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The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2013 volume:44 issue:6

Article
GENETIC VARIATION OF SOME OAT TRAITS RELATED TO WATER SALINITY STRESS
التغايرات الوراثية لبعض صفات الشوفان المرتبطة بتحمل شد ملوحة الماء

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Abstract

Salinity of soil or irrigation water is one of the most important obstacle towards crop production and productivity, especially with the increasing scarcity of fresh water in Iraq and the Arab countries. The impact of salinity will be alleviated with the increasing temperature due to global warming. The objectives of this article was to shed some light on traits more related to salinity stress tolerance in oats, and to identify genetic variation of these traits. A split-plot arrangement experiment with RCBD was applied through 2011-2013 on the farm of Dept. of Field Crops/Coll. of Agric./Univ. of Baghdad. The oats cultivars; Hamel, Pimula and Genzania were set in sub-plots, whereas water quality was set in main-plots. Water quality had two treatments, fresh water (1.5 ds.m-1) and saline irrigation water (6.0 ds.m-1). The results revealed that Genzania cv. oat yielded the other two cultivars. This cultivar elapsed 121 d to flowering, 152 d to maturity, and gave 379 racemes.m-2, 47 kernel. raceme-1, 32.1% harvest index, 17740 kernel.m-2 and 5.3 t.ha-1 grain yield across both years. Salinity of irrigation water did not affect any of plant height, days to flowering and maturity, stems.m-2, racemes.m-2, dry matter yield, kernel filling period, kernel growth rate, or kernel weight. On contrary, water salinity reduced each of crop growth rate, fertility (kernel/raceme), kernel.m-2, and grain yield. Each one ds.m-1 above 1.5 ds.m-1 reduced grain yield by 3.8%. Highest traits in genetic/environmental variance were kernel weight, and number of stems.m-2. However, this ratio was similar in traits of harvest index, kernel filling period, and days to flowering and maturity. There was no absolute relationship between trait genetic variance and its response to salinity. Kernel weight and number of stems.m-2 were the best traits to select for salt tolerance in oats. It was recommended to study flowering syndrome including fertility under salinity stress. Crop growth rate should be determined for each of vegetative and reproductive phases of that crop.


Article
DESERTIFICATION, CAUSES, EFFECTS, AND COMBATING
التصحر اسبابه وتأثيراته وطرق مكافحته

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Abstract

Desertification is the persistent degradation of dry land ecosystems due to human activities and variations in climate. It is widely recognized that desertification is a serious threat to arid and semiarid environments which cover40% of the global land surface. While climate oscillations have historically had pronounced effects upon desertification, activities of man during the Holocene have had the most pronounced impacts to induce desertification in the most 10 thousand years. Dry land occupies nearly half of Earth's land area, home to a third of the human population in 2000. Across the world, desertification affects the livelihoods of millions of people who rely on benefits that dry land ecosystems provide. The proximate causes of desertification are dominated by agricultural intensification. Unintended consequences of the so- called Green Revolution ,begun in the 1970s has been massive overgrazing,monocropping ,excessive tillage practices in agriculture that place soils more vulnerable to wind and surface runoff scouring, salt buildup of irrigated lands ,over drafting of groundwater , utilization of lands unsuitable for arable practices and deforestation. Desertification is caused by a combination of social, political, economic, and natural factors which vary from region to another. Policies that can lead to an unsustainable use of resources and lack of infrastructure are major contributors to land degradation .Local adaptation and conservation practices can mitigate some losses of dry land services, but it will be difficult to reverse losses in term of biodiversity and in the provision of food and water which in linked to biodiversity. Desertification assessment has shifted from simple appraisals of inter annual movement of desert boundaries to complex multivariate field surveys, to practical methodologies based on indicators of ecosystem functioning, such as rain use efficiency .Future challenges for properly assessing desertification are the lack of reference situations against which actual desertification could be compared , and the difficulties that appear when desertification operates through structural rather than functional ecosystem change. The exceptional growth of remote sensing tools and the extraordinary development of ecosystem ecology during the last two decades represent a unique opportunity to properly assess desertification all over arid the arid and semiarid world at virtually any reasonable spatial scale.


