Table of content

Adab AL Rafidayn

اداب الرافدين

ISSN: 03782867
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Arts
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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approved scientific periodical issued by college of arts /university of mosul . the research offered to periodical then will send expert to inspect it.

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EMAIL: adabarafidayn@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2013 volume: issue:67

Article
THE STANCE OF ABI- ATTAIEB ALMUTANABI FROM HIS ENVIOUS RIVALS (٣٠٣-٣٥٤ AH) (View Study and Analysis)
موقف ابي الطيب المتنبي من حساده (303- 354 هـ) عرض ودراسة وتحليل

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The peculiar character of Almutanabi and his art has caused a great and vast dispute among the political، the social and the artistic entities. Since this poet strove very hard to build a society that is based on excellent ethics and virtuous values. He used to enjoy numerous attributes، a number of poets were lacking. Some of which are the following: his ambitions، his aspirations، his dreams، his eloquence، his self-confidence، his excellent individuality compared to his peers، his distinguished and unique character compared to the youths in his generation، his physical power، his aspiration، his determination، his chivalrous character، his genius mind، his skills، his self-esteem and superciliousness، his noble character in refusing to indulge in west-time circles، and his refusal to describe other than kings and princes (only those who enjoy haughty characters)، i.e. those whom he prescribed on them his specific conditions- these conditions which no poet dared to lay down before him nor after him، and they (kings and princes) accepted these conditions and not only they accepted them but also they were eager to gain his pleasure in the hope to be described in one of his sublime poems. Due to all the previous، the envious - gloating/rejoicing over another’s grief (schadenfreude)- rivals started to plot against him، and feel rancor towards him، and accuse him with false accusations، because he stood as an obstacle between them and the ruling class، and because of him they were deprived from the prizes and gifts، and he was a cause in the ignorance of their poems and their being driven away from the courts of such (kings and princes)، because such poets failed to keep up or compete with him. Almutanabi discovered them and showed the reasons of their jealousy، and despite of that sometimes he just ignored them and sometimes he found excuses for them، but in other times – when he saw their persistent envy، their ignorant minds، their corruption، and their trifle conducts have extended and spread and started bothering him when reached to the men of power he retaliated with might and harshness so that he may repulse them and cause them to shut their faces up، and convince them، but in doing that he never cursed them nor used bad language with them، and in doing that he kept his excellent principles and great ethics that he subscribes to and believes in، understanding the lofty position he and his art occupy in the hearts of all the just people، the readers of his poetry.


Article
The Didactic Approach in: Al-FaDa Al-MuDii'a Fi Sharih Al-Shadhra Al-dhahabiya
المنحى التعليمي في( كتاب الفضة المضية في شرح الشذرة الذهبية) لأحمد بن محمد بن زيد العاتكي

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Abstract

The present paper reviews the didactic approach that is followed in The book entitled: Al-FaDa Al-MuDii'a Fi Sharih Al-Shadhra Al- (Dhahabiya)Authorad by Abn Zaid Al-'Aatiki (D. ٨٧٠A. H.). We managed to figure out this approach relying on a descriptive study. It Falls into three parts . The first parts deals with the fundamentals of Syntactic lesson reviewing hearsay rules، comparisons، consensually Agreed rules among the linguists…… etc. In this part we have discovered the way whereby the author dealt his students in away that Services his students easily. the second part tackles the sources of the lesson، that we uncover in this approach depending on two tables: the first table is for the personal names and the second for the books the author used to recite from . Themethod comesvery consistent with the didactic approach followed by the author. The third part is entitled with "stylistic features in explaining grammar" . It highlights the most remarkable features of the didactic authoring of book like: definitions،perspicuity، easiness، shortness، pleonasm، syntactic disagreements……etc.


