Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:53 issue:Special Issue

Article
Monitoring 3rd of March 2011 Dust Storm in Iraq Using Meteosat 9 Images
مراقبة العواصف الغبارية الهابة على العراق ليوم الثالث من اذار 2011 باستخدام صور القمر ( Meteosat 9 )

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Abstract

Dust storms phenomenon were studied qualitatively in this research with the aides of Meteosat-9 images that has been used for monitoring the path and coverage of the dust storm. The monitoring of dust storm movement were done by using true colour composite image supplied by Europe’s meteorological satellite agency EUMETSAT. The Image processing techniques are applied by using ERDAS 8.4 package, where in the first step the images are corrected by Geometric Correction technique for the purpose of obtaining images from which to read the real geographical coordinates. Dust storm coverage area was calculated by using the supervise classification mechanism, as well as been identifying and tracking the change of dust cloud during different stages of dust storm period. The speed of dust storm were calculated by identifying the front pattern of the dust cloud and found to be (37.62) km / h.

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Article
The effect of Kirkuk Oil Refinery on Air pollution of Kirkuk City-Iraq
تاثير مصفى كركوك على التلوث الهوائي في مدينة كركوك – العراق

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Abstract

The total suspended particles (TSP) concentrations in air at Kirkuk Oil Refinery and the areas around was determined by using low volume air sampler (Sniffer) at selected locations in two periods October 2010 and March 2011. The results of average concentration of suspended particles (TSP) are higher than the permissible limits of the Iraqi National determinants of (350 μg/m3) and the world limits of (60-90 μg/m3) at the two periods: October 2010 (818.94μg/m3) and March 2011(956.8μg/m3). The little difference between the two periods reflects the little effect of the seasonal changes. Comparison of the averages of the heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cd) with the national and world limits, noticed that they are higher than these limits. Except for the concentration of Copper (Cu), at the two periods were lower than the world limits. These results represent the effect of meteorological factors on the air quality of the studied area. Consequently, the TSP and heavy metals pollutants concentrations for both sampling periods October 2010 and March 2011and the cumulative effects of both periods shown an increase at the direction away from the refinery mostly at the south east direction.


Article
Monitoring aerosols using satellite remote sensing data concurrently with ground observations in Iraq
مراقبة العوالق باستخدام بيانات اقمار التحسس النائي بالتزامن مع المشاهدات الارضية بالعراق

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Abstract

Dust particles from storms are one of the main atmospheric constituents that affect the air quality and the Earth’s climate system. Monitoring of these atmospheric constituents is only possible through satellite measurements because ground based measurements are very limited in space and time and these constituents get transported over long distance from their source region. Absorbing Aerosol index is a qualitative parameter however it does excellent job in classifying UV absorbing and non absorbing aerosols. In most areas, we can classify dust storms by the broad meteorological conditions that cause them. The AI is a measure of the change of spectral contrast in the near ultraviolet (with respect to a purely molecular atmosphere) brought about by the radiative transfer effects of UV-absorbing aerosols such as smoke , volcanic ash and desert dust in a Rayleigh scattering atmosphere. The AI is a very useful qualitative indicator to identify aerosol sources and transport patterns. In this paper we will examine the most common events that occur in Iraq concurrently with satellite observation. These events are dust storms caused by prefrontal and postfrontal winds that primarily occur in the winter, and summer dust storms caused by persistent northerlies. In this paper will conduct complete and thorough case studies of the meteorological conditions that led to the dust storm.


Article
Deposition of Major and Trace Elements From Atmosphere Over Baghdad During the Year of 2010.
تساقط العناصر الرئيسية والنزرة من الجو على مدينة بغداد عام 2010

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Abstract

Dust Samples depositions over Baghdad, from January to December 2010 were collected. The minerals and the concentration of both light elements (P, S, K, Ti, Mg, Ca, Si, Na, Al, and Fe) and heavy traces elements (Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, Sr, Rb, and Co) were measured by using x-ray diffraction and fluorescence respectively. The minerals detected by x-ray diffraction were quartz, calcite, clay, gypsum, feldspar, chloride, and plagioclase. The average range for heavy elements are highly compared with the neighbor countries and similar or less than those reported for other urban worldwide, except for Ni,As,Cr,and Sr which record the highest comparing with other countries. The pH of dust was shifted to alkalinity for all samples with mean value of 8.5.