Article
SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS ON YIELD AND COMPONENTS OF MAIZE DIALLEL CROSSES HYBRIDIZED UNDER TWO NITROGEN RATES
بعض المعالم الوراثية للحاصل ومكوناته لتضريبات تبادلية من الذرة الصفراء مهجنة تحت مستويين من النايتروجين

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Abstract

A trial was conducted at the farm of agriculture in Abu-ghraib, for two seasons, spring and autumn 2012. The objective was to study the gene action and combining ability of diallel crosses hybridized at two nitrogen rates (N100 and N400 kgN.ha-1). At first season, diallel cross with one direction was done among four maize inbred lines viz: Zm7, Zm607, Oh40 and Zr8 to produce six crosses for each nitrogen rate. Yield trail between crosses and their parents was conducted by RCBD with three replicates at the autumn season of 2012. Means of characters were compared and the results showed that there were significant differences among crosses in most characters studied. The cross P2 x P3N100 gave highest grain yield amount to 14.86 ton.ha-1 ,as a result of its superior in number of kernels per ear and 300 kernels weight. Also, the same cross gave highest hybrid vigor in grain yield, biological yield and harvest index amount to 117.8%, 83% and 13.3%, respectively. Contrast values N400 Vs N100 showed there were significant differences among crosses hybridized under nitrogen rates in number of ears per plant and number of kernels per ear. The P4 was superior in positive effects of gca in grain yield, biological yield, and number of kernels per ear. Therefore P3 was the best combiner in breeding for high yield hybrids. The best cross in specific combining ability (sca)was P2xP3N100 in grain yield, biological yield, 300 kernels weight and number of kernels per ear. Dominance variance was greater than additive variance in most characters studied in coincidence with average degree of dominance more than one. The highest values of heritability in broad sense were recorded in number of kernels per ear, 300 kernels weight, grain yield and biological yield. Heritability in narrow sense was high in number of kernels per ear. There were no significant differences of gca and sca in number of ear per plant and N-utilization efficiency. It will be concluded that hybridization can be performed under low nitrogen input will not decrease hybrid vigor, furthermore, it saves half of nitrogen applied, especially; there was no increasing in yield when these crosses were grown under high nitrogen input.


Article
THE FACT OF FIELD ADMINISTRATION CLARIFICATIONS PROVIDED TO RICE FARMER PREPARED IN THE AREAS OF INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AND MECHANICAL TRANSPLANTING IN NAJAF PROVINCE
الايضاحات الحقلية لزراع الرز في مجالي الزراعة الكثيفة والشتل الآلي في محافظة النجف

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Abstract

The research aims to diagnose the field clarifications reality of intensive agriculture and automatic transplanting projects provided for rice growers and to identify the extent to which farmers benefit from the clarifications provided for them. The research included 2208 rice farmers in the Al-Najaf province and samples were selected randomly of rice farmers by 4% and by 88 farmers. Diagnosing of the field clarifications management reality provided to the rice farmers have been done by the preparation of a map calendar that included 28 items distributed on five areas: Organization, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The farmer's advantage has been identified by the binary scale yes or no. The degree of benefit has been identified by three levels: great benefit, medium and low and the aspects of benefit were identified beside the reasons of lack of advantage by leaving respondent to choose more than one aspect advantage and more reason not to take advantage of the clarifications and the credibility of the scale was used with its preliminary image by submitting it to a group of experts in the Department of Counseling. the stability scale was used by conducting a pretest to classify rice farmers and the reliability factor was 0.77, and data were collected regarding the field clarifications reality management provided to rice farmers through an interview with the director of planning and director of field crops as well as access to records and documents and reports issued by the Authority's general guidance and agricultural cooperation. Regarding the farmer's benefit, data was collected through personal interviews. The results showed the absence of scientific specialization in field clarifications division beside the absence of professional regulation in rice crop and the lack of participation in planning Commission and the absence of employees in the Authority's general guidance and agricultural cooperation in the implementation process reliance on the directorates, divisions and centers and farm extension and the lack of field clarifications for the rice crop and the absence of follow-up and evaluation of the field clarifications of the intensive agriculture and mechanic transplanting projects and the weakness of advantage of these clarifications. We recommend the need to increase the number of field clarifications and the involvement of researchers and specialists in the implementation process, particularly in the areas occupied by the crop and the activation of taking advantage of these clarifications.


Article
THE STATE OF EXTENSION PLANNING PROCESS IN BAGHDAD AGRICULTURAL DIRECTORATE
واقع عملية التخطيط الارشادي في مديرية زراعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to know the reality of agricultural extension planning process in Baghdad Agric. Directorate, because it is a development office provid services and activities and extension programs to a large number of farmers from various ruler society with the helping of it`s branching offices. The quality of these services fitting with nature importance and development this office and the ability and efficiency of working members in it for more growth to the agriculture process and increase rural life level. The extension agricultural directors which they are responsible of the services actives and extension programs , facing problems in this services which it has not appropriate planning and that led to a negative and not encouraging results. To describe the extension planning fact a parameter include three levels, two scenes and 13 axises put it to describe that fact which contain 115 paragraph or item 345-115 are the maximum and minimum degree rang. The data collected from specimen having 72 persons (54.2%) described the extension planning fact located in a weak category (40-65) degree in triple boundaries parameter having high and low degree 40-114. Results also show 46 persons combine 64% and they describe this fact which is execute located in weak category (75-109) degree in triple boundaries parameter having high and low degree 75-218. The conclusion of the research is the annual extension planning need to be in extension programs forms with using different extension methods with participant all the beneficiaries with the continue of employers training in the extension planning process.


