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Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences

مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان

ISSN: 20731213
Publisher: Tikrit University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Precise semi-annual scientific journal concerned with research publishing related to dental sciences

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Phone Number : 07481411928
e-Mail : tikjdentsci@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2014 volume:3 issue:1

Article
Evaluation of Immunohistochemical Expression of P53 and Pcna in Pleomorphic Adenoma, Mucoepidermoid and Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas of Salivary Glands

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Abstract

Salivary gland tumours are uncommon with a broad heterogeneity. The most common benign tumour is the pleomorphic adenoma, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma predominate among the malignancies. The aim of this study was to describe the tissue expression of p53 and PCNA protein in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma and to compare their expression among the studied tumors. The study enrolled (45)formalin –fixed, paraffin- embedded tissue blocks of salivary gland tumors, diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (15 cases for each ) and evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of P53 and PCNA proteins. The study revealed positive p53 protein expression in (60%) of muocoepidermoid carcinoma cases and (20%) of adenoid cystic carcinoma cases, while only one case (6.7%) of pleomorphic adenoma was P53 positive. The immunopositivity of PCNA protein expression was found in (100%) of both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma cases and (66.7%) of pleomorphic adenoma cases. The results of this study demonstrated that inactivation of p53 protein may play an important role in the activation of PCNA with increasing the proliferation activity of MEC and ACC.


Article
Evaluation the Quality Three Different Obturation Technique Using Multi-Slice Computed Tomography: An In-Vitro Study

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Abstract

After endodontic space has been completely cleaned, shaped and disinfected, a three-dimensional obturation of this space will be the ultimate objective of endodontic therapy. With a durable three dimensional obturation any communication with the periodontium will be eliminated and prevented. The aim of this study was to use multi-slice CT scanning to determine: (i) number of voids (ii) diameter or length of voids and (iii) presence of voids at material/tissue interfaces in root canals obturated with: (a) E & Q Master (b) Lateral Condensation, and (c) Soft Core system. Thirty freshly extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used in this study. After preparation of the root canals, the teeth were divided into three groups with 10 teeth in each groups. G1 obturated with E&Q master, G2 obturated with Lateral Condensation, and G3 was obturated with Soft Core. GuttaFlow was used as sealer for all groups. After obturation all the specimen were analyzed with multi-slice CT, the data obtained was statistically analyzed using ANOVA test followed by Duncan's multiple range test ,a value of p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Voids are observed in all groups, Neither technique was free of voids or perfectly smooth. Overall, the canals that obturated with E&Q master showed the lowest number of voids (3.0), whereas those obturated with lateral condensation showed the highest number (3.9) and the differences was statistically significant. The canals that obturated with Soft core showed the highest mean of voids diameter ( 0.77 mm) , whereas those obturated with E&Q master and lateral condensation had the lowest mean (0.62 mm and 0.61 mm) respectively, and the differences were statistically significant. The percentage of outer voids was higher for all techniques than the inner voids. The presence of inner voids was the highest in canals that obturated with soft core system (9.230%). Conclusion: E&Q master of obturation show the lowest number of voids. Obturation with Soft core show the highest mean of voids diameter. In all obturation techniques, the outer voids was higher than inner voids.


Article
Evaluation of Density and Homogeneity of Three Different Root Canal Obturation Techniques: A Three –Dimensional Computed Tomography In Vitro Study

Authors: Ahmed S. Mustafa
Pages: 17-23
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Abstract

The aim of this in vitro study was to compare three dimensionally the density and homogeneity of cold lateral compaction, warm vertical compaction and guttaflow root canal obturation techniques using computed tomography. Thirty canals of 12 mm from extracted lower single canal premolars were selected then instrumented and divided randomly into 3 groups with 10 roots in each group. Group I was obturation with cold lateral compaction technique, group II was obturated with warm vertical compaction technique and group III was obturated with guttaflow system. The specimens were then analyzed for the density and homogeneity in both vertical and horizontalsections in apical, middle and coronal third with 1 mm section thickness using computed tomography. The data obtained in hounsefield units were subjected to statistical analysis. In conclusionguttaflow was superior in the apical part and none of the tested obturation techniques can achieve three dimensional dense and homogenous obturation from apical to coronal parts of root.


