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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Table of content: 2013 volume:31 issue:13 Part (A) Engineering

Article
Some properties of accelerated cured no fine Lightweight concrete
بعضخصائصالخرسانة خفیفة الوزن الخالیھ من الركام الناعم المعجلة الانضاج

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Abstract

Thermal insulation is one of the main problems facing the engineers working in building and housing sector spatially for the high summer temperature in the most Arab Gulf and spatially in Iraq, so the study of lightweight aggregate thermal insulation (No fine concrete) is important. The experimental work consist of concrete mixes (cement: porcelinite aggregate) ratios (1:4), (1:5) and (1:6) and for each mixes cement content changes (200, 300 and 400) Kg/m3. Dependence on mixing (1:5) and cement content (300Kg/m3) change the water to cement ratio (0.4, 0.45 and 0.5) by weight. The research presents the tests of density, absorption, porosity, ultrasonic pulse velocity, accelerated compressive strength according to British standard (BS 1881: Part 112: 1983), normal compressive strength at 7, 28 and 90-day. Light weight concrete was obtained of density ranging from (721-770) kg/m3 and thermal conductivity ranging from (0.17- 0.24) W/ (m.K). The good correlation between accelerated compressive strength at one day with normal compressive strength at 28- day is approximately (0.245 ±0.005) for water bath at 55°C and (0.335±0.05) for water bath at 82°C.


Article
Experimental Investigation of Composite Steel-Concrete Arches
دراسة عملیة للأقواس المركبة الفولاذیة- الخرسانیة

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Abstract

This research is concerned with behavior of composite steel-concrete arches under static load. For this purpose, eight models of composite steel-concrete arches are fabricated as test specimens.According to their supporting systems, the eight fabricated specimens are equally divided into Hinge-Roller and Hinge-Hinge supported arches in which varied numbers of shear connectors are used to investigate the effects of support conditions and degree of shear connection on the behavior of the composite arches. The specimens are tested under monotonically increasing point load applied on their crowns (on the top of concrete slabs). The mechanical properties of the used materials are determined by laboratory tests. Push-out tests on three specimens, fabricated for this purpose, are also carried out to determine the properties of the stud shear connectors. It is concluded that increasing the number of connectors tends to increase the ultimate load capacity and decrease both displacement and slip in the composite arches. This trend is considerably satisfied when the horizontal movements of supports are constrained (Hinge-Hinge supported arches).


Article
Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns with Two Different Relative Densities
الاعمدة الركامیة العادیة والمغلفھ مع كثافتین نسبیتین مختلفتین

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Abstract

Stone columns technique is most commonly used in increasing bearing capacity, reduces and controls the compressibility and accelerates the rate of consolidation of soft saturated clay. During the last four decades, the technique has been utilized worldwide and proved successful results. Several modifications have been proposed to increase the efficiency of this technique such as addition of additives, use of special patterns of reinforcements, encasing the stone columns with geonet or geogrid to provide extra confinement that enhances the bearing capacity and reduces the settlement drastically without compromising its effect as a drain. The present paper focuses on the behavior of soft saturated clay reinforced with ordinary and geogrid encased stone columns. The investigation was performed both experimentally through small scale models and through numerical techniques. The influence of relative density of the back fill material and the presence of the encasement are the main parameters investigated. Ordinary stone columns revealed an increase of 20% in the carrying capacity when the relative density of the backfill stone aggregates increased from 23% to 71%, furthermore the efficiency of the encasement was more pronounced at lower relative density.


Article
Study the Effect of Fibers Volume Fraction and their Orientations on the Properties of the Hybrid Composite Materials
دراسة تأثیر الكسرالحجمي للألیاف واتجاھاتھا على خواصالمواد المتراكبة الھجینة البولیمری

Authors: Mohammed Sellab Hamza
Pages: 2433-2447
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Abstract

This studying deals with the study of the effect of fiber volume fraction of the carbon, glass and Kevlar fibers and their orientation on the properties of Hybrid composite material. Different percentages of carbon, glass and Kevlar fibers were used to reinforce the matrix material (unsaturated Polyester). The fibers arranged in two methods according to the direction of the thermal flow. In the first method the fibers were parallel to the direction of the thermal flow, while the second method was perpendicular. The thermal conductivity measured by using Leeś disk. The experimental and theoretical results proved that the value of the of thermal conductivity increased with increasing the fiber volume fraction of the carbon ,Kevlar-49and glass and then reduced for Hybrid (H7and H8) for both arrangement parallel and perpendicular because do not hah carbon fiber. The thermal conductivity of parallel orientation had the highest value, while the carbon factor was the best. The experimental results of thermal conductivity for parallel arrangement indicated that the hybrid (H6) had maximum value 3.40 W/m.k and for perpendicular was 0.245 W/m.k for hybrid (H3).

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Article
Improvement of the Strength of Spot Welding Joint for Aluminum Plates Using Powders as Additive
تحسین مقاومة وصلات اللحام النقطي لصفائح الألمنیوم باستخدام المساحیق كمضاف

Authors: Moneer H. Al-Saadi --- Sabah Khammass Hussein
Pages: 2448-2461
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Abstract

This research is interest in increasing the strength of spot welding joint for thin commercial Aluminum by adding casting component to the welding zone in the form of powder. Those components are copper, manganese and magnesium which are added in a different percentages it appear that the strength of the spot welding has been improved by (14.5%) when adding(0.4 grams of magnesium),(0.1 grams of manganese ) and (0.4 gram of copper). The powder is added in the welding zone boundary after made a single hole with a depth of (0.375mm) and a diameter of (1mm) in the center of spot welding point. To increase the welding strength, five holes have been made with the same above dimensions through the welding zone boundary. The percentages of additive used after reparation the reduction of Aluminum powder. The value of shearing strength increase with a percentage of (27.3%) as comparing with those without additive. Also, heat treatment has been done, which gave a redaction in the strength of spot welding. It has been observed that the increase in the temperature of heat treatment result in decreasing in the spot strength. Welding and cooling environment have an effect on the strength of welded specimen. Hence, air welding environment gives a good welding strength.


Article
Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams under Distributed Loading
مقاومة القصللعتبات الخرسانیة المسلحة تحت تاثیر الاحمال المنتشرة

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Abstract

This work confirms results indicated by previous research that uniformly distributed loading leads to higher reinforced concrete (RC) beam shear capacitycompared to 1 or 2 point loading. Different design methods are compared in this investigation, including those by ACI (1) and other Codes. Twelve beams, without stirrups, are tested in this work to farther investigate the influence of distributed loading. Two design equations are proposed in this work, one includes the size effect and the other without it. The former has proved to be the more accurate. Of 200 test results obtained from the literature, the proposed design equations lead to a COV value of Vtest /VDES of 16.8% and 17.1%. These compare favourably with other design methods.

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Article
High Performance of Silica Fume Mortars for Ferrocement Applications
أستخدام المونة عالیة الأداء في تطبیقات الفیروسمنت

Authors: M. A. Mashrei --- Gh. M. Kamil --- H. M. Oleiwi
Pages: 2477-2488
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Abstract

The current study deals with obtaining the high performance mortars to use in the applications of ferrocement. The main problem that has greatly affected the performance of mortar is the workability. A low water-cement ratio mostly resulted in increases in the compressive strength and led to the enhancement of durability characteristics, but decreases in the workability. Workability becomes an important factors, as the mortar has to easily penetrate between the layers of the mesh wires. A reasonably workable with high strength cement mortar can be obtained by using a high cement content coupled with the use of silica fume and superplasticizers. In this investigation a series of compression tests were conducted on 50 mm cube and 150 ×300 mm, cylindrical specimens to obtain the compressive strength and the stress-strain behavior of mortar with silica fume and superplasticizers and flexural tests were conducted on 50 ×5 0 × 200 mm prism to obtain the modulus of rupture. The results of this study indicated that the variation in mortar strength depend on the water-to-binder ratio of the mix and percentages of cement replacing. The effects of these parameters on the stress-strain curves are presented. The best replacement percentage of silica is 3% was concluded in this study. From the experimental results a mathematical model has been developed to predict the 28-day compressive strength of silica fume mortar with different water-tocementitious ratios and superplasticizers percentage


Article
Theoretical Evaluation of Required PlasticWork in Bulging of Statically loaded Plate
التقییم النظري للشغل اللون اللازم لانبعاج صفیحة محملة استاتیكیا

Authors: Mouhamed M. Hamadi
Pages: 2489-2503
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Abstract

