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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
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Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2013 volume:31 issue:15 Part (A) Engineering

Article
Transparency as a Type of Articulation in Contemporary Architectural Production
الشفافیة كسمة تمفصل في النتاج المعماري المعاصر

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Abstract

Many previous studies dealt with the concept of transparency in architecture has emerged importance of the formal and moralaspects in achieving the concept of transparency, also focused on each concept detailed, varied in adopting the concept as afeature design lead and certain functions and on this basis was established trend has pursued research to study the concept of transparency in contemporary architectural production. The research problemrepresented by (there is a lack of knowledge about the concept of transparency as articulationfeature in contemporary architecturaloutput), the objective of this research isrepresented by clarify the most important characteristics of the transparencyconcept as articulationfeature in contemporary architectureoutput. The research adopted a method to achieve the objective and reached to the conclusions and recommendations.


Article
Gear Design with the Aid of Computer and Drawing the Involutes Curve by Using ACAD
تصمیم التروس بمساعدة الحاسوب ورسم منحنى الالتفاف باستخدام ACAD

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Abstract

This research involve with creating a program in basic language after modulating the equations which describes the coordinates of any point lays on the involute curvature. With the aid of a subroutine program, the main program transmits the resultant data to a "dxf" file in order to be useful in using with any package under AutoCAD. After that it's easy to get a precise drawing for the involute of the gear under concern. The resulting drawing can be used to produce the deferent types of gears tools.

Keywords


Article
Utilization of Remote Sensing Data and GIS Applications for Determination of the Land Cover Change in Karbala Governorate
أستخدام بیانات التحسس النائي و تطبیقات نظم المعلومات الجغرافیة لتحدید تغیرات الغطاء الارضي في محافظة كربلاء

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the land cover changes between year 1976 and year 2011 in Karbala Governorate by using an integrated approach of remote sensing data and GIS applications for investigation of the spatial and temporal changes. A part of Karbala Governorate, whose Area is 768 km2 was selected as study area. Four cloud free Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and SPOT scenes covering the study area were selected for analysis. Images were acquired in years 1976, 1990, 2001, and 2011 respectively. All images which mentioned above are rectified and registered in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection zone 38 N and supervised image classification system has been observed to classify the images in different land cover categories. Six land cover classes have been identified and used to determine the change in land cover in study area and these classes are: Agricultural land, Water bodies, Urban Area, Sand dunes, Bare soil, and Waterlogged Area. According to the results obtained from statistics of classification, it was observed that most changes occurred in heterogeneous agricultural areas. It is thought that the main reasons of this change are increasing population pressure, increasing sand dunes, appearance and increasing waterlogged area and changing economic activities. Those reasons have been led to the decrease of the agricultural areas in study area during period from year 2001 to 2011.

Keywords

Land cover --- Remote Sensing --- GIS --- Landsat --- SPOT.


Article
Investigation of the Total Energy Losses for Si and Sic Shottky Diodes
تحقیق الخسائر الكلیة بالطاقة للسلیكون والسلیكون كرباید لدایود نوع شوتكي

Authors: Brzo Aziz Qadir
Pages: 2788-2804
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Abstract

This research serves as basis to investigate the total energy losses in DC-DC converter circuit. The circuit used for the investigation was the inductive load chopper circuit .Two diodes were used one is the Silicon PiN diode (8A/600V) the other is Silicon Carbide Schottky diode (6A/600V).The waveforms of current and voltage diode under test ( DUT) and IGBT are measured respectively and compared them with the simulation results. The gate resistance G R was also changed to further investigate the effect of di/dt of the DUT current during turnon of the switch on the total energy losses in the system.


Article
Enhancement of a Power System Transient Stability Using Static Synchronous Compensator STATCOM
تعزیز الاستقراریة العابرة لنظام القدرة بأستخدام المعوض التزامني الثابت

Authors: Naseer M. Yasin --- Mustafa M. Al-Eedany
Pages: 2805-2815
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Abstract

In modern power system utilities, increased power demand often lead to the situation where the system no longer remains in secure operating region. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) controllers can play an important roll in power system security enhancement. The goal of FACTS devices study is to measure their impact on the state of the electrical networks into which they are introduced. Their principal function is to improve the static and dynamic properties of the electrical networks and that by increasing the margins of static and dynamic stability. In this paper the modeling of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) within Newton-Raphson power flow equations has been presented, discussed, implemented and the transient stability of a power system was tested when three phase fault is applied at a certain branch of the power system. Case studies are carried out on a 5- bus and a 30-bus test systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.