Article
Microleakage of Root Canal Sealed with Temporary Endodontic Sealing Materials

Authors: Rajaa T .Sulieman
Pages: 24-29
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Abstract

To measure the microleakage of different materials used as temporary endodontic sealing materials and to compare between them. Sixty sound human premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose, caries and cracks free were used. Teeth were divided into 6 groups depending on type of temporary materials (glass ionomer cement, zinc phosphate cement, amalgam, temporary filling "zinc oxide eugenol") for temporization and control groups (negative and positive). For each tooth, an access opening was done followed by instrumentation, irrigation and dryness. Then application of different temporary materials. Evaluation of marginal microleakage (tooth – restoration interface) were done by using dye penetration test. The study was done in Department of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Mosul. The results showed significant differences (p< 0.05) in marginal microleakage among groups tested. But there were no significant difference between buccal and lingual tooth restoration – interface for each group. Glass ionomer cement showed less microleakage at tooth – restoration interface when compared with other temporary filling materials which used in this study. Glass ionomer cement has superioer effect on reduction of microleakage when compared with other temporary filling,when used for temporization had more ability to reduce microleakage than zinc phosphate cement, amalgam and lastly temporary filling (zinc oxide eugenol).


Article
Experimental Study and Mathematical Modeling for Corrosion of Amalgam at Different Periods

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Abstract

This work involves experimental study for corrosion of amalgam as filling material after different period time (0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 42 days) in artificial saliva by electrochemical method to estimate corrosion parameters such as corrosion potential Ecorr, corrosion current density icorr, and Tafel slopes bc & ba. The results of polarization resistance which calculated according to Stern- Geary equation indicates that the resistance of amalgam was increased during the experimental period due to stable phases which produced between mercury and other powders in amalgam such as Sn–Hg and Ag–Hg, in addition to Ag–Cu and Ag–Sn phases. Cyclic polarization test shows that the reverse scan curves meet the forward scan curve along the passive range.Numerical modeling was achieved to estimate the corrosion behavior of amalgam in artificial saliva through longer period time, the results of this modeling shows that values of polarization resistance for amalgam at long time of filling decreases with time, but after 2200 days of filling, i.e. after at least 6 years.


Article
Effect of Addition of ZrO2 on Biaxial Flexural Strength of Calcium Phosphate Ceramics

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Abstract

Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of addition of ZrO2 on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of ceramics fabricated using a conventional powder technology. Various compositions of hydroxyapatite (HAp) Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and zirconia powder ZrO2, ranging from 10 to 90 wt% ZrO2, were prepared using a wet mixing process. Ten compacts (13.5mm3mm) were made for each group, pressed and sintered in air at sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1450oC for up to 12 hours. The bulk density, porosity, linear shrinkage and BFS. The porosity reduced and linear shrinkage increased with increasing sintering temperature and amounts of zirconia, whereas the sintering time had little effect. The highest mean value achieved for the BFS was 26920 MPa for a composition of 70% ZrO2 and 30% HAp fired at 1450oC for 6 hours. From the experimental results can be conclude that sintering temperature and composition affect densification behaviour of calcium phosphate/ ZrO2 composites. The BFS increases with a reduction of porosity and increases with both sintering temperature and additions of ZrO2. It was noted that there is considerable scope for improvement in the BFS values by reducing the porosity of these composites.


