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Engineering and Technology Journal

مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا

ISSN: 16816900 24120758
Publisher: University of Technology
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The Journal aims to disseminate knowledge in the fields of Engineering, Technology and Sciences .All the researches will submit to the scientific evaluation procedures of publishing and documentation. The journal under takes only the publishing of the new researches that had not been published previously on other journals or debated in conferences.

The Instructions of Submitting The Research to Scientific Evaluation:
a- The research should be Submitted in 4 copies in Arabic or English Languages, auther's name should be eliminated from 2 copies only. The abstract should be typed on the front page not exceeding (150 words) in both Arabic and English on size (A4) sheet. Pages should be numbered and not more than (15) page.
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Secondly- The annual subscription in the journal inside Iraq is ID250000) Iraqi dinar, and outside Iraq is (us $250) abroad.
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Engineering and Technology Journal
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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
Scientific Refereed Journal Issued by University of Technology, IRAQ
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جمهورية العراق –بغداد
الجامعة التكنولوجية- مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا- ص.ب. 35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq
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Journal website:
http://uotechnology.edu.iq/tec_magaz/EN/index.htm
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Republic of Iraq, Baghdad
University of Technology, Engineering & Technology Journal.
P.O.Box.35010
Email: etj@uotechnology.edu.iq

Email: uot_magaz@yahoo.com
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Table of content: 2013 volume:31 issue:17 Part (A) Engineering

Article
Effect Of Reinforced by Coconut Fiber Core on The Mechanical Properties for Un-Saturated Polyester Matrix Composite Material
تاثیر التدعیم بالیاف ثمرة جوز الھند على الخواص المیكانیكیة لمادة متراكبة ذات اساس من البولي استر غیر مشبع

Authors: Hind Basil Ali ھند باسل علي
Pages: 296-308
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Abstract

This work involves study tensile strength; hardness and thermal conductivity of composite material consist of coconut fibers mixed with polyester resin. This composite material was prepared by adding three percentage of coconut shells (1,2 and 3) wt% . addition of coconut shells improved mechanical properties for composite material with three percentages , while led to decrease thermal conductivity because it is behave as insulated material.


Article
Differentiating Clayey Soil Layers from Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP)
تمییز طبقات التربة الطینیة من المقاومة النوعیة الكھربائیة (ERI) التصویریة (IP) والاستقطاب المستحث

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Abstract

Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) method is one of the most promising techniques which is well suited for the applications in the fields of geohydrology, environmental science and engineering. The present work is aimed to show the efficiency of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP) in probing the subsurface soil for site investigation and differentiating the clayey soil layers as it is a common practice to measure the IP sounding along with resistivity for correct interpretation of field data. The study has demonstrated the practical application of 2D ERI and IP tomography along 7 lines using Wenner- Schlumberger array. The data analysis comprises of 2D inversions using the RES2DINV software, thus 2D electrical resistivity and IP imaging sections have been obtained. The depth of investigation was 4 m, and resistivity values range from <1 to 292 ohm.m. Two electrical layers were recognized: the upper layer with high resistivity (7-71 ohm.m) represents the loamy soil extends to a depth around 1.3 m; and the second layer with low resistivity (<1-9 ohm.m) represents the clayey layer. Some anomalous low and high electric zones are appeared reflecting the inhomogeneity in deposits. The IP values are ranging from -2 to 17 mV/V showing good confirmation with resistivity data, where high chargeability are associated with low resistivity. The study reveals that combining IP with resistivity surveys is recommended since IP is, sometimes, very effective in relieving ambiguity in interpretation.


Article
Wear Performance of a Laser Surface Hardened ASTM 4118 Steel
سلوك البلیان للفولاذ 4118 ASTM المصلد سطحیا باللیزر

Authors: Assifa M. Mohamad
Pages: 3235-3244
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Abstract

In this investigation ASTM 4118 steel was treated by using pulse Nd: YAG laser with wave length 1064nm and pulse duration 100ns. In order to assess the new tribological properties of laser surface hardened ASTM 4118 steel, the wear resistance between specimens treated with laser and those of conventionally hardened under dry sliding conditions was compared. The change of wear mechanisms in laser hardened 4118 steel resulted in distinct difference in wear rates. The results showed that quenched zones not only had sufficient depth of hardening and higher hardness, but had more retained austenite and finer carbides because of a higher degree of carbide dissolution. Laser surface hardened ASTM 4118 steel specimens exhibited superior wear resistance to their conventionally hardened specimens due to the change in the microstructure hardening, high hardness. The wear mechanism for both the laser quenched layer and conventionally hardened layer was highly similar, generally involving adhesive wear mechanism , material transfer, wear induced oxidation and plowing. Also the results of hardness show that increases with increasing of laser energy by 70%.


