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مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2014 المجلد: 45 العدد: 1

Article
ESTIMATING SORGHUM LEAF AREA BY MEASURING ONE LEAF LENGTH
تقدير المساحة الورقية للذرة البيضاء باعتماد ورقة واحدة

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الخلاصة

To estimate sorghum plant leaf area in a fast and accurate method, seeds of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (cv. Incath) were planted at the field of the Dept. of Field Crop/College of Agric./University of Baghdad. That was in spring 2013 with a field experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each of 3×2.5 m. Each plot (replicate) included 6 rows of 50×15 cm plant spacings. When plants reached anthesis, 5 plants were taken as working sample from each replicate. This will sum 100 plants sample but later, 6 plants were excluded due to damage. Leaves of the 94 plants were measured for length and maximum width, then leaf areas were calculated using conventional formula. The plant leaf area was run for correlation coefficient with leaf area of leaves from top plant to bottom (1 to 10). The highest significant r values were the best with leaves 4 to 7. However, leaf 4 gave highest r value (r=0.888**). Mean leaf area of plant was divided by leaf 4 leaf area to find the constant (8.242). This constant was multiplied by each leaf 4 area to estimate plant leaf area. The t-test between observed and calculated plant leaf areas approved that these two measurements were similar (α=1.0). The final equation recommended to estimate leaf area in sorghum is equal to length × width of leaf no. 4 ×6.18 (6.18 LW4) after multiplying the constant 0.75×leaf no. 4 constant.


Article
EFFECT OF GA3 ON GERMINATION CHARACTERISTICS AND SEEDLING GROWTH UNDER SALT STRESS IN MAIZE
تأثير حامض الجبريليك في خصائص الانبات ونمو البادرة تحت الاجهاد الملحي في الذرة الصفراء

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الخلاصة

A factorial experiment was carried out in the pots during fall 2012 and spring seasons 2013 with two factors in order to study the effect of seeds soaking with gibberellic acid to improve attributes of germination and seedling growth under effect of salt stress in maize (cv. 5018). First treatment was soaking seeds with gibberllic acid GA3 300 ppm for 24 h and non soaked. Planting media were distilled water only, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 ppm NaCl. The results showed superiority seeds soaked with gibberellic acid in giving least averages for faster start of germination, the ratio of sodium to potassium , the highest averages for the percentage of germination in the first and final count and chlorophyll content , but for the concentrations of NaCl the planting media of distilled water only(Control) gave lowest averages for faster start and ratio of Na+: K+, and the highest averages for the first and the final count, but noted increase average of faster start of germination and the ratio of sodium to potassium and low germination percentage in the first count and the final when increase the concentrations of NaCl increased. The results showed significant effect of intraction between soaking treatment or non with gibberellic acid and NaCl concentration in most of the studied attributes in most circumstances. We conclude that stimulate seed with gibberellic acid led to improved germination and its properties, also gibberellic acid had role in improving chemical indicators associated with plant tolerance to salinity such as increased chlorophyll content and low ratio of sodium to potassium seedling for seedling of stimulated seed with gibberellic acid compared with non stimulated seed. We recommend to soak maize seeds with gibberellic acid (300 ppm) for 24 h before planting, especially in the salt affected soil, also carry out further studies on influence of soaking seeds or seeds stimulated with gibberellic acid on growth and yield attributes of maize under the influence of saline stress.


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH IRON AND ZINC ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SESAME
تأثير رش الحديد والزنك في نمو وحاصل السمسم

المؤلفون: A. S. Mahdi عمار صادق مهدي
الصفحات: 18-25
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الخلاصة