Article
Dust storm in Erbil city as a result of climatic change in Kurdistan Region Iraq
العواصف الغبارية في مدينة اربيل كنتيجة للتغيرات المناخية في اقليم كوردستان – العراق

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Abstract

Dust storm in Iraq is a climatic phenomenon. Dust storm data from 1992 to 2009 and data of main climatic parameters rainfall (1942 to 2010) and air temperature (1992 to 2009) of Erbil Meteorological Station were analysed. Results show an increase of the number of suspended and rising dust as well as dust storms with time. An average of the above mentioned period of all types of dust storms is individually compared with the last five years. Again, there is a noticeable increasing of the number of storms. From the results it can be seen that the months May, June, July and August have the most frequent dust conditions while months January, February, November and December the least. The annual precipitation trend line for water years has a significant decreasing slope. While the average annual air temperature trend line has a significant increase.


Article
Identification of Dust Storm Sources in Iraq using Space Monitoring Tools
تحديد مصادر العواصف الغبارية في العراق باستخدام وسائل المراقبة الفضائية

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Abstract

The earth cover (soil types) of Iraq is characterized by its variation in its geological and mineral contents. A large area of Iraq can be a source for dust storms that occur in Iraq and neighboring countries. These areas are located in the north western and western parts of Iraq which are characterized by their dryness and minimum vegetation during summer season. The prevailing wind direction in Iraq comes from the northwest and is known as ( Shamal). This cold wind front meets a warm air front from the west on areas of soft and light soil cover in north western part of Iraq. This process leads to rise of huge amount of suspended dust and hence to the creation of dust storm which propagate in most parts of Iraq (middle and south). In this research we observe the occurrence frequency of dust storms as observed from space images and meteorological data. The source of dust storm is also indicated using these space tools.

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Article
Some Geochemical, textural and Radioactive Characteristics of the Sandstorms Loads Blown over Baghdad and Ramadi Cities, Middle Iraq
بعض الخصائص الجيوكيميائية والحجمية والاشعاعية لحمولات العواصف الرملية الهابة على مدينتي بغداد والرمادي – وسط العراق

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Abstract

The present study examined the characteristics of dust from sandstorms that occurred over Baghdad and Ramadi cities, middle of Iraq, from February 2009 to July 2010. The texture of the dust samples were ranged from sandy silty clay (71.4%) to sandy clayey silt (28.6 %).The mineralogical composition of the sand fractions included Quartz (52.2%, ), feldspar (6.4%, ), calcite (33%, ), gypsum (5.6%, ), dolomite (1.5%,) and heavy minerals (1.3%,). The clay minerals present included Chlorite, Illite, Montmorillonite, Palygorskite and Kaolinite. The results of heavy minerals analyses indicated that they were opaque heavy mineral, pyroxene, hornblende, zircon, chlorite, epidote and garnet. The Uranium concentration average absorbed dose and average external effective dose were calculated for dust of sandstorm at 2-4/7/2009 and 3-4/4/2010 for both cities Baghdad and Ramadi. The results for specific activity of uranium were in range of (5.43-9.56 Bg/kg) and the absorbed dose range (2.19- 5.46 nGy/h)for sandstorm at 2-4/7/2009 and the average specific activity of uranium was in range of (7.32- 18.96 Bg/kg) and the average absorbed dose (3.27- 8.98 nGy/h) for sandstorm 3-4/4/2010. All the results were lower than critical dose level, but the culmination of the dose of more than one sandstorm may have a damage effect.


Article
The Influences of the Anthropogenic Agents in Increasing the Temperature for Various Emission Scenarios.
تاثيرات العوامل البشرية في زيادة حرارة الارض من خلال سيناريوهات انبعاث مختلفة

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Abstract

Predicting future climate regionally and by space images and landscape studies indicate that the major influences is the increasing of carbon dioxide which attain to more than 350 ppm. The evidences accordingly refer to the increase in the earth temperature which attains to approximately 4 C◦ and 7.2 F◦ causes rapid inversion and changing the climate, so the surface air temperature is 22 C◦ in 1999 will be accordingly more than 26 C◦ in 2090.