Article
APPLICATION LEVEL OF WHEAT PRODUCTION RECOMMENDATIONS
مستوى تطبيق مزارعي الحنطة لتوصيات زراعة الحنطة

Authors: S. O. Fayyadh سعد عبيد فياض
Pages: 729-737
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Abstract

Determining the level of farmers application of agricultural scientific recommendations related to the cultivation of wheat crop, is the basis for building extension effective programs stems from facts, contribute to increasing the quantity and quality of production. So this research is targeted to determine application level of wheat farmers of the scientific recommendations related to planting and servicing of the crop in general, as well as determining the level of application of each of the practices of planting and serving of the crop : prep airing the level for cultivation, planting the crop, irrigation, and harvesting. It the research also targeted to determine the relationship between level of application and some independent variables: Cultivated area, land tenure, contribution to income, and experience in wheat growing. The research also aimed at identifying the most important problems facing the farmers. To achieve research objectives a scale of application made of 26 items direly, depending on scientific research, placations related to crop, and views of some specialists. Two pouts are given to each item, there for, the range of the scale degrees ranges from 0-52. Research population included all wheat growers in Yousfiya and Al-Nasser and Al-Salam cities/Baghdad province's (3485 farmers). A stratified random sample in a ratio of 3.5% (122 farmers) was taken to represent the total population of farmers. Results showed that level of application of the farmers is described as medium. The results also showed that the level of application of the farmers in the process of preparing the land (soil) for the cultivation of the crop was higher compared with other processes studied. The results also showed absence of the elective extension role to help farmers to adopt now agriculture methods in growing the crop. As well as haring a significant positive relationships between the farmer's application and lands' tenure, and with the contribution to the income. The results of the researcher identified several problems facing wheat growers the most in portent of which was the weak materiel and non-materiel support from the government, which offsets negatively the production. Therefore the researches recommended that the Agricultural Extension takes his role to teach rural people and urge them to commitment to the scientific recommendations of wheat growing. The researcher also recommended increases the material and non-material support from the governments to wheat growers.


Article
EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF CARAWAY FRUITS IN SOME BIOTIC ASPECTS OF POTATO TUBER MOTH
تأثير مستخلصات ثمار الكراوية في بعض الجوانب الحياتية لعثة درنات البطاطا

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A lab experiment was conducted at the Biological Control Research Unit, Dept. of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during 2010/2011 to investigate the effect of water and alcoholic extracts of caraway fruits and its volatile oil in some biotic aspects of potato tuber moth, Phthorimea operculella Zell. The experimental factors were arranged in factorial experiments system using CRD with three replicates. First factor included the extracts which are alcoholic and water extracts, steam distillation of volatile oil and controls (water and alcohol). Second factor involved application concentrations of these extracts that were 500, 1000 and 2000 mg. l-1. Results showed that the volatile oil was superior to limit the average of laid eggs (11.89 eggs), hatchability% (10.22%), emergence of adults % (6.22%) and extend the egg development period (8.11 day). Results also revealed that the concentration of 2000 mg.l-1was better than others for limiting of egg number (49.13 egg), hatchability% (67.13%) and emergence adult% (51.67%). Furthermore, GC/FID and GC/MS analysis stated that the dominant components in water, alcoholic extracts and volatile oil of caraway fruits were carvone and limonene. Consequently, it could be concluded that caraway fruits extracts were active to limit the biota of potato tuber moth because of its contents from active compounds, especially carvone and limonene. Moreover, the extracted essential oil from caraway by steam distillation was inhibitory than water and alcoholic extraction. Therefore, it could be recommended to isolate carvone and limonene components and test their activity as insecticide against insect pests then determine the active concentration for each active constituent. Furthermore, it could be recommended to manufacture artificial blends from these active constituents then assess their inhibitory activity on acetylcholine esterase enzyme.