Article
The Hydraulic and Environmental operation for the Main Outfall Drain, Ad Dalmaj Lake and Al Hammar Marsh System
التشغیل الھیدرولیكي والبیئي لمنظومة المصب العام وبحیرة الدلمج وھور الحمار

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Abstract

Iraqi Marshlands which are located within the southern part of Iraq were dried after 1991. The dried marshes were re-flooded after year 2003. Because of the shortage of water that feeds the marshes during the last years, these marshes began to dry again. Therefore, finding new feeding sources became very necessary matter. The Main Outfall Drain, MOD, is suggested to be one of these sources to feed Al Hammar Marsh during the dry water years. Ad Dalmaj Lake which is located upstream of Al Hammar Marsh is mainly feeding by the MOD water and then the outfall of this lake is discharge again into the MOD. Therefore, the hydrological operation of this lake and then the quantity and quality of the outflow water from this lake into the MOD affected the water quality of Al Hammar Marsh when using the MOD water to feed the marsh. A hydrological and water quality routing model was prepared based on mass conservation low, mass balance model, and two scenarios were applied for Ad Dalmaj Lake feeding, constant inflow with variable outflow and constant outflow with variable inflow, based on the incoming and outgoing discharges. Each scenario includes six cases of lake maximum inundation area; 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and minimum inundation. For each case the inundation area varied with respect to the ET0 variation from minimum area during the month of maximum ET0 to maximum area, of this case, during the month of minimum ET0. TDS concentration was used as a measure of the salinity of the water because it fairly indicates the level of salinity problem. The variation of inflow and outflows discharges, water level, lake and marsh area, storage volume, and the water salinity within the lake and marsh were Results of applying these models with these flow scenarios and inundation cases show that the water salinity within Ad Dalmaj Lake and Al Hammar Marsh was out of the acceptable range of international standards for most of the studied cases. While for other cases it was unpalatable for drinking, several restrictions must be imposed when used for irrigation to prevent salts effects on crops, soil, and ground water, and not acceptable for livestock and unfit for poultry in most of the months during two operation years and in some months in the beginning of the first year, the water can be used for growing livestock and poultry.


Article
Effect of Stress Level of Surrounding Soil on Bored Pile Capacity in Sand
تأثیر مستوى أجھاد التربة المحیطة على تحمل ركیزة الحفر في الرمل

Authors: Kais T. Shlash --- Mohammed A. Mahmoud --- Saif I. Akoobi
Pages: 2839-2859
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Abstract

This study deals with assessing the effect of stress level on bearing capacity factor , distribution of shear stresses at soil-pile interface along pile shaft, and presence of critical depth concept for bored piles axially loaded in compression and embedded in dense sand. These investigations are made using finite element method with the employment of a wide range of stresses by using piles with dimensions starting from laboratory dimensions and goes towards field dimensions with embedment ratio range from (15-40). The soil and the interface behavior is modeled using Duncan-Chang hyperbolic soil model with empirical equations account for reduction of angle of internal friction ø with increasing in stress level. Bored pile is modeled as a linear elastic material. The results showed a dramatic decrease in bearing capacity factor as length of pile increase. It was also found that the embedment ratio has a significant effect in increasing bearing capacity factor , and the distribution of shear stresses at soil-pile interface is not linear and does not tend to take a constant value beyond a certain depth of pile nor decreases after a certain depth along pile shaft. The fallacy of critical depth also noticed and discussed in this paper.


Article
Hydrodynamics in a Trickle Bed Reactor
دراسة عملیة لھایدروداینمك مفاعل الطبقة الوشلة

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Abstract

Experimental investigations have been carried out to study the performance of trickle bed reactor. The effect of key parameters that play predominate role in the performance of trickle bed reactor was studied. A laboratory unit was constructed for this purpose where a versatile reactor setup required " high pressure stainless steel reactor of 0.05m i.d × 1.25m height", in which the hydrodynamic experiments carried out under different operating condition namely, superficial gas velocity and liquid velocity , reactor pressure, bed temperature .Air–water system was used for hydrodynamic experiments pressure drop, dynamic liquid holdup, and axial dispersion coefficients were estimated. The results also show that the dynamic liquid holdup increases with increasing liquid velocity and decreases with increasing superficial gas velocity and bed temperature. Axial dispersion tends to increase with increasing superficial gas and liquid velocities while it decreases with increasing bed temperature.