Article
Kalla ‘No’ in Glorious Qur’an: Semantico-Syntactico Study
كلا في القران - دراسة نحوية دلالية

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This study aims at identifying different meanings of the response particle (kalla) ‘No’ and tracing its usage in the glorious Quran. Kalla had many functions: negating, restraining and repelling what precedes it and confirming what follows it. Negation with Kalla differs from other negation particles; it denotes that what precedes it cannot be, at any rate, true whereas other particles negate the action without wondering about its reliability. Therefore, unlike other particles, the negated action precedes Kalla, and the sentence that follows it usually signifies confirmation, swearing, reassuring the audience/hearer and restraining which requires a reaction to a positive context some scholars count Kalla as having the meaning of ‘yes’ in fact, just the opposite, Kalla means ‘no’; it negates the positive ness of an action.


Article
The Proposal Style in Prophet's Tradition From a Dialogue Kaised by AL- Sahba
اسلوب الخبر في الحديث النبوي الشريف من حوار يثيره الصحابة (رض الله عنهم)

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Abstract

This research deals with the proposalistic style in the prophetic tradition (Hadith).Proposal style In the prophetic tradition is one of the most important aspects of sacred literature whose semantics and over tones have long occupied the interest of Arabic's, Arab grammarians and semanticians. The research contains the dialogue Al-Sahaba started with the prophet included of three types .


Article
Effectiveness of poetry and the delegation of the senses to reveal the meanings of language in the poetry of Antar al-Absi
الفعالية الشعرية وتفويض الحواس للكشف عن مدلولات اللغة في شعر عنترة العبسي

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Abstract

The present work tackles the distinguished artistic pictures in Ankara's poetry these pictures add momentum to the communicative and connotational functions through interacting with the audience's background Knowledge . New meanings are originated in this way in the readers` imagination in the light of the context built by the text .


Article
The Conception of Harvesting Water in The Glorious Qur'an
مفهوم (حصاد المياه) في ايات القران الكريم دراسة في الاعجازين البلاغي والعلمي

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Abstract

This research reviews the conception of (Harvesting Water) in a modern scientific point of view ; depending on Arabic and foreign scientific references. This research presents the components of harvesting water systems relating them scientifically and thoroughly with verses of the Glorious Qur'an , particularly verses from Al-Naml surah: "Is he (not best) who made the earth astable ground and placed within it rivers and mad for it firmly set mountains and placed between the two seas a barrier? (No), but most of them do not know. "


Article
The Rhetorical Function of using Oath by(Ta'a) in the Holy Quran
بلاغة القسم ب ( التاء ) في القران الكريم

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Abstract

The present paper is divided in to five sections preceded by most important finding arrived at by the researcher The first section seals with oath from language to terminology The second section is devoted to discussing the (Ta'a) of Oath.The third section tackles the Oath by (Ta'a) in the Quranic narrations. The fourth section is concerned with the use of oath within the descriptions of some conditions of Doomsday-Finally the fifth section deals with the use of explicit oath by(Ta'a).


Article
Description in The Stories (Village Talks) by Maroon Abud
الوصف في مجموعة قصص ( أحاديث القرية ) لمارون عبود

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Abstract

The Lebanese Artist Maroon Abud is Chosen as domain of This research, because his stories have cohesive artistically techniques, among which is description. Moreover, his stories have descriptive Parts with different shapes and expressions. For this reason, this research is concerned with the analysis of descriptive parts clarifying the artistic and esthetic dimensions, and revealing The meanings resulting. This research is divided into an introduction and four ports. The introduction specifies the description concept, its function, and its relation with narration. The first part of the research deals with the study of description confined by narration which includes the description narration and the description directed by narration with its three types: simple description. compound description, and separated description. The second part tackles the description including description related with internal emotions, and description referring to action. The third and fourth part are specified for the study of the classifying and expression description.