Article
Shrinkage Deformation of Three Different Light Cure Composite Resin Using Image Correlation Method

Authors: Fanar T. Abdul Hammed
Pages: 47-53
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Abstract

The study performed were to measured the amount of shrinkage deformation of resin composites with and without bonding agent. The shrinkage deformation of three types of composite resin (Ecusphere, Densply, CHARISMA) in cavities was studied using image correlation method. The cylindrical cavity in extracted teeth ( premolors) are to examine the shrinkage behavior on the top free surface. The cavities filled with resin after spreading a bonding agent are irradiated using LED unit, also performed on the cavities without bonding agent. One way analysis of variance and MOIRE analysis were used for statistical analysis. The shrinkage behavior was different in the cavities prepared with and without bonding agent. Polymerization of dental composites is characterized by heterogeneous deformation patterns with variable shrinkage values at different locations within the material.


Article
Evaluation the Actual and Effective Symphysis to Detect the Direction of Mandibular Rotation in Iraqi Sample (Cephalometric Study)

Authors: Bahn Gh. Agha
Pages: 54-60
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Abstract

This study is attempted to find out if the actual and effective symphysis are correlated with the measurements of mandibular rotation and can be used to detect the direction of mandibular growth. Ninety five Iraqi adult patients (54 females and 41 males)with an age ranged between 18-31 years collected among patients having Cl I skeletal and occlusal relations and full permanent dentition regardless the third molars were chosen for this study. Each person was subjected to clinical examination and digital true lateral cephalometric radiograph. The radiographs were analyzed by using AutoCAD 2007 computer program to measure the two symphyseal measurements with eleven measurements for mandibular rotation. Descriptive statistics were obtained from the measurements of both genders; independent samples t-test was performed to evaluate the gender differences, while Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to find the correlation of actual and effective symphysis with the mandibular rotation measurements. Actual and effective symphysis were not significantly differing between genders, while facial heights were significantly higher in males. Regarding the mandibular rotation angles, only SN-MP, saddle (N-S-Ar), and the sum of the posterior angles (Sum PA)were significantly higher in females, while PP-MP, FMA, articular (S-Ar-Go), and gonial (Ar-Go-Me) angles showed non-significant higher mean values in males. For both genders and the total sample, the actual symphysis didn’t show any significant correlation with the facial heights and the mandibular rotation angles, on the contrary the effective symphysis showed in both genders and the total sample significant positive correlations with Jarabak ratio, and significant negative correlations with SN-MP, PP-MP, FMA, and the sum of the posterior angles. In males and the total samples, the saddle angle (N-S-Ar) significantly positively correlated with the effective symphysis, while gonial angle (Ar-Go-Me) was significantly negatively correlated with it. Articular angle (S-Ar-Go) only significantly negatively correlated with the effective symphysis in the total sample. Effective symphysis is a good predictor of the direction of mandibular rotation, while actual symphysis is a poor predictor.


Article
Evaluation of Carisolv in the Chemico-Mechanical Removal of Carious Dentine in Primary Molars (In vivo study)

Authors: Huda E.A. Al-Rubaye
Pages: 61-70
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Abstract

Caries removal by the Chemo-mechanical technique involves the application of chemical agents, to cause a selective softening of the carious dentine and facilitate removal by gentle excavation. Carisolv is one such new chemical agent used in this minimal invasive technique of carious dentine removal. The aims of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Carisolv in the chemo-mechanical removal of carious dentine in primary teeth, the time taken for caries removal and to evaluate the restorations radiographically. Forty primary 1st and 2nd molars with dentinal carious lesions were excavated using this technique of caries removal. After isolation of the involved tooth, the Carisolv " new gel" marketed by Mediteam Dental AB (Goteborg, Sweden) was applied then the superficial softened carious dentine was gently excavated and scraped using a spoon excavator, the procedure repeated until the cavity was free from caries and the cavity was checked for remaining caries using an explorer. The time taken for the removal of carious dentine, beginning from the application of the gel until the completion of the procedure was evaluated using a stopwatch. After the placement of the restoration an intra-oral periapical radiograph was taken for immediate evaluation and after a period of six months, the longevity of the restorations and the presence of secondary caries at the restoration- dentine interface were evaluated radiographically. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the soft carious dentine was removed more effectively than the hard carious dentine and the removal of the soft carious dentine required a shorter period of time (4.96±0.99) minutes when compared to the removal of hard carious dentine (6.09±1.04) minutes and on radiographic evaluation of the restoration, none of the treated lesions showed the presence of secondary caries. In conclusion, the chemico-mechanical caries removal technique using Carisolv proved to be an effective atraumatic treatment modality with potential interest for use in clinical pediatric dentistry.