Article
Studying the Parameters of EDM Based Micro- Cutting Holes Using ANOVA
دراسة العوامل للتشغیل بالشرارة الكھربائیة لقطع الثقوب الدقیقة ANOVA

Authors: Shukry H. Aghdeab --- Laith A. Mohammed
Pages: 2876-2884
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Abstract

Micro -EDM is one of an important method in machining holes which is used in wide applications to fabricate medical devices and small dies. This work study the process of producing micro holes for copper alloy workpieces using, stainless steel electrode and dielectric solution (tap water), using DC current and low voltage (70V) to cut (0.7mm) thickness of copper (Cu) alloy workpieces in order to obtain the micro holes. This work included an experimental work for electrical discharge machining (EDM) to produce micro holes with different diameters (400, 300, 210, 200, 120, 100, 85, 75, 70) μm. The objective of this work is to obtain an optimal setting of EDM parameters to produce micro holes in copper alloy to achieve the optimal values of required holes diameters. A regression model has been developed to represent this process. An approach has been made to optimize the process parameters (current, gap distance, machining time) using ANOVA analysis. This analysis was performed to obtain the most significant factors influencing the production of micro holes.

Keywords

EDM --- Regression Model --- ANOVA


Article
Experimental and Numerical Study of CO2 Corrosion in Carbon Steel
دراسة نظریة وعملیة لتأكل الستیل الكاربوني بفعل غاز ثاني اوكسید الكاربون

Authors: Dalia M. Jomaa --- Ali H. Jawad --- Rana A.Majed
Pages: 2885-2904
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This research involves study corrosion of low carbon steel under static and flow conditions at 200L/h in the absence and presence of CO2 at two rates 9 and 30 ml/min at four temperatures by electrochemical method using potentiostat. Numerical model was achieved to compare between the experimental and theoretical results to estimate corrosion rate. The results show that the presence of CO2 under static conditions shifts the Ecorr toward noble direction, while under flow condition the presence of CO2 shift Ecorr toward active or noble direction at two rates of gas. The data of corrosion rate in mm/y indicate that the presence of CO2 with two flow rate increased the rate compared with the case of absence of CO2 under static conditions except one case, while under flow conditions, the presence of 9 ml/min. CO2 increases the corrosion rate, while the presence of 30 ml/min. CO2 decreases the rate because of formation FeCO3 scale except at 298K. A Mathematical model was done which show the volumetric flow rate of CO2 and finally the corrosion rate of CO2 correlated with dimensionless groups and independent parameters.


Article
Effect of Filler Type on some Physical and Mechanical Proparties of Carbon Fibers / Polyester Composites
تأثیر نوع الاضافه على بعض الخواص الفیزیائیه والمیكانیكیه من الیاف كاربون ومتراكبات البولي استر

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Abstract

In the present study, traditional and hybrid composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding and investigated. The composites constituents were unsaturated polyester resin as the matrix, 3% and 6% volume fractions of carbon fibers as reinforcement and 3% of Al2O3, Al, Cement and local Gypsum (calcium sulfate anhydrate CaSO4) as filler particles. The investigated physical properties were density, porosity while the mechanical properties were tensile properties, bending modulus of elasticity. The experimental results showed that increased volume fraction of carbon fibers to (6%) led to increase in physical properties (density, porosity. As for the mechanical properties, carbon fiber composites and (3% carbon fibers/Al2O3)-contained hybrid composites gave the higher tensile and fracture strength, carbon fiber then gypsum composites gave the higher bending modulus.


Article
A Study of Mechanical Properties of Polymethl Methacrylate Polymer Reinforced by Silica Particles (Sio2)
دراسة الخصائص المیكانیكیة للبولي مثیل میثااكریلیت المقوى بدقائق السلیكا (SiO2)

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In this research the mechanical properties of PMMA polymer reinforced by ceramic particles (silica) has been investigated. Many tests are performed on these composites. The effects of the particles size and volume fraction on the mechanical properties which include: ultimate tensile strength, elongation percentage, modulus of elasticity, bending modulus, flexural strength, max. shear stress, impact strength and fracture toughness were studied. Statistical and mathematical analyses were used to the processing of the experimental data. Mathematical models were done which show the mechanical properties of composite materials as a function of particles size and volume fraction. The results had revealed that the values of modulus of elasticity, elongation percentage, tensile strength, bending modulus and max. shear stress increase with the addition of SiO2 particles and with the increase of the volume fraction of them and its reach the maximum value at (12% vol.) and (25 mm) particles size. The values of fracture toughness and impact energy decrease with increase of volume fraction. Silica particles with small particles size improved these properties more than that of large particles size.


