of the study , animals of the first group exposed to leaves in dry phase , at a dose rate of 5 g/kg b.w. daily for three weeks, as a powder mixed with the concentrated food. While those of the second group left as a control group without exposure. The main dependent parameters in the study were ,clinical parameters ( body temperature , heart beat , respiratory rate, body weight , in addition to monitor any abnormal signs appear on the animals) . The main hematological parameters which depended in the study were included , RBC count , WBC count , Hb concentration , PCV percentage , Red cell indices , Bleeding time and Clotting time . The results of the study revealed the following : In first part clinically ; some rabbits showed strong heart beat , in other heart beat decreased ; respiratory rate decreased with noisy vesicular murmurs were heard . Body weight and body temperature were decreased. In the fourth day post exposure to plant one rabbit showed softy feces . In the 16th day post exposure one animal died , followed by another on in 18th day of the experiment . The post mortem findings were pale mucous membranes , stomach impacted with food with ulceration of mucus membranes . severe congestion of liver and gastrointestinal tract . sever swelling of kidney , urinary bladder filled with urine of dark yellow color .Hematologically clotting time prolonged , with decrease PCV , and White blood cells counts ; while Hb concentration did not showed any changes In second part: Heart beats , respiratory rates and body temperature were increased , while body weight decreased . Prolongation of clotting and bleeding time .The hematological pictures revealed that , Hemoglobin level and PCV values were decreased .The total erythrocyte count did not showed any significant changes during the study . The mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin ,the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly decreased .The total leucocytes count ,the percentage of heterophils, and monocytes percentage were increase. The lymphocytic and, esinophils percentage were significantly decreased .The basophiles values did not showed any significant changes during the study.


Article
Histopathological Changes in Testis after Partial Caput Epididymectomy of Teaser Rams
التغيرات النسيجية المرضية للخصية بعد عملية الازالة الجزئية لجسم البربخ في الكباش الكاشفة

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Abstract: Three healthy adult local breed rams were subjected to partial caput epididymectomy to evaluate histopathological changes. The skin in caudal aspect of scrotal raphe pouch was transected longitudinally. The first testis was forced toward the other, the tunica vaginalis was incised at the upper of the epididymis body and a piece of one cm in length was removed from it with ligation. The same procedure was repeated for the other testis. Time of sexual desire was significantly longer (p<0.05) after one and two weeks of the operation than three and four weeks for control, while it was longest after one weeks among all other periods. Sperm concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05) after 2, 3 and 4 weeks than the first week for control, while it was significantly lower after first week than control. The histopathological changes in testicular tissue were evaluated after one, three and six months of the operation. The results revealed thickening of the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules and degeneration, necrosis of spermatogonia and sertoli cells. Some seminiferous tubules appeared only with covering basement membrane. The Leydig cells were proliferated at the first period, while there was decrease in their number at the last period.


Article
Grossly and Microscopic Study of the Primary Bronchi and Lungs of Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus)
دراسات عيانية ,ومجهرية للقصبات الأولية ولرئتي حمام الغابة البالغ (Columba palumbus )

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Abstract: The present study included ten specimens of adult pigeon wood (Columba palumbus) collected from market of Al-Diwanyia city, divided the specimens into two groups five specimens for grossly study and five specimens for histological study. Opened the birds and extracted the right and left bronchi and left and right lungs for the purpose of grossly and histological studies. The study included grossly study for external bronchi. The total length of left bronchi was ( 0.7 ± 0.1 cm ) and right bronchi was ( 0.65 ± 0.05 cm ) and the basic structure of bronchi was the cartilage has – C – shape, also determine relationship bronchi with the neighboring organs. The grossly study involved the lungs right and left, it is found that the lung has two surfaces ( Costal and Visceral ) and two ends ( Distal and Proximal ) also detected relation to organs nearby, found that the average length of the right lung was ( 2.8 ± 0 cm ) while left lung was ( 2.75 ± 0.05 cm ) and average width of right lung was ( 2.45 ± 0.65 cm ) while the left lung was ( 2.7 ± 0.7 cm ). The histological study involves the histological description of external and internal bronchi of the left and right lungs.

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