Article
The Philologist :Ali Ibn Mohammad Al-Antaky His Life and Scientific Influence Heritage
المقرء علي بن محمد الانطاكي حياته واثاره العلمية (٩٨٧-٩١١/٣٧٧-٢٩٩)

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Abstract

The scientific movement in Al-Andalus began to be developed and spread in the fourth century. In this century, sciences and knowledge reached a high stage of improvement and became the most common subjects for scientists particularly when scientists from other Muslim countries took part in the movement to gain high positions. The philologist Ali Ibn Mohammad living in Antakya was one of those who came to Al-Andalus in ( A. H. / A. D.). He gained a high position on the part of the public and those in authority. He brought with him mental sciences of his city was famous and was said to be a heritage of Grice in philosophy and wisdom. He also brought religious books from scientific centers of the Islamic world. He played a great role in improving the scientific movement together with the inhabitants of Al-Andalus. He taught them various kinds of sciences so that to become prominent figures in Al-Andalus. He died in Kurtuba in ( A. H. / A. D.).


Article
The Political Reforming Role of Prince Aragon Aqa in the Mongol State (٦٢٣-٦٧٣ AH/ ١٢٢٥-١٢٧٥ AD)
دور الاميرارغون أقا السياسي والاصلاحي في اصلاح دولة المغول ١٢٧٥ -١٢٢٥/٦٧٣-٦٢٣

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Abstract

The present work tackles the political and reforming role of Prince Aragon Aqa in the Mongol State between the second decade and the advent of the seventh decade of the seventh century AH/the thirteenth century AD. It concentrates on the prince’s role in laying the foundation of the rule of Khan Toorakna Khatoon and her son Kyook Khan. It tackles as well his role in the economic reformation during Manko Khan’s reign, the Hulague- led Mangolian campaign against Baghdad in ٦٥٦AH/ ١٢٥٨ AD and resisting Khan Buraq al-Jaghai who invaded Khurasan during Abaq Khan’s reign. The study occluded that Prince Aragon Aqa was a savior in all these events for the Khans he worked with until his death in ٦٧٣ AH/ ٢٧٥ AD.


Article
Saad Ibn Ubada The Carrier Al-Ansar Banner
سعد بن عبادة ( رضي الله عنه) حامل راية الانصار

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Abstract

The prophet's companions are the persons who made the sacrifices, served Islam and the messenger of Allah Mohammed peace be upon him. So, they (the prophet's companions) were the ideal and example and were highly sincere and dedicated to their ideology represented by Islam. Saad Ibn Ubadah was one of those great companions. He was an example of the men who were known to be of strong characters, generosity, bravery and dignity. Saad Ibn Ubadah contributed to the establish meaty the Islamic State in Yathrib before the immigration of prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) as he was the leader of Saa'ida clan which belonged to AlKhazraj tribe in addition to his participations in all the events with the prophet.


Article
The Role of Social Scholars in Educational and Well-fare Institutions: An Analytical Descriptive Social Study
دور الباحث الإجتماعي في المؤسسات التربوية والتعليمية والرعاية الإجتماعية : دراسة اجتماعية تحليلية وصفية

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Abstract

The paper aims at investigating weather working conditions can possibly affect the worker’s performance and motives as well. The research sample consists of workers chosen randomly. A two part questionnaire is utilized as a research tool. The first part represents general information while the second represents questions answered by the sample. Through utilizing statistical methods, the study concludes that working conditions affect the worker’s health and production. Hence, the researcher recommends taking care of the workers through providing the suitable working atmosphere in order to insure their health and comfort as well as increasing their production.


Article
Professions and Crafts and their Relation with Diseases A Field Study in Mosul City
المهن والحرف وعلاقتها بالامراض - دراسة ميدانية في مدينة الموصل

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Abstract

The research aims at revealing the negative healthy and physical impacts, resulted from practicing some Professions and crafts, on the practitioners, and defining their causes. The research sample involves (١٢٠) individuals, who practice various Professions and crafts in Mosul city. The researcher relied upon questionnaire as a main instrument to collect the data required The research reached to a results that there are three groups of diseases the research sample was infected with whether immediately or with the passing of time according to their gravity, The first group: the diseases of vertebrae, backbone, and articulations. The second group: fractures, wounds, burns, amputations and so on. The third group: audiovisual problems.