Article
Process Capability Evaluation for a Non-normally Distributed One
تقییم مقدرةعملیة غیر خاضعة للتوزیع الطبیعي

Authors: Samah Ali Aufy --- Mahmoud Abbas Mahmoud
Pages: 3245-3258
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Abstract

The common process capability indices (PCIs) Cp, Cpk, Cpm are widely used in practice. The use of these PCIs is based on the assumptions that process is in control and its output should be normally distributed. In practice normality is not always fulfilled. Therefore, the use of common PCIs leads to erroneous in capability evaluation. In this paper, capability evaluation for non-normally distributed process is carried out in industrial environment with two approaches. The first includes transforming data to normally distribute by Box-Cox transforming method then using the common PCIs. This method failed to transform these data. The second approach includes the use non-normal percentile method with Burr XII distribution. This paper proves that the second approach is more effective in evaluating the capability of this process. Practical case is applied in the State Company for Electrical Industries (SCFEI) particularly in (Water Pump) factory and Minitab 16 Software is used to reduce the long calculation of statistical values and to plot control charts.


Article
Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Based on Neurofuzzy
السیطرة المباشرة على عزم المحرك الحثي بأستخدام تقنیة ھجینة من الشبكات العصبیة والسیطرة الضبابیة (Neurofuzzy )

Authors: Abdulrahim T. Humod --- Wiam I. Jabbar
Pages: 3259-3273
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Abstract

The main objective of this work is to improve the speed and torque responses of three phase Induction Motor (IM) during different loads and speeds conditions. Induction Motor is most commonly used in different industrial applications, that require fast dynamic response and accurate control over wide speed ranges. Therefore, this work proposes Direct Torque Control (DTC). Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used for optimal gains tuning of PI. The results show the improvement in the speed response of DTC, in terms of reducing steady state error, ripple reduction in the torque and speed responses. Neurofuzzy (ANFIS) controller is used to improve the performance of PI-PSO controller. ANFIS controller is trained by using PI-PSO data. The results of the ANFIS controller are better than PI-PSO in terms of torque ripple minimization, less steady state error in the speed response and more robustness. The simulation of the overall drive system is performed using MATLAB/Simulink program version 7.10 (R2010a).


Article
Design of Robust Compensating Controller for Lateral Motion of the Vehicle
تصمیم مسیطر تعویضي نشیط للحركة الجانبیة لمركبة

Authors: Hayder Sabah. Abad Al-Amir
Pages: 3274-3284
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Abstract

In this paper, robust compensating controller is proposed to control the lateral velocity and yaw rate of the vehicle during turning .This controller uses the errors of the lateral velocity and yaw rate as input and the front steering angle and differential brake force as output. A vehicle model of dynamic lateral motion is heavily influenced by vehicle parameters such as vehicle speed, vehicle mass and road-tire interaction. These vehicle parameters vary during operation; therefore variations of parameters are taken into considering in controller design. The compensators of the controller become function to variations of vehicle parameters to improve the dynamic responses of lateral velocity and yaw rate. The simulation results of the proposed controller with lag brake and front steering models give acceptable responses through reaching to the desired conditions with short transient period and steady – state error is equal to zero for different cases.


Article
PSO Based PID Controller Design for a Precise Tracking of Two-Axis Piezoelectric Micro positioning Stage
تصمیم مسیطر تناسبي- تكاملي-تفاضلي بالإعتماد على خوارزمیة أمثلیة الحشد الجزیئي لغرض تتبع دقیق لنظام تموضع كھروإجھادي ذو محورین

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Abstract

In this paper the design of an optimal PID controller for single and double axis piezoelectric micropositioning stage system is presented. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is used to tune the parameters of the PID controller subject to specific objective function. The proposed controller provides a high performance trajectory tracking responses of the piezoelectric micropositioner stage.A simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.