Article
Comparing the Effects of Denture Base Materials on Hygiene of Mucosal Denture Bearing Area

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Abstract

This study attempted to evaluate the effects of using partial denture on the oral mucous membrane of the denture bearing area between 48 patients attended the private clinic seeking RPD treatment , two types of denture material were used (Hard or heat cured acrylic partial denture and flexible(Nylon) partial denture) .Flexible dentures exhibited viscoelastic behaviour that lead to improvement in masticatory function and patients comfort compared with hard dentures .Flexible dentures showed little effects on the mucosa of denture bearing area and little changes on the mucosa, but there were high influences on the soft tissues properties with using hard acrylic denture type . Denture hygiene found mainly fair in both hard and flexible(nylon) denture base materials.


Article
Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis with 940nm Diode Laser

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Abstract

Background & objectives: Ulcers in the mouth (recurrent aphthous stomatitis) are very common and may vary in size from very small to very large. The exact cause of mouth ulcers isn’t known but acidic foods and stress are thought to be factors, as well as local traumatic damage such as that caused vigorous toothbrushing. Although uncomfortable, small ulcers are tolerable, but large ulcers can last for up to 2 weeks and greatly affect the ability to eat, drink and even talk. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis by application of 940 nm diode laser irradiation & its effect on the duration and pain sensation. Materials and methods: A total number of 32 patients having at least 2 ulcers for each. Those patients were enrolled in this study using a split mouth design. The study included two groups, The experimental (study group) consisted of thirty two ulcers ( in the 32 patients ) were subjected to 940 nm laser irradiation & control group comprised of thirty two ulcers ( in the same 32 patients ) left without laser irradiation. Pain scores were recorded before and after laser treatment. The patient subjected to follow-up visits until complete healing of the ulcers occurred. Results: There were immediate changes in the pain scores of the experimental group just after diode laser application. The duration of the control group lesions ranged between (7-14) days, while the lesion in the experimental group subsided with a range between (4-12) days. Conclusion: 1. Single session of diode laser irradiation can be used to produce immediate, dramatic and sustained analgesic effect on RAS lesion. 2. The lesion duration was significantly reduced to about 40% from that of control lesion

Keywords

diode laser --- aphtous --- ulcer --- RAS


Article
Efficacy of Intra-Pocket Application of Two Antimicrobial Agents as an Adjunct to Mechanotherapy of Chronic Periodontitis (a Comparative Study)

Authors: Raed A. Badiea
Pages: 83-93
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Abstract