بهدف معرفة استجابة السمسم للتغذية الورقية بالحديد والزنك نفذت تجربة حقلية خلال الموسمين 2012 و2013 في حقل قسم المحاصيل الحقلية–كلية الزراعة-جامعة بغداد باتباع تصميم القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة بأربعة مكررات لدراسة تأثير رش المغذيات (رش الحديد بتركيز 150 ملغم Fe.لتر-1 ورش الزنك بتركيز 100 ملغم Zn.لتر-1 بصورة مفردة ورش العنصرين معاً Fe150+Zn100 فضلا عن معاملة المقارنة) في صنفين من السمسم (سومر والوداع). اظهرت النتائج تفوق الصنف سومر في متوسط ارتفاع النبات وعدد الافرع الثمرية وعدد العلب الثمرية بالنبات وحاصل البذور ونسبة تركيز الحديد بالأوراق بينما تفوق صنف الوداع في النسبة المئوية للزيت ونسبة تركيز الزنك بالأوراق, بينما لم يكن هناك تأثير معنوي للصنف وتراكيز المغذيات المضافة في وزن البذرة. كان التداخل بين الصنفين وتراكيز العناصر المضافة معنوياً في جميع الصفات المدروسة باستثناء متوسط وزن البذرة للموسمين, وبلغ اعلى حاصل من البذور عند رش الصنف سومر بالتوليفة Fe150+Zn100 بلغ 1388.53 و1495.49 كغم.هـ-1 بينما اعطى الصنف الوداع مع معاملة المقارنة (من دون رش) 670.40 و707.65 كغم.هـ-1 للموسمين, بالتتابع. نستنتج من هذه الدراسة وجود استجابة للصنفين للرش الورقي بالعناصر الصغرى عن طريق تحسن اداء النبات بإضافة هذه العناصر بالتراكيز المستخدمة وأن افضل النتائج كانت عند اضافة العنصرين معاً. نوصي بإجراء المزيد من التجارب على أصناف أخرى باختلاف المغذيات والتراكيز.


Article
EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF COMBINED IMPLEMENT FOR FURROWING, FERTILIZATION AND SEEDING
تقويم كفاءة اداء الة مركبة للمروز والتسميد والزراعة

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الخلاصة

A triple-purpose combine implement has been assembled manufactured and in the Department of Agricultural Machines workshop to be used in furrow, fertilization and seed planting. It consists of triple implements included,furrowing and seeding and fertilization. A field experiment was conducted in one of the fields of the Faculty of Agriculture - University of Baghdad in 2013 in silt loam soil in order to assess the efficiency of the locally manufactured combine implement. New Holland TD80 tractor was used with the combined implement as a machinery unit. Six speeds of the tractor were used included; 3.69, 4.23, 5.61, 6.27, 8.33 and 11.17 km/h, which represented the main plots and the depth of furrows included 15, 20 and 25 cm, which represented the subplots were used in this study. Width of furrow, practical productivity, the amount of seed and the distance between the gore and the fuel consumption were measured in this experiment. The experiment was carried out with under the (RCBD) with three replications. Maize crop Class 5018 was planted in the experiment The results can be summarized as fallows; A speed of 6.27 km/h gave the best rate for furrow width (77cm), the best rate for seeds (30.60 Kg/hac) and the best rate of distance between the gore reaching 26 cm. While speed 11.17 km/h outperformed in giving the lowest rate of fuel consumption as it amounted to 5.99 l/h, the rate of the practical productivity was 2.11 hac/h, the best rate of furrow depth at 25 cm, the best rate of furrow width at 76.41, the best distance between gore at 26.17 cm and quantity of seeds reaching 37.04 kg/h and gave furrow depth of 15 cm and a higher rate of the practical productivity amounted to 1.24 hac/h and the lowest rate of fuel consumption amounted to 8.91 l/h.As for the significant of overlap between the speed and furrow depth, it has impacted significantly in all traits. The test the combine implement proved the success to be used in the work of furrow opening at a suitable width and depth for the cultivation of maize, as well as the right amount for seeding and fertilizing and within the distance recommended by the competent agricultural circles of Ministry of Agriculture.


Article
EFFECT OF TRACTOR SPEED AND IRRIGATION TUBES INSTALLATION SYSTEM ON SOME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR COMBINED IMPLEMENT
تأثير سرعة الجرار ونظام تنصيب انابيب الري على بعض مؤشرات الاداء للألة المركبة

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted in a field of the College of Agriculture/University of Baghdad in 2013 to evaluate the effect of tractor speed and irrigation tubes installation system on some performance indicators for combine implement designed and manufactured locally used for tillage and installation of irrigation tubes with Massey Ferguson MF (650) 140 hp as a machine unit . Three levels of tractor speeds included 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 km/m which represented main plots and two levels of irrigation installation Tubes systems included subsurface installation system and surface installation system(drip irrigation)represented sub plot’s study in this experiment included: Slippage percentage practical productivity, field efficiency and fuel consumption were measured in this study.Split plot design under randomized complete block design with three replications were used in this study . The results were as follow:the combination between practical speed 4.50km/h and surface installation system (drip irrigation) was superior in getting less slippage percentage 6.36%. The interaction between practical speed 6.50 km/h and surface installation system (drip irrigation) was superior in getting less rate of fuel consumption , highest practical productivity 1.29 ha/hr, field efficiency 81.90. We recommend to used combine implement Used for Tillage and Subsurface Irrigation Tubes Instillation.