Article
The variation in the Rainfall average countor lines and their effect in the dust storm frequency in Iraq
التغير في مواقع الخطوط المطرية وأثرها في الظواهر الغبارية في العراق

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Abstract

The results reflect the remarkable variation on annual rainfall between the seventies and twenty one century for all the studied meteorological stations. Therefore, there were an increase of the suspended dust over all the studied meteorological stations.

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Article
Land use and Land cover maps and the remadation of sand dune movements in Salahaddin Governorate
خرائط استخدام الارض والغطاء الارضي والمعالجات المنفذة لظاهرة زحف الكثبان الرملية المتحركة لمحافظة صلاح الدين

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Abstract

Landsat were used to constract Land use and Land cover maps for some district in Salahaddin Governorate by using ERDAS Imagine for Supervised Classification.


Article
The detection of dust storms using metsats salilites
رصد العواصف الغبارية باستخدام الاقمار الصناعية الانؤائية

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Abstract

Using metsats salilites can detect the dust storm whether in Iraq or middle east region so that interpretation of the depressions and consequently detection of possible dust storms.

Keywords

Met Sat --- dust storms --- detection --- Iraq


Article
The use of the back distribution route to detect the sources of dust storm
تحديد مصادر العواصف الترابية بأستخدام مسار الأنتشار الخلفي

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Abstract

The use of the remote sensing techniques give a good results in detection of the sources of dust storm. The results reflect that the dust concentration decreases away from their sources and it is possible to find the equation between the dust concentration and the straight vistion.


Article
Aromatic hydrocarbons multiple nuclei (PAHs) in falling dust in the province of Basra
المركبات الهيدروكربونية الاروماتية متعددة الانوية ( (PAHsفي الغبار المتساقط في محافظة البصرة

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Abstract

The study included determine the concentration of hydrocarbons aromatic multiple nuclei PAHs in dust falling in the province of Basra, for the period from October 2011 to September 2012 included five stations on the province of Basra (Zubayr and bab Al-Zubair and Qarmat -Ali and Abu Alkaseb), and has been collecting study samples per month and estimated the amount of fallout and various pollutants associated with him. The exercise was conducted to draw vehicles hydrocarbon and examined device Gas chromatography and extracted data for compounds aromatic multiple nuclei PAHs were analyzed statistically observed discriminate compound B (b) F + B (k) F and Chrysene highest rates compared compounds aromatic other stations of the study, and found an increase in concentration of compound Benz (a) anthraceneas reached 6.904 Mcgm / kg Dry weight and composite Benzo (a) pyrene concentration 6.170 Mcgm / kg in the station Bab Al-Zubair, and sacrificed the study results on site in concentrations PAHs have been recorded lower values rates concentrations vehicles aromatic PAHs in plant Abu- Al kaseb compared with other study stations.


Article
Quantitative Analysis of the Meteorological Data and their Implication for Geo-Environmental Classification Map of the Nineveh Governorate
التحليل الكمي لمعطيات الأنواء الجوية وانعكاساتها على خارطة التصنيف الجيوبيئي لمحافظة نينوى شمال العراق

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Abstract

Given the close interrelationship between the manifestations of geomorphological landforms and land use and land cover on the one hand and quantitative analysis of the Meteorological data and its implications on the classification map of the Governorate of Nineveh, on the other, was in the present study rely on the basic elements used in the style of the interpretation of visualization space successive time providing a main pillar for the diagnosis of some environmental problems, which began to suffer from Nineveh Governorate over time. Evidence suggests many of the elements in the analysis of climate change for the period (1974-2010) to speed up the processes of desertification and environmental budget imbalance of vegetation, which reflected negatively on the composition of dust storms and their conformity with the current reality of the geo-environmental classification map for the Governorate.