Keywords


Article
Studying the Affect of Current on (MRR) and (EW) in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
دراسة تاثیر التیار على (MRR) و (EW) في عملیة التشغیل بالتفریغ الكھربائي (EDM)

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Abstract

The experimental work of this study leads with electro discharge machining (EDM). A system for machining in this process has been developed. Many parameters are studied such as current, dielectric fluid, thickness of the workpiece. The main aim of this work is to calculate the metal removal rate (MRR), electrode wear (EW) using copper electrode when machining stainless steel 304 specimens of thickness (0.4, 0.5, 1mm). Different current rates are used ranging from (10, 15, 20, 25, 30)Amp, and using tap water as a dielectric solution, it found that low current gives a less material removal rate and electrode wear while high current gives a high material removal rate and electrode wear, the dielectric fluid is changed in order to enhance results. The results show that maximum MRR is achieved 1.01164mm3/min when machining thickness of workpiece 0.4mm and using electrode of copper metal which gives minimum EW 0.04gm, while when using thickness 0.5mm it gives MRR 0.43828mm3/min and EW 0.12gm, for thickness 1mm the MRR 0.33964mm3/min and EW is 0.11gm. The results show also that using distilled water as a dielectric fluid with copper electrode and thickness of workpiece 0.5mm gives minimum MRR 0.13854mm3/min and less EW 0.08gm compared with using tap water.


Article
Snubber Network Design for Triac Driving Single – Phase Industrial Heater by Applying Fuzzy Logic Method
تصمیم شبكة الزجر لترایاك یسیطر على سخان صناعي أ حُادي الطور باستعمال طریقة المنطق العشوائي

Authors: Yesar Noori Lafta --- Aslan Sabah aldeen Abdi
Pages: 3312-3321
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Abstract

Power switches require snubbing networks for driving single – phase industrial heaters. Designing these networks, for controlling the maximum allowable rate of rise of anode current (di/dt) and excessive anode – cathode voltage rise (dv/dt) of power switching devices as thyristors and Triacs, is usually achieved using conventional methods like Time Constant Method (TCM), resonance Method (RM), and Runge-Kutta Method (RKM). In this paper an alternative design methodology using Fuzzy Logic Method (FLM) is proposed for designing the snubber network to control the voltage and current changes. Results of FLM, with fewer rules requirements, show the close similarity with those of conventional design methods in such a network of a Triac driving 1.2 kW heater of an industrial plastic extruder machine. The similarity, between Fuzzy Logic results and conventional techniques results, is confirming the applicability of the fuzzy logic in designing these snubbing networks.


Article
New Method for Recycling of waste paper in useful products
طریقة جدیدة لتدویر النفایات الورقیة الى منتجات مفیدة

Authors: Bahra D. Ghafour --- Mohammed A. A. --- Falak O. Abas
Pages: 3322-3333
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Abstract

Waste paper recycling is a process by which waste paper or waste cellulose fibers are processed together with some chemical additions to produce another product such as file cover, greeting card paper board and duplicating paper for goods. A new efficient and simple method has been designed then applied in a present work. Different types of waste papers are introduced as (writing paper WT, news paper NT and magazine paper MT) during an experimental design apparatus stages of collecting, separating, cutting, digesting / cooking, bleaching, lifting couching, pressing and drying, finishing for final applications at operation conditions. The finish products go to checking their characteristics properties, physical and mechanical properties such as specific gravity, moisture content, brightness color, porosity, stiffness, tensile strength, tensile breaking, elongation, and tearing resistance. The result for these properties proved that all types give good mechanical properties for application in another utilization use as saving pads for goods with optimum application of newspaper samples.


Article
Prediction the Effect of Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness Using Taguchi Method
التنبؤ بتأثیر معاملات القطع على الخشونة السطحیة باستخدام طریقة Taguchi

Authors: Laith A. Mohammed --- Ahmed A. Duroobi
Pages: 3334-3342
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Abstract

In this study, the prediction of surface roughness of milled surfaces was carried out using Taguchi Method with four inputs, namely, cutting direction, stepover, feed per tooth and workpiece surface geometry. A systematic approach to obtain an optimal surface roughness was employed to consider the effects of Taguchi method for this application using CNC milling machine with ball mill cutter. The results show that the Taguchi method is an effective tool in predicting the optimum factors to obtain minimum surface roughness, which are stepover, surface type, feed per tooth and cutting direction respectively.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Nanoporous Zeolitic Membranes for Catalytic Applications
تحضیر وفحص خصائص الغشاء الزیولایتي النانوي المسامي لتطبیقات التحفی

Authors: Talib M. Naieff Al-Bayati
Pages: 3343-3357
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Abstract

The Hydroisomerization and Hydrocracking of n-Heptane was carried out in a packed bed plug-flow zeolitic catalytic membrane reactor at a constant pressure of (100 kpa).Material was encapsulated by trimetallic 1% (Pt-Ni-Co). The structural and textural features for encapsulated nanoporous MCM-48 were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET) and FTIR. The characterizations were carried out before and after loading. The results show that the catalytic activity evaluation in a membrane reactor revealed that trimetallic 1 % (Pt-Ni-Co)/MCM-48 catalyst possess a high activity for conversion of n-heptane around (83%) at 400 ºC with a maximum selectivity around (65%) at 325 ºC.