Article
ROLE OF IRRIGATION LEVEL AND DRIWATER ADDITION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF GLADIOLUS IN CALCAREOUS AND GYPSIFEROUS SOILS
دور مستويات الري وﺇضافة المادة الحافظة للرطوبةDriwater في نمو وحاصل الكلاديولـس في تربتين كلسية وجبسية

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الخلاصة

With the aim to know role of irrigation level and (Driwater) addition into two soils calcareous and gypsiferous on growth and yield of Gladiolus (Gladiolus hortulanus) the factorial experiment conducted by using Split - Split Plot Within Completely Randomized Block Design with three factors and tow replication .the firs factor included two types of soils calcareous and gypsiferous (main plot). The second factor included three levels of added water after depletion (60, 40 and 20%) from available water (sup-plot), and The third factor included preservative of the moisture (Driwater) with the treatment comparison without the addition (sup-sup plot),Led added of (Driwater) significant decrease in reducing number of irrigations and the depth of applied water and increase in water use efficiency also significant increase in corms weight and total yield corms and cormelet amounted 13.15 ,15.6% respectively, the calcareous soil showed a significant superior clear on the gypsiferous soil achieving increase in leave area and duration to first basal floret opening, while Characterized by soil gypsiferous with reducing the depth of applied water and increase in water use efficiency and increase in the number of florets opened total through vase life and corms diameter and cormelet number. Showed interaction bilateral between soil type and irrigation level at treatment a level of addition after the depletion 60% of available water in calcareous soil significant increase in plant height and and corms weight is superior to the rest of the transactions. Showed interaction tripartite for three factors at treatment add (Driwater) in soil calcareous in level of addition after the depletion 60% of available water significant increase in corms diameter and cormelet weight is superior to the rest of the transactions.


Article
EFFECT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH OF ZAHDI DATE PALM OFFSHOOT
تأثير نظام الري والتسميد الكيمياوي في نمو فسائل نخيل الزهدي

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted during 1/9/2006 until 1/11/2009 at Al–Rabi date palm station/ Zafaraniah/ Baghdad to study the effect of two irrigation systems (drip and furrow), four nitrogen levels (0, 72, 108, 144) gm N/offshoot and potassium (0, 50, 75, 100) gm K2O/offshoot on the growth of date palm offshoot. The results indicated that the best growth in treatment under drip irrigation (144 gm N/offshoot /year + 100 gm K2O/offshoot /year) under the drip irrigation system. This treatment was suprior in content of N, P and K in leaves, number of leaves and their tall. The drip irrigation system led to significant increase content of N and P in leaflets, while do not effect on the K content in leaflets, number of leaves and their tall. Addition of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers caused insignificant increases in N and K contents in leaflets, while this increase did not be significant for P pinnae content. With 0-30 cm depth there was a significant increase in nitrogen content under drip irrigation in this layer, the addition nitrogen and potassium fertilizers caused a significant increases in nitrogen soil content, while this increase did not be significant for phosphorus soil content in the same layer, in the same time there was a significant deference in N, P, and K soil contents in the same layer. Addition of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers caused a significant increase in leaves number and there tall, while the irrigation system did not record difference in plant growth.


Article
EXTENSION ORGANIZATION REALITY OF RURAL WEMAN IN SOME MIDDLE OF IRAQ PROVINCES AND THE METHODS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT
واقع تنظيم إرشاد المرأة الريفية في بعض محافظات المنطقة الوسطى في العراق وسبل تطويره

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الخلاصة

The aim of this research was to identify extension organization reality of rural woman in Iraq and to determine its problems and methods of development to achieve research objectives. A layout for organization reality of rural woman consisted of 38 items was prepared and distributed on 9 areas, they were: organization objectives, organization levels, organization functions, organization tasks, job staff, communication, control, flow-up and evaluation. Data were collected during 25/12/2013 until 10/4/2013 from 70 employees working in the unit of extension organization of rural woman in the provinces of Baghdad, Babylon, Wasit and Karbala. Which were chose as research regions through questionnaire and interviews. The results showed that absence of unit for rural woman in agricultural branches and the low number of workers especially from women in extension field. The results also showed absence of extension objectives and tasks document and limited level extension organization of rural woman modern of training and extension activities executed by the directorate of Extension and Agricultural Cooperation in the field of rural women in 2010-2013 is 10.3 activity/year. The results also showed the weakness of flow-up and evaluation of training and extension activities executed.