Article
The Role of Family in juvenile delinquency A Field Study in Duhok Governorate
دور الاسرة في جنوحح الاحداث دراسة ميدانية في محافظة دهوك

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Abstract

Juvenile delinquency is one of the social phenomena that are in existence for long . It affects both the undeveloped and developed societies. Historically, there have been different perspectives toward this problem; since a delinquent person is convicted and must be inhibited. By developing the human scientific view, a delinquent is classified as a normal human with all his/her features and characteristics, but his/her conditions lead him to such headless behaviors. Accordingly, it has been decided to tackle this topic in order to shed light on the role of family and its relations in juvenile delinquency; since the family represents the corner stone of behaviors guidance throughout bringing up during the various stages of age from childhood till adulthood. As for conclusions, they are as follows: . The number of family members has a great role in juvenile delinquency; since of the subjects were related to big families. . The economic level has an obvious role in juvenile delinquency; since of the subjects were suffering from poverty. . The crack cases gave a fixed role in juvenile delinquency; since of the subjects pointed and that the marital relations were not good. To add, parents' bad treatment had a great impact on juvenile delinquency, where of the subjects were suffering from negligence. . The educational level of parents had a clear impact on juvenile delinquency, where of the subjects' parents were uneducated, and of the subjects' mothers were uneducated.


Article
Children's Satellite Channels and Role in the Social Development from Parent's Perspective Social Field Study in the City of Mosul
قنوات البث الفضائي للاطفال ودوها في التنشئة الإجتماعية من وجهة نظر الوالدين دراسة اجتماعية ميدانية في مدينة الموصل

Authors: Nora. m. Ali نورا مجيد علي
Pages: 405-436
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Abstract

Children's satellite channels have become the most effective media on parents and children alike in terms of the entertaining and educational programs and cartoons there channels broad cast. These channels with their effective force home become a fierce competitor against the parents in the directed social children raising process. The parents even realized the seriousness of this device that they began to use it as a means for reward and punishment. The results of the field study also highlight that several families in the city of Mosul readied that it is not possible to ignore the effects of this great device. The parents also need to keep a close eye on their children while watching TV and continuously direct them towards educational programs that enhance the child intellectually. The parents also need to teach the child what he is allowed to watch and what is banned and explain the reasons behind these decisions.


Article
Orient a lists' Efforts in serving The Heritage of Arab In Islamic Manuscript
المستشرقون وجهودهم في خدمة التراث العربي الاسلامي المخطوط

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Abstract

This study is based on the statement of the role of the Orient lists and their efforts in study the Arab Heritage of the manuscripts and their system in collecting the manuscripts and checking publishing and indexing them and focuses on their attitude towards manuscripts heritage and also to show their styles in the aspect. The study dealt with some of the earliest Orient lists who took care about manuscripts from different schools and shed lights on their contribution in study and publish them and it was clear that the Orientalists were the first in collecting preserving manuscripts restoring and checking them before Arab The study sunup their methods and styles taking of manuscripts and became of the scientific and technical ralue of them it be cam the interest of great number of Orient lists. they used all approaches valid and invalid to gain this heritage in this study we attracted the attention of the researchers about the importance of the manuscript heritage and discover they way and system of Orient lists in dealing with manuscripts we have reached that not all what Orient list had achieved is acceptable because there were in it some good and others bad in addition to that it was acceptable at that time because there. was no Arabian alternative work but when the scientific morement to revive of Arab scientists and in restigator have come out in this field and too many of them prove superior than the Orientalists Praise be to Allah in the worldly life and the Here after


Article
Chariots of Gods and Kings in Ancient Iraq in the Light of the Babylonian and Assyrian Records
عربات الالهة والملوك في العراق القديم في ضوء المدونات البابلبة والاشورية

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Abstract

The study of the chariots of gods and kings in ancient Iraq in the light of the Babylonian and Assyrian writings has a great impact on the archaeological studies. It highlights a fundamental aspect of the two systems i.e. divine and royal that prevailed in Babylonia and Assyria for a long time. Chariots had a great importance for gods and kings notably insculptures murals and cuneiform writings. Chariots of gods and kings were the most valuable and beautiful as they were lavishly inlaid with gold silver and jewels although such materials were rare at that time; the best wood was used as well. Chariots were used in various fields. In wars where they were skillfully used as crucial weapons that helped win victories. They were used too in rituals rites myths and hunting.