Article
Hydraulic Bulge Test of Al and Copper Tubes
تشكیل انابیب النحاس والالمنیوم باختیار ضغط الانفجار

Authors: Azal Rifaat Ismail --- Sami Abbas Hammood
Pages: 2941-2959
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This work aims to find forming limit diagram and mechanical properties experimentally to measure formability by hydraulic bulge test and tensile test, and determination the values of the bursting pressure and final thickness in the final stage at bursting experimentally and numerically by using program (ANSYS 11) to perform numerical simulation for copper and aluminum alloy (6060) tubes before and after heat treatment by hydraulic bulge test. In this work, used two types of tubes with dimensions for copper of (L0=150mm, d0 = 41.275mm, t0 = 1.06mm) and for aluminum alloy (6060) are (L0=150mm, d0 = 60mm, t0 = 2 mm). Applied heat treatment (annealing) of copper and aluminum tubes at temperature (450°C, 400°C).the holding time in the furnace was 1 hour and then cooled in the furnace. Has been printed square grid by screen method with dimensions (5x5 mm) for copper and aluminum tubes before and after heat treatment and with dimensions (2.5x2.5 mm) for tensile samples of copper and aluminum before and after heat treatment. Strain Measurement accomplished by using image processing technology using MATLAB by measuring the dimensions of the grid printed before and after the deformation and then measure the true strain on tensile samples and tubes used in the tensile test and hydraulic bulge test before and after heat treatment. The results show that, the values of the bursting pressure and final thickness in the final stage at bursting for copper tube before and after treatment is (29MPa, 27MPa)،( 0.892mm, 0.621 mm) and for aluminum tube before and after treatment is (19MPa, 16MPa),( 1.789mm, 1.4872 mm). Increasing formability and decreasing bursting pressure of tubes after heat treatment of increasing the strain hardening exponent (n) of tubes.

Keywords


Article
Reduction of Chemical Effects of Swelling and Shrinkage Phenomenaon of a Boiler in Steam Power Plants Using Silicon Antifoam
تقلیل التاثیرات الكیمیائیة لظاھرة الانتفاخ والانكماش على المرجل في المحطات البخاریة باستخدام مانع الرغوة السلیكوني

Authors: Raheek I. Ibrahim
Pages: 2960-2981
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The swelling /shrinkage are complex phenomenon in the steam power plants. One of the important reasons is the chemical effects, which causes a bubble formation and hence serious foaming carryover problems in the boiler. The present work is devoted to study and measure the chemical effects of the swelling and shrinkage phenomena due to the disturbance of the variables in the drum boiler of steam generation unit. The problem was studied and analyzed to find a suitable solution to reduce the foaming carryover, and hence to control the swelling and shrinkage phenomena. The theoretical part is describing the mathematical model for the boiler variables. The drum pressure and drum level at different load demands of boiler were measured experimentally. The feed water was treated carefully in order to study the reduction of foam produced from a small amount of lubricant oil in the boiler water. The foam was treated using silicon antifoam [SN 6010]. The experimental results proved that the silicon antifoam is efficient to remove the foam completely and then reduce the disturbance in the pressure by 18.6% and the reduction in swelling and shrinkage was by 29.4%, and 16% respectively.


Article
Behavior of Steel Plate Girders with Web Openings Loaded in Shear
تصرف العوارض اللوحیة الفولاذیة ذات الوترات المثقوبة المحملة بقوى القص

Authors: May J. Hamoodi --- Marwa S. Abdul Gabar
Pages: 2982-2996
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The structural behavior of three steel plate girders under shear is studied. The first one is the reference plate girder (G) which is prepared without web openings, and the second one (GO) is fabricated to contain circular opening at the center of each web panel, the diameter of the opening is 60% of the web depth, while the third plate girder (GOR) is with reinforced strip welded around the circular web openings. The aspect ratio of the panels is one and they all have the same dimensions. The experimental results obtained from second and third plate girders have been compared with those obtained from the reference plate girder. The comparison indicates that the reduction in the ultimate shear load for plate girder with web opening is 51% and for the plate girder with reinforced web opening is 35%. Also through the experimental results, new formulas are presented to predict the ultimate shear load of perforated steel girders with large openings. A nonlinear finite element analysis is carried out for the tested plate girders using the package software program (ANSYS V.11). The analytical results contain the ultimate shear capacity and Von Mises stress distribution. The results of finite element models are compared with results of experimental tests. The difference in ultimate shear load was 10%, 9% and 1.5% for plate girders GO, GOR and G, respectively. Also a parametric study with varying size of the reinforcement around the web openings is performed by using the ANSYS program, and it is found that the thickness of the reinforcement strip has higher effect than its width on the ultimate shear capacity of perforated plate girder.

Table of content: volume:31 issue:15 Part (A) Engineering