Finding the amount of plastic deformation into metallic plates,metallicstructures, ships frame, bodies of different types of cylinders and reservoirsbodies as a result of exposure tostaticor dynamic forceis so necessary todetermine the extent ofdistortionand destructionhappening intheseobjects and this is one of the main factors in design calculations to determine the dimensions and thicknesses of these bodies. Derivation anew theoreticalmodelto calculate theamount of work and forcerequired to bulge the sheet metalisa very important targetbecause of the lack of a theoretical relations to calculate the work of plastic deformation with good approximationoridenticalto exact required work and force; or vice-versa to find the amount of plastic deformation as a result of a specific work or specific force.This was donein this research where a theoretical model has been derivedthrough the expense of work and force necessary to generatebulging in sheet metal. This theoretical model has been adopted on the mildsteel plates which are of wide application in practical life. Results obtained from the theoretical model were compared with those obtained from tests conducted onsimply supported circular steel plates made from low carbon steel ,milled steel , of a (280) mm diameter and (1,2, 3, 4,5, 6, 8,10) mm thickness andexposed to central force applied by a flat ended punch of 10 mm diameter. The applying force was increased gradually till it caused plastic deformation in the sheet, and then reached the state of shear of the disk, which is locatedunder the punch. Results comparison appear matchorsubstantial convergence between the practical resultsand those obtained from the theoretical model to find the work and for ceit takes to plastic deformation in the tested plates.

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Article
Relevant Problem of a Hydraulic Jump at Diyala Weir and the Proposed Remedy
المشاكل الھندسیة المتعلقة بالقفزة الھیدرولیكیة في سدة دیالى والمعالجات المقترحة

Authors: Aqeel Sh. AL.Adili --- Jaafar S. Maatooq --- Saad S. Sameen
Pages: 2504-2512
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Abstract

This study aims to analyze the Diyala weir problems and compares it with the safe limit and proposes the treatment for these problems. One of the most influencing problems in the site of weir was the formation of the hydraulic jump, it was found that the scour occurs due to the position of the hydraulic jump and the sequence depth of the jump is higher than the tail water depth. Some treatment procedures are suggested, these treatments cover this problem by presenting a suitable stilling basin as well as recommended to use a low weir at end of basin to produce a back water curve that should be increase the stage of tail water and ensuring the stability of a hydraulic jump .

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Article
Influence of Noisy Environment on the Speech Recognition Rate Based on the Altera FPGA
تأثیر البیئة الصاخبة على معدل تمییز الكلام مستند على البوابات المنطقیة المبرمجة نوع اللتیرا

Authors: Eyad I. Abbas --- Alaa Abdulhussain Refeis
Pages: 2513-2530
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Abstract

This paper introduce an approach to study the effects of different levels of environment noise on the recognition rate of speech recognition systems, which are not used any type of filters to deal with this issue. This is achieved by implementing an embedded SoPC (System on a Programmable Chip) technique with Altera Nios II processor for real-time speech recognition system. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) technique was used for speech signal feature extraction (observation vector). Model the observation vector of voice information by using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), this model passed to the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) as probabilistic model to process the GMM statistically to make decision on utterance words recognition, whether a single or composite, one or more syllable words. The framework was implemented on Altera Cyclone II EP2C70F896C6N FPGA chip sitting on ALTERA DE2-70 Development Board. Each word model (template) stored as Transition Matrix, Diagonal Covariance Matrices, and Mean Vectors in the system memory. Each word model utilizes only 4.45Kbytes regardless of the spoken word length. Recognition words rate (digit/0 to digit/10) given 100% for the individual speaker. The test was conducted at different sound levels of the surrounding environment (53dB to 73dB) as measured by Sound Level Meter (SLM) instrument.


Article
Performance Analysis of Three Phase Cascaded Multilevel Inverter (CMLI) for Induction Motor Drives
تحلیل اداء عاكس متتالي متعدد المستویات ثلاثي الاطوار لسوق محرك حثي

Authors: Shatha k. Baqir
Pages: 2531-2547
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Abstract

Traditional high-frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters for motor drives have several problems associated with their high switching frequency which produces high voltage change (dv/dt) rates. Multilevel inverters solve these problems because their devices switch at the fundamental frequency. The concept of multilevel voltage source inverter is explained. In this paper the cascade inverter is a natural fit for induction motor drives because of the high VA ratings possible and it uses several levels of separate equal dc voltage sources which would be available from batteries or fuel cells. The switching angles of switch devices are determined by optimized harmonic stepped waveform (OHSW) technique to reduce the output harmonics of cascade multilevel inverter (CMLI) for induction motor is proposed, as a result the efficiency of system has improved. Simulation results show the superiority of this inverter over 2-level inverter and were carried out using ORCAD package.