Article
Children's Toys in Ancient Iraq Society
لعب تسلية الاطفال في المجتمع العراقي القديم

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Abstract

It is suggested here that ancient Mesopotamians were creative in all aspects of life and they gave every aspect of life the importance it deserves . It is no surprise that they paid attention to the psychological and recreational as pat of society as a whole by providing entertaining facilities . We can see that they paid great attention to this side and allocated places about which no detailed information in avoidable there is scanty information about playing places but as far as its manufacturing is concerned especially children toys we have very little in formation about it . It is possible that some of these toys were made by poor families at home using simple material which are usually available at their homes like cloth etc . They earned a living by selling such toys . However toys that were made at workshops of the raw materials which were available in Mesopotamia such as stone they etc .It seems that women played a major role in this respect side by side with men . Due to the importance of this enterprise as reflecting the extent of cultural development in Mesopotamia ancient Mesopotamians had not overlooked the entertainment aspect of life as it has a strong effect on the development of ancient Iraqis .A human being cannot retain his activity without recreational means . We grew with the various human needs of every day life since he settled in the land . The civilization of Mesopotamia had a wide effect on the ancient civilization and one of such effects is the transfer of entertaining means to other communities as Elam .


Article
The Inferential Function of 'I mean' and its Arabic Equivalents in Literary Discourse with Reference to Translation
الوظيفة الاستدلالية لعبارة أعني / يعني باللغة الانكليزية ومكافاتها العربية بالخطاب الادبي بالإشارة الى الترجمة

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Abstract

يتناول البحث وظائف دالة الخطاب (I mean) الانكليزية ومكافآتها العربية، وإبراز أهمية الوظيفة الاستدلالية لدالة الخطاب هذه في النصوص الأدبية، واحتمالات إخفاق المترجمين في نقلها إلى العربية. يميل الباحث إلى الاعتقاد أن سوء فهم المترجم للوظيفة اللغوية لهذه الدالة لايؤدي بالضرورة إلى فشل في أدائه، في حين أن عدم قدرته على تشخيص وظيفتها الاستدلالية يفضي إلى فشل في التواصل. لذا يتوجب على المتخصصين في ميدان الترجمة والطلبة منهم على وجه الخصوص اكتساب مقدرة براغماطية تؤهلهم للتعامل مع المعنى الاستدلالي لهذه الدالة وترجمته في الخطاب الأدبي .


Article
Originality of Authorship in Dean Koontz’s CO LD FIRE
اصالة التأليف في رواية كونتز الموسومة بالنار الباردة

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Abstract

يستقصي البحث الأصالة في الفن الروائي فاحصاً هذا المفهوم في رواية النار الباردة (1991) للروائي الأمريكي دين كونتز، بتحليل انموذجات و تعبيرات ذات دلالات وإشارات تحيل إلى نصوص مبكرة، بعضها تراثية، و بعضها الآخر نتاج الثقافة الشعبية المتداولة. وينجم عن توظيف كونتز لهذه الاقتباسات و التضمينات، سرد روائي تكون مليكته القانونية و الفكرية حقاً من حقوق المؤلف، مع أنَّ جذور هذا السرد وتوجهه الفكري نتاج رهط كبير من المبدعين القدماء. ويتضح من النتائج أنَّ إبداع ما بعد الحداثة أمر نسبي لأنَّه قابل للظهور حصرياً بفضل ارتباطه مع تأليفات أقدم تقع خارج عالمه الذاتي، فيستقي منها كونتز المفردات الأساسية لخطابه، بعد إخضاع مصادره لسلسلة من التحويرات تطال الشكل الخارجي، لقطع صلتها الأولية مع إطارها المرجعي الماضي وتطويعها لسياقها المستحدث، موحياً بان المتولد هو ابتكار أصيل جاء بمجمله من طرفه .