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Article
Analysis of Vegetation Along the Highway (Ramadi -Ar Rutba) in the Western Desert of Iraq
تحليل الغطاء النباتي على امتداد طريق المرور السريع (الرمادي– الرطبة) ضمن الصحراء الغربية من العراق

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Abstract

This study was conducted along the desert road to traffic speed (Ramadi -Ar Rutba) to cross the Western Desert of Iraq during the period from early April 2010-2011, with the height of the topography of the region ranges between 56 and 617 meters above sea level, covering a distance of about 310 km from the city of Ramadi in central Iraq to the south-west towards the Ar Rutba City. The main objective was to study the analysis of vegetation spread on both sides of Highway and knowledge of environmental characteristics within this geographical area and to identify the values of plant community characteristics as indicators of interest include: diagnosis of plant species, density, frequency, abundance and biomass of coverage. The study was based on the analysis of the vegetation in 42 square randomly and have been identified a total of 92 species of plants, belonging to 27 plant families are: Compositae, Aizoaceae, Boraginaceae, Leguminosae, Chenopodiaceae, Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceaa, Cucurbitaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Crucifereae, Labiateae, Resedaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Frankeniaceae, Ephedraceae, Convolvulaceae, Cistaceae, Cappariaceae, Rutaceae, Ranunculaceae, Polygonaceae, Plantaginaceae, Orobanchiaceae, Geraniaceae, Liliaceae, Gramineae, Amaranthaceae, There sovereignty for families Chenopodiaceae, Crucifereae, Leguminosae and the Compositae, one of the species under trees, while prevail families from other types of herbal perennial and annuals, has been observed that the climate and topographic recipes soils and overgrazing are influential factors in the formation and distribution of these plant communities.


Article
Assessment of toxic and carcinogenic elements in Dust and Soil in Baghdad city and their effects on the distribution of some diseases
تقييم تراكيز العناصر السامة والمسرطنة في الغبار والتربة في مدينة بغداد ومدى تاثيرها في انتشار بعض الامراض

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Abstract

The studies conducted by the Center for the Study of War in New York gave firmly evidence beyond doubt, is that the dust particles, which gathered in the desert of Kuwait and Iraq have a link to what happened to members of the military forces of disorder in the nerves and appeared to them of the symptoms of cancer and disorders of the respiratory system and heart disease. The dust particles (sand) in Kuwait and Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military equipment and dismantle the desert sands and turn it into light dust. The aim of this research to determination some toxic and carcenoginc elements such as (Pb, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Cd) in dust and soil in Baghdad city and their health effects types of resulting diseases. Samples were collected from airborne stations in the study area during the dusty days, also accompanied the process modeling dust collecting surface soil samples for the same selected sites in the city of Baghdad, and then the analysis is performed for the purpose of determining the concentrations of toxic and carcinogenic elements and compare it with the global determinants. Search Results showed that there is a large increase Total suspended particles (TSP) concentrations in all sites compared with allowable limits, where the highest concentration in the Al-Ealam site (2241.37μg/m3), and the lowest was in the Al-ameryah site (1096.04 μg/m3) which is much higher than the permissible limits. It also found that most concentrations of chemical toxic elements in the dust did not exceed the permissible limits, except concentrations of zinc and iron has exceeded the permissible limits, where the highest concentration of zinc in the highway New Baghdad – AlDorah (10.63ppm) is higher than the permissible limits. The highest concentration of iron in Al-Jadiryah (ministry of science and technology) (8.56ppm). Through the research found that dust storms and strong winds blowing in the soil is an important factor in the increase TSP and some toxic elements concentrations in the air, and the movement of vehicles can play an important role in increasing concentrations of TSP in the atmosphere as a result of movement that lead to volatility dust, as well as the TSP emitted from car exhausts, in addition to Industrial Activities especially brick factories and power plants, which could affect the concentrations of these elements in the soil of same selected sites. The results also show that most concentrations of heavy metals in the soil of the selected sites did not exceed the permissible limits except zinc and nickel, has reached the highest concentration of zinc in the Al-Amiryah and Al-Ealam sites the highest of the standards limits, and is due to the effect of divorced some industrial activities and the impact of some divorced vehicles and others. The dust storms and dust by different sources have a significant impact on health and this depends on two components degree and duration of exposure to the dust atoms airborne and are more pronounced on the inhabitants of the desert areas and rural ones who were more susceptible to (lung desert), while those who live in cities they are more susceptible to recurrent bouts of sensitivity generally infect the body and eye, nose and chest in particular.


Article
Study about the winds as written in holly Quran and the way to mitigate their effect
دراسة عن الرياح في القران الكريم وسبل تخفيف أثارها

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Abstract

This research deals with the spiritual side in mitigate the effect of dust storms on human beings .It is discussing the names and types of winds as written in holly Quran.

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