Article
Geotechnical Properties of Expansive Soil Treated With Silica Fume
الخواص الجیوتكنیكیة للترب الأنتفاخیة المعالجة بمادة السیلیكا فوم

Authors: Zeena Waleed S. Abbawi
Pages: 3358-3370
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Abstract

Problematic soils such as expansive soil are those clay soils which exhibited significant volume changes as results of soil moisture variation, when a dry mass of clay is allowed to absorb water, the effective size of particles increases and therefore the clay mass swells. This type of soil, upon wetting and drying, causes sever damage to structures built on such soil. A treatment of swelling/shrinkage using silica fume was studied in this work. The soil selected for the present investigation classified as (CH) according to unified soil classification system with liquid limit = 51% and plastic limit = 27%. Soil specimens were mixed with various percentages of silica fume contents (10%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 50%) to determine their effects on geotechnical properties such as Atterberge’s limits, compaction, unconfined compression and swelling properties. The results show that the silica fume played an important role in improving the problem of swelling behavior in expansive soil. The silica fume decrease liquid limit and changed compaction parameters of expansive soils the moisture content values increased and the maximum dry unit weight values decrease. Also the silica fume increased unconfined compressive strength, decreased the compressibility and the vertical swelling percentages of clayey soil-silica fume mixtures.


Article
Study the Behavior of Long Spiral Tube Adsorber for Oxygen Separation from Air
دراسة تصرف انبوب الامتزاز الملفوف الطویل لفصل الاوكسجین من الھواء

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Single long spiral tube column (25 mm diameter, and 4 m bed length) had been constructed to study the separation of oxygen from air using commercial 13X zeolite. The effect of adsorption pressure on the system breakthrough curves was studied. Single column with initial air pressurizing simulates the work of 2- columns, 4-steps PSA process, whereas single column with initial intermediate pure oxygen pressurizing simulates the work of 2-columns, 6-steps PSA process with pressure equalization steps of the two columns. No significant effect of pressure on the product oxygen purity is noticed when pressure increased from 2 to 5 bar in both cases. For initial air pressurizing case, the average maximum effluent oxygen purity of 88% is obtained. The range of zeolite loading capacity is q=0.25-0.35 mole N2/kg zeolite, and only 40% of the range has been utilized before breakthrough time. Whereas for initial oxygen pressurizing case, the maximum oxygen purity of 95% is obtained. The range of zeolite loading capacity is q=0.39-0.87 mole N2/kg zeolite, and 95% of the range has been utilized before breakthrough time, which agree well with the equilibrium data of multicomponent Langmuir adsorption equation.


Article
Effect of Uric acid Level on the Corrosion Behavior of SS 316L and Co-Cr-Mo Used in Implant Applications
تأثیر مستوى حامض الیوریك على السلوك التأكلي للصلب المقاوم للصدأ 316L وسبیكة Co-Cr-Mo المستخدمة في تطبیقات الزروع الجراحیة

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In this study electrochemical behaviors of SS 316L and Co-Cr-Mo alloys were studied using electrochemical method by potentiostat in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pH=7.4 and 37oC in absence and presence of 7 and 12 g/dL uric acid which causes arthritis. Corrosion parameters for two implants were calculated which include corrosion potentials (Ecorr), corrosion current densities (icorr), cathodic and anodic Tafel slops (bc & ba), polarization resistance (Rp) and corrosion rates (CR). Increases uric acid in human body gives decreasing in corrosion rate for SS 316L because of formation organometallic complexes between acid molecules and released metal ions, but an increase in corrosion rate for Co-Cr-Mo alloy because of low affinity of cobalt ions to formation organometallic complexes. General comparison between two implants shows that the Co-Cr-Mo alloy has lower corrosion rate than SS 316L in the same conditions due to Cr content. This means that using Co-Cr-Mo alloy better than SS 316L as bioimplant.

Table of content: volume:31 issue:17 Part (A) Engineering