Article
Symbolism of Purple in Emily Dickinson’s Poetry
المعنى الرمزي للون الارجواني في شعر الشاعرة الامريكية ايميلي ديكنسون

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هذه الدراسة هي محاولة لاستقصاء المعنى الدلالي والرمزي للون الأرجواني في أشعار الشاعرة الأمريكية (إيميلي ديكنسون) نظرا" لكثرة ورود اللون الأرجواني في أشعارها. إذ هدف الدراسة إلقاء الضوء على العلاقة الترابطية بين هذا اللون ولغة الشاعرة من جهة وحالتها النفسية من جهة أخرى. وتمَّ استعمال الطرق التحليلية والوصفية في الدراسة فاتضح أن هناك ترابطاً " قويا" بين استعمال الشاعرة للون الأرجواني ومشاعرها وخيالها وحالتها الروحية والنفسية. كما ظهر أن اللون الأرجواني هو المفضل لديها, فهو لون غامض وهو رمز للنصر والغلبة والأمل وحسن الظن والجلال والسمو من وجهة نظرها .


Article
Common Methodology Adopted by English Language Teachers in Counterpart Departments in Mosul University
الطرائق التدرسيسة المتبعة من تدريسيي اللغة الانكليزية في الاقسام المتناظرة في جامعة الموصل

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يتجسد هدف البحث في التعرف على الطرائق التدريسية الشائعة عند مدرسي اللغة الإنكليزية في الأقسام المتناظرة في جامعة الموصل. وقد تكونت العينة من (25) عضواً هيئة تدريس تم اختيارهم بالطريقة العشوائية في أقسام اللغة الإنكليزية من كلية التربية وكلية التربية الأساسية. إذ تم توزيع استبانة مكونة من (9) طرائق تدريسية على عينة البحث ومن ثم جُمعت النتائج التي تم تحليلها بـ(مربع كاي والوسط المرجح) و أظهرت النتائج أن أكثر الطرائق التدريسية استخداماً هي الطريقة الاستقرائية والتي حصلت على المرتبة الأولى في حين حصلت الطريقتان القياسية والتعلم التعاوني على المرتبة الثانية وجاءت طريقة تحليل الجملة في المرتبة الثالثة وتبعتها في المرتبة الرابعة طريقتي النص والاستجواب ومن ثم جاءت طرائق النماذج التعليمية والمحاضرة والمناقشة في المراتب الأخيرة على التوالي .


Article
The Use of the Bible in Two Selected Novels of Steinbeck
استعمال الانجيل في روايات مختارة للكاتب ستاينبك

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إن كثيراً من شخصيات رواية ستاينبك عناقيد الغضب وأحداثها، مرآة لشخصيات وأحداث تاريخية ودينية وأسطورية، وهذا أمر لم يحدث صدفة. فهناك بعض التلميحات الإنجيلية في عنوان الروايات نفسها، وهناك الكثير من التوازيات معه . ففي رواية عناقيد الغضب وشرق عدن مثلاً اسم جم كيسي يبدأ بحروف اسم المسيح عليه السلام. كما أنه يسافر مع اثني عشر شخصاً إلى كاليفورينا برحلة تجارية الأمر يذكرنا برحلة موسى مع شعبه حينما خرجوا من مصر، وان للمسيح أثني عشر حوارياً. ويضحِّي كيسي بحياته من اجل توم, ويتخلي عنها حياته لينقذ حياة الآخرين. وهناك توازيات أخرى مع توم ومريم العذراء. كما يوجد تلميح آخر لهجرة اليهود الأمر الذي يعكس ويوازي رحلة عائلة جود إلى كاليفورينا. أما رواية شرق عدن فهي أيضاً بدورها تحمل العديد من التلميحات الإنجيلية لأنها تطابق القصة التاريخية لأبناء آدم وحواء.


Article
Le rêve du poète dans "j'ai tant rêvé de toi" de Robert Desnos Étude analytique
حلم الشاعر في قصيدة روبير ديينوس (كثيرا حلمت بك )

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Abstract

إن البحث الموسوم بـ(حلم الشاعر) في قصيدة روبير ديسنوس ( كثيراً حلمت بك) يدور في محورين: الأول ميتافيزيقي يتعلق بحلم الشاعر بالصورة المثالية للإنسانية. أما المحور الثانـــي: فيدور في محور الحب و الموت وهو محور فلسفي يتعلق بالحضور والغياب. إن الشاعر في هــــــذه القصيدة يبحث عن المثال و الضياء الذي يتنافى مع العتمة والظل متخذاً من المرأة والعمل الإبداعي حلاً لهذه المشكلة الفلسفية المعقدة.


Article
La particularité de l'usage du discours direct, indirect et indirect libre dans ''Madame Bovary'' de Flaubert
خصوصية الكلام المباشر وغير المباشر وغير المباشر (الحر) في رواية مدام بوفاري للكاتب الفرنسي بلوفير

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Abstract

يسلط البحث الضوء على دراسة استعمال الكلام المباشر, وغير المباشر, وغير المباشر (الحر) في رواية (مدام بوفاري) للكاتب الفرنسي جوستاف فلوبير. من الضروري أن نذكر بأنَّها واحدة من المميزات التي تمتاز بها هذه الرواية، الذي غالباً ما يلجأ إليه هذا الكاتب لينقل إلى القارئ أفكاراً وكلام شخصياته الروائية، فمصطلح (الخطاب) متعدد المعنى في المجال أو الحقل اللغوي؛ إذ يعود هذا الخطاب إلى وحدة لغوية سامية في الجملة ويعود أيضاً إلى تطبيقات بحثية تحمل في طياتها وجهتين أسياستين: اجتماعية ولغوية، وإن الهدف من هذا البحث هو أن نوضح بصورة عامة إلى القارئ أهمية الخطاب المباشر وغير المباشر الحر في اللغة والأدب الفرنسي, وأن نعرف بصورة خاصة استعمال الخطاب المباشر وغير المباشر الحر في هذه الرواية؛ لانَّ الكاتب استعمل في روايته هذه الأنواع من الخطابات بطريقة تجذب انتباه القرَّاء، فالدراسة النظرية حول هذا الموضوع تساعدنا أيضاً في معرفة أي نوع من الخطابات كان مستعملاً بصورة غزيرة في روايته . أخيراً, نستطيع القول بأن الكلام غير المباشر (الحر) يساعد في التعبير عن الأَسرار والانطباعات العميقة جداً في روح الشخصيات الروائية التي اخترعها ووظفها فلوبير في روايته الواقعية، بالإضافة إلى ذلك فأنَّ الكلام غير المباشر (الحر) بالنسبة له هو الأرض الخصبة للتحليل النفسي والذهني، فبهذا النوع من الأسلوب, الشخصية الفلوبيرية تترك لتمضي وتكتشف كل أحاسيسها وشعورها المكبوتة على الشاشة التي تعتبر الراصد الحقيقي هو القارئ بنفسه.


Article
Le pathétique dans Paul et Virginie de Bernardin de Saint-Pierre
الشفقة في رواية (بول وفيرجيني )

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Abstract

يسلط هذا البحث الضوء على موضوع إثارة العواطف والذي يعد احد أهم مفاهيم الحركة الرومانسية التي ازدهرت في القرن التاسع عشر في أوربا. ويؤثر بطل هذه الرواية بالقارئ بسبب فقره وفقده لوالده منذ صغر سنه. ومما يزيد في حزنه وتعاسته انه لم يستطع الزواج من الفتاة التي أحبها كثيراً والتي ماتت غرقاً بعد عودتها من عند عمتها من فرنسا. ويتسبب موت فيرجيني بوفاة والدتها وبول والدته.وتعطينا هذه الرواية صورة واضحة عن الفارق الكبير بين طبقات المجتمع الغنية والفقيرة .

Table of content: volume: issue:67