Numerous studies have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of locally delivered antimicrobials as an adjunct to mechanotherapy in treatment of chronic periodontitis. Some studies were resulted in improved clinical outcomes and others were not. The aim of this study is evaluation of the efficacy and safety of subgingival application of a (10 mg metronidazole gel), (1% chlorhexidine collagen gel) and (CHLOSITE® GHIMAS, Italy) gel which is a combination of two chlorhexidine formulations: 0.5% chlorhexidine digluconate and 1.0% chlorhexidine dihydrochloride), as an adjunct to mechanical treatment (scaling and root planing) (SRP) of chronic periodontitis. A total of 120 sites from 15 patients with age range of (24-55 years), who had periodontal pockets measuring 5-9 mm and had been diagnosed as chronic periodontitis cases, were selected for the study. The 4-quadrant split-mouth design was used in this study. The pocket sites in each patient were randomly assigned to 4 groups (30 sites for each): (Group A) GA=(SRP) only. (Group B) GB=(SRP) + 10 mg metronidazole gel. (Group C) GC=(SRP) + 1% chlorhexidine collagen gel. (Group D) GD=(SRP) + CHLOSITE® Clinical parameters including (plaque index PI), (gingival index GI), (gingival bleeding index) GBI, (probing pocket depth PPD) & (clinical attachment level CAL) were measured and recorded at baseline before any treatment at (day 0) then the treatment was performed at the same day, The clinical parameters were also recorded at (day 30) & (day 90), in the selected sites of the four groups. The results of this study obviously showed a statistically significant reduction of all clinical parameters in all groups at (day 30 & day 90) from the base line (day 0). GD=(SRP) + CHLOSITE® revealed a reduction of the clinical parameters than groups (A, B and C) and the differences were highly statistically significant


Article
An in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Experimental Chlorhexidine Gluconate Solution Using Agar Diffusion Test

Authors: Maha M.Yahya --- Maan M.Nayif --- Amer A.Taqa
Pages: 94-100
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of three different concentrations of a newly produced CHX powder prepared locally in Mosul College of Dentistry in the Department of Dental Basic Sciences( approved by Nineveh Drug Industry (NDI,licence no.2256 in26/9/2002), and to compare it with the same concentrations of commercially available CHX solution against three bacterial isolates commonly isolated from infected root canals, using the agar diffusion test. Astandard agar diffusion test was utilized to investigate the antibacterial activity of different concentrations of experimental chlorhexidine gluconate solution(NDI no.2256)and acommercially available chlorhexidine solution.The diameter of the microbial inhibition zones were measured in millimeter around each paper disk containing the experimental solutions. Data were analyzed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (a = 0.05). The results revealed that all tested microorganisms were affected by different concentrations of CHX powder(NDI no.2256) except for the lowest concentration (0.1%). Similar results were observed for CHX solution. The new prepared CHX powder(NDI n.2256)can be used aroot canal irrigant.


Article
Gingival Health and Alveolar Bone Loss Among Iraqi Overweight Primary School - Age Pupils (Radiographic Study)

Authors: Sanaa J. AL-Qasab
Pages: 101-106
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Many studies have found a strong association between obesity and various clinical and radiographical aspects of periodontal disease, most of these studies were directed toward adult age group only, while younger ages were omitted. To provide radiographic data about the effect of overweight on periodontal health status among Iraqi primary school-age pupils.The sample of this research was consist of 90 pupils of both gender (45 girls and 45 boys) with age range (6-12)years. All were examined clinically for bleeding on probing (BOP) and radiographically for alveolar bone loss (ABL). According to their percentile ranking the pupils in each gender group were divided into 3 subgroups (healthy weight, at risk of overweight and overweight). each subgroup was consist of (15 child). Greater mean values for BOP index were recorded for pupils in overweight group (0.8 for girls and 0.66 for boys) in comparison to those in healthy (0.26 for girls and 0.46 for boys) and at risk (0.4 for girls and 0.46 for boys), also greater mean values for ABL radiographically were recorded for pupils in overweight groups (1.53 mm for girls and 1.66 mm for boys) in comparison to those healthy (1.00 mm for girls and 0.8 mm for boys) and at risk (1.06 mm for girls and 1.46 mm for boys). According to paired t- test most of these differences were found to be statistically significant. On the other hand, No significant difference were recorded between different study groups on gender basis. There is a clear relation between obesity and periodontal health on both clinical and radiographical examinations.

Keywords

obesity --- bmi --- bop --- abl.