Keywords

Three phase CMLI --- OHSW --- HF --- HLF --- DF --- THD


Article
Integration of Swarm Intelligence and Artificial Neural Network for Medical Image Recognition
تكامل الشبكات العصبیة الاصطناعیة وذكاء السرب للتمییز الصور الطبیة

Authors: Hanan A. R. Akkar --- Samera Shams Hussain
Pages: 2548-2560
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Abstract

Neural network technology plays an important role in the development of new medical diagnostic assistance or what is known as “computer aided” that based on image recognition.Thispaper study the method used integration of back propagation neural network and Particle Swarm Optimizing (PSO) in parts of recognition the XRay of lungs for two disease cases (cancer and TB) along with the normal case. The experiments show that the improvement of algorithms for recognition side has achieved a good result reached to 88.398% for input image size 1024 pixel and 500 population size. The efficiency and recognition testes for training method was performed and reported in this paper


Article
Preparation of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced with Alumina Particles by In- Situe Method
تحضیر مواد متراكبة من ارضیة الألمنیوم مقواة بدقائق الألومینا بطریقة (In- Situe)

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In this work an Aluminum matrix composite reinforced with alumina prepared by insitu (liquid-gas) method were investigated. Gas was represented by an oxygen with flow rate 50, 100, and 150 Sml/min (Standard mile Liter/minute) at different temperature (720, 740, 760 and 780 °C). The effects of reaction temperature on alumina particle size and alumina volume fraction were studied extensively. Resulted alumina was identified by using XRD and SEM techniques. The resulted composites were characterized using density and hardness tests. It is found generally, that the alumina particle size was (3 ± 1 μm), the density and hardness are decreases as the alumina particles weight percent increases. The reason behind such behavior was the increment in porosity around alumina particles and also to the weakness in wettability between alumina and metal matrix. Furthermore, it is noted that, there are many problems need to be resolved like segregation, agglomeration and weak of wettability are occurred between the particles surface and matrix.


Article
Experimental Investigations of Hole - EDM to Optimize Electrode Wear through Full Factorial of Design of Experiment
دراسة تجریبیة لإنتاج الثقوب بالتشغیل بالتفریغ الكھربائي للحصول على امثل قیمة لبلى الألكترود من خلال استخدام طریقة تصمیم التجربة كامل التحلیل

Authors: Shukry H. Aghdeab --- Laith A. Mohammed
Pages: 2572-2579
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Abstract

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a process where the material removal of the workpiece is achieved through high frequency sparks between the tool (electrode) and the workpiece immersed into the dielectric solution. It is commonly used to produce moulds and dies, to drill small, burr free holes and to make prototypes for the aerospace and electronics markets. In this work, micro-holeswere fabricated on copper alloys by using EDM. The output responses investigated was electrode wear weight (EWW). Full factorial of Design of Experiment (DOE) module in Minitab was used as a principal methodology to examine the effects of current and machining time over output responses. Experimental results indicate that the EWW was mainly affected by current, and can be reduced by increasing the current parameter. Minimum EWW (0.12gm) obtained at 10A.


Article
A Computer Program for Calculating the Circular Product Dimensions During Deep Drawing Operations Steps
برنامج حاسوبي لحساب أبعاد المنتج الدائري خلال مراحل عملیة السحب العمیق

Authors: Ridha Alwan Ahmed
Pages: 2580-2595
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Abstract

Deep drawing process is an important industrial processes where it has been extensively used. It is a process for converting the blank metal to make cylindricalshape in most of the cases. A research program for performing basic calculations related to the product shape was utilized. Eighteen geometric shapes have been selected for the production in this process. The program is include the general equations for this controlling process for each form. When choosing one of the shapes in the program, the dimensions of the desired product are selected. In other words, the inputs to the program are the required dimensions of the product before reaching the required deportation. In addition, diameter, height and other related dimension are computed which were chosen for each stage throughout the operation. Visual Basic language was used to implement this program because of its ability to deal with graphical interface. The program also accounts for a large number of mathematical equations. Computer program is aimed to help designers templates deep drawing quickly through the implementation of the process, and this exceeds the designer experience that is required to perform the require calculations.

Table of content: volume:31 issue:13 Part (A) Engineering