Article
ACCESSING THE PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF FLAXSEED MUCILAGE
تقويم الخصائص الفيزوكيميائية والوظيفية لهلام بذور الكتان

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The present study aimed to extract the mucilage from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) (locally cultivated) and studying the physicochemical and functional properties. The extraction of three treatments were conducted under different conditions (temperature, time, pH and mixing ratios of seeds:water). The values of pH, refractive index, specific rotation, Hausner index, compressibility index, swelling index in water for mucilage A were: 6.4, 1.3367, +99.1, 1.05, 3.84 and 2.16 , respectively. while those values for mucilage B : 7.2, 1.3358, +86.2, 1.03, 5.22 and 3.58 respectively, and 6.6, 1.3363, +78.4, 1.16, 13.2 and 3.5 , respectively for mucilage C. The specific gravity values for mucilage solution (1%), bulk density and tap density for mucilage powders of A, B and C were (1.0087, 0.40, 0.42), (1.0081, 0.53, 0.55) and (1.0083, 0.43, 0.50) g/ m3 ,respectively. The maximum absorbency for mucilages A and B appeared at 350 nm, and for mucilage C at 400 nm. And when the three mucilage spectrally planned using technique they gave relatively similar absorbance frequencies. The mucilage A recorded high solubility values and water holding capacity, being 82.4%, 15.94 (g water / g dry mucilage) and 1.38 centipoise, respectively, as compared to other mucilages. The three mucilage samples A,B,C) showed varied oil holding capacity, ranging from (0.41-0.7),(0.38-0.76) and (0.41-0.8)g oil /g dry mucilage, respectively due to the type of oil used. It has been noticed that mucilage A showed a higher emulsification stability as compared to mucilages B and C. This results indicate the ability of using flaxseed mucilage as stabilizer in food industry.


Article
AFFORESTATION OF DESERT AREAS IN NAJAF CITY - CASE STUDY AND ANALYSIS -
تشجير المناطق الصحراوية في مدينة النجف الاشرف - دراسة حالة وتحليل -

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The open spaces constitute an important part of rban areas for the effectiveness of environmental and social ntal conditions. The research aims to study the natural conditions (soil and climatic factors) and their effects on varas well as aesthetic. The research problem lies in the desert areas and afforestation city of Najaf, a model comes from being located within the areas of Western Sahara of Iraq, with sandy soil and sand animation as using lands caping to improve the environmeious plants in order to choose the appropriate ones to reduce the losses and get the best results. Especially since there is a clear direction at the present time to improve the environment for all Iraqi provinces through afforestation of interior space and foreign affairs, as well as what contributes to such measures of aesthetic additions to the scenes of these cities. From the premise that Iraq's cities have witnessed in general and particularly the city of Najaf rapid urban growth because of its special position compared to other cities of Iraq, as the population increased at a high rate during the short periods of time. and open spaces are the most areas that need special attention to their direct impact on humans and various activities. Through the survey of a random sample included 85 members of the public spaces of the pioneers of the study area was found that 34% would prefer to see the system engineering in the public parks of the study area, and that 53% would prefer to see the natural order and that 13% would prefer to see mixed system and it's the most important types of plants that contribute to the creation of vegetation in areas of sand dunes Salsida bestifera Phragmitis communi Artemisia scarpia.


Article
STUDYING THE TEXTURE CHANGES IN TOMATO FRUIT DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF HARVEST
دراسة التغيرات النسيجية لثمار البندورة (الطماطم) عند مراحل قطاف مختلفة

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The study was carried out in Fairuzah region–Homs Governorate by planting two cultivars of processing tomato Lycopersicum esculentum cv. Turkish Oula cultivar and American Star cultivar. The experimental plots were irrigated by using drip irrigation system (GR). The objective of this research is to study the impact of maturity stage at harvest three stages on some attributed processing of tomato fruit even natural properties such as fruit texture or chemical properties such as: pH, TSS, Ca+2, Fe+2 and Vitamin C Results showed that the third stage of maturity showed significantly increasing in the fruit content of Fe+2 for both Variety compared the first stage and the second by 6.6% and 12.4% respectively. The third stage has the same beaver for TSS content of fruit and the increasing percent were 11.9% and 18.5% for the first and the second maturity stage respectively The first stage showed increasing in the pH, Ca+2 and The fruit hardness compared to the second and the third stage by 2.9 % for pH، 10.4 % for Ca+2 and 8.9 % for the hardness for the second stage and the previous percents for the third stage were 5.47%, 20.45% and 14.66 respectively. Each of fruit diameters by 7.44-12.67% for both the first and the second maturity stage respectively. TSS by the fruit content of Fe+2 by 12.4-6.6% for both the first and the second maturity stage respectively, fruit weight by 34.6-19.69% for both the first and the second maturity stage respectively. On the other hand ،the second maturity stage showed the highest content of Vitamin C in fruit comparing to the third stage 17.5% and the first stage 24.9% .with comparing the tomato variety, the Oula Varity showed high quality for TSS, vitamin C content and Fe+2 percent but the Star showed high quality for pH and Ca+2.

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