Article
Maxillary Sinus Measurements in Different Age Groups of Human Cadavers

Authors: Mohammad A. Abd-alla --- Abdul-Jabbar J. Mahdi
Pages: 107-112
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Abstract

The maxillary air sinus is the largest air sinus among the four air paranasal sinuses, which is a cavity in the body of maxilla. It is pyramidal in shape consisting of base, apex and four sides; its base comprises the thin lateral wall of nasal cavity. This study carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Baghdad and the Forensic Medicine Unit in Tikrit Teaching Hospital during the period from January 2010 to July 2011. A randomized sample of 110 human cadavers that arranged in four different age groups and dissected to study the three dimensions of both maxillary sinuses in both sexes by using a standard flexible tape measure or vernier caliper. The mean value of the maxillary sinus length in males was (36.4 ± 4.6 mm) and in females was (33.9 ± 4.2 mm); from these results, the mean value of males was significantly greater than that of females. On the other side, the mean value of the maxillary sinus width in males was (27.4 ± 4 mm) and in females was (25.3 ± 3.9 mm); therefore, these results demonstrate that the maxillary sinuses were wider in males than females. For males, the mean value of the maxillary sinus height was (35.1 ± 3.9 mm) and for females was (30.8 ± 3.6 mm). From these findings, a higher significant difference between the mean values was found; also there was a high significant difference between the two genders because the mean value of the maxillary sinus height for males was significantly higher than that for females. According to age groups of the present study, group 1 of maxillary sinus found to be still in growing state and not reaching its full size. Group 2 showing an extensive growth in maxillary sinus length and width, especially on the right side. Group 3 might partly showing growth in maxillary sinus length and height, which indicates that at this age the maxillary sinus reaches its full height. Finally, group 4 might partly indicates that the maxillary sinus reaches its full growth if it fails to reach it in group 3. The findings of the present study disagree with that done by Parks (1) who made measurements for the maxillary sinuses on normal Korean adults using computed tomography, since these differences were may be due to ethnic variations. Also due to race differences, this study disagree with Fernandes (2) who studied the maxillary sinus in European and Zulu using computed tomography


Article
Comparison of Three Dimensional Dental Software Computed Tomography Findings with Real Time Surgical Approaches for Impacted Teeth

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Abstract

An exact localization of impacted teeth is often difficult to assume by using two dimensional conventional radiological techniques like OPG or dental films. In contrast to these two dimensional imaging method, the Dental slice Software Computed Tomography offers a three-dimensional imaging of maxilla-facial region, providing the opportunity to study objectives in all standard plans with three-dimension, reconstructed and multisection views. The aim of this study is to prove the effectiveness of the Dental slice Software Computed Tomography in evaluating the position of impacted teeth as a presurgical diagnostic aid. 25 patients with total of 40 impacted teeth were classified and evaluated by three sets .The first set of radiographs consist of traditional two dimensional images(per apical , occlusal films and OPG).The second set comprised three-dimensional views obtained from a Dental slice Soft ware Computed Tomography and a third set which was surgical interventions results. Teeth crowns were classified into: type I (buccal or labial), type II (palatal or lingual), type III (half distance of the labio-palatal or bucco-palatal ,labio-lingual or bucco-lingual) according to their position within dental arches. The dental soft ware Computed Tomography succeeded to identify the exact situations of whole 40(100%) impacted teeth crowns that were confirmed surgically in the same anatomical locations. On the other hand there was a Failure of 33(82.5%) crowns that could not be determine their positions by two dimensional images and proved surgically in opposite sides. Three dimensional Computed Tomography is a helpful and stimulating tools by providing the surgeons a perfect mulitislices: axial, coronal, sagital, two dimensional and three dimensional images in one visit and once exposure and permits the oral surgeons to visualize the position and surgical anatomy of the tooth as it will be in the operating theatre, thus establishing sufficient patterns for adequate surgical planning ,reduce of need for exploratory procedures with less morbidity to the osseous structure and time saving.

Table of content: volume:3 issue:1