Article
SEROPREVALENCE STUDY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS IN IRAQ ON SOME OF RUMINANT ANIMALS
دراسة مسحية لداء المقوسات Toxoplasmosisعلى بعض الحيوانات المجترة في العراق

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الخلاصة

This study was conductedat at the Department of Central Veterinary Laboratories and Researches CVL/Serology unit/General Company for Veterinary for the detection of antibodies Toxoplasma Gondii in the sera of five kinds of animals (sheep, goats, cows, buffaloes and camels) in the all of Iraq's provinces except the province of Kurdistan depending on the census in 2008. 3986 samples collected randomly and tested by ELISA using diagnostic kit from (ID Vet. Company) for ruminants. Survey showed that the infection ratio of the Iraq, s provinces for all animals is 19.5%. Results by animals type in sheep is 21.2%, goats 21.3%, cows14.6%, buffalo 8.6% and in camels 37.5%. It is the first time in Iraq using this diagnostic kit in ruminants and especially for detecting antibodies in camels and when we re-examined the same positive samples showed the same result. province of Babylon Showed the highest seropositivity percentage in sheep 39.5%, followed by the province of Al-Anbar, and by 34.4% and the province of Nineveh, 30%, and recorded Wasit province, less than the proportion 6%, Either with respect to the results of goats showed Salahuddin province, the highest seropositivity percentage 71.4% , followed by the province Anbar, 40.4% and 33.3% in Basra whenthe Wasit province, showed the lowest 4%, while the province of Maysan, Karbala and Najaf had been free from infection .Results for the cows showed the province of ThiQar, the highest seropositivity percentage 25%, followed by Diyala province, 21% and the provinces of Salahuddin and Al-Anbar 19.4%, while the province of Baghdad, showed the lowest 5%, the province of Basra and Najaf were free from infection. As for the results of the survey of the buffalo showed Wasit province, the highest seropositivity percentage is 50%, followed by the province of Diyala 33.3% ThiQar 15%, the lowest in the province of Basra 4.3% Nineveh, Kirkuk, Najaf , Muthanna , Diwaniyia , Karbala , Salahuddin was free from infection.Results for the camels showed the province of Diwaniya the highest percentage of infection100%. Followed by Maysan 77.7% and 66.6% Muthanna, province Nineveh, Basra, ThiQar, Babil, Najaf, Waist was free from infection.

الكلمات الدلالية

sheep --- goat --- cow --- buffaloes --- camels --- ELISA --- Toxoplasmosis. --- الاغنام --- الماعز --- الابقار --- الجاموس --- الابل --- الاليزا --- داء المقوسات.


Article
عدد نماذج التداخل الجيني العاملة في النبات النامي تحت عوامل الشد
NUMBER OF GENES INTERACTIVE MODELS IN PLANTS GROWN UNDER STRESS VARIABLES

المؤلفون: M. Al-Khafajy مدحت مجيد الساهوكي
الصفحات: 99-104
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الخلاصة

To acquire more information on genotype x environment interactions in plants grown under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, and to understand a new approach on the complex mechanism of tolerance, a formula was set-up to estimate the number of genes interactive models (NGIM) acting in plants under stress. Some of previous results and ideas on this topic were taken into consideration, including morpho-physiological traits and molecular approaches. The formula was: NGIM= n2-x, when n= number of stress variables and x= n-1. Genes of stress variables were sketched as circles, and the sectors of each group of genes and their interactions were identified. Sketches explained that in two stress variables, these sectors will appear, as two of genes groups acting alone, and one sector represents their interaction. If three variables taken, there will be seven sectors, three of them of genes groups acting alone, three sectors of two groups interactions, and one sector of three groups interaction. In case of four variables, four sectors will be of genes groups acting alone, four sectors of two groups interactions, four sectors of three groups interactions, and one sector of the four groups interaction (total 13). In case of five variables taken, the sectors will be 21, in case of six variables taken, the sectors will be 31, and for seven variables the sectors will be 43. Sectors of eight variables will be 57, namely, 8 sectors of genes groups acting alone, 8 sectors of two groups interactions, 8 sectors of three groups interactions, 8 sectors of four groups interactions, 8 sectors of five groups interactions, 8 sectors of six groups interactions, 8 sectors of seven groups interactions, and one sector for the eight groups interaction. However, using this formula for any number of stress variables will give similar trend of interactions. The results of applying this formula showed the complexity of multi-gene actions and interactions in plants grown under stress variables. This implies the need of a larger area of plots to grow thousands of genotypes individuals repeated under several levels of that stress, several traits taken under study, and genetically wide genotypes, planted in a honeycomb design to enable the breeder identifying tolerant individuals and/or genotypes under those environments.

جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: