Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2012 volume:53 issue:5

Article
Color Image Compression Using Wavelet Compression and Zero-Mean Coding
ضغط الصور الملونة باستخدام تقنية التحويل المويجي وتقتية ايجاد المعدل للبلوك

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Abstract

Thousands pictures require a very large amount of storage. So different techniques of digital image compression is used to reduce the storage requirements for these images. In this paper an adaptive compression method applied on color image. Firstly the color image is transformed to the RGB system, and then converts the color data to a luminance/chrominance color space (YIQ).The adaptive compression method is applied on Y. The image may contain a uniform region and edge region; the uniform regions compress depending on zero-mean coding and the edge region compress depending on Daubechies wavelet transform, then returned the final image to RGB system. The proposed algorithms has many advantages which make it very efficient, these are, low bit rate, low computational complexity, fast processing and edge preservation with good reconstructed image quality.

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Article
Accuracy Assessment for 3-D Target Coordinates Estimation Using GPS & Total Station
تقييم دقة إيجاد إحداثيات هدف في الفضاء الثلاثي باستخدام نظام التموضع العالمي والمحطة المتكاملة

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Abstract

The Target coordinates estimation in the real world (3-D) was important applications in the geodesy and many remote sensing applications, for this purpose, the GPS/DGPS, and the Total Station were used to create and estimate the new target coordinate. In this paper, the Total Station Leica 1200 with Garmin navigator GPS were used to extract the 3-D coordinates of target from the measurement of TS position. For six point for one station. The Garmine GPS navigator was use to find the coordinates for each points and the total station position. Many mathematical process were used to evaluate the results of accuracy using written subroutines in Matlab (version 7.4.0 R 2007a) environmental.


Article
Hydromorfomatric of Mandli Basin East of Iraq
هيدرومورفومترية حوض مندلي - شرق العراق

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Abstract

Mandli Basin was located in the Iraq-Iran border East of Diyala government. The area of basin its abut (491 km2). The basin was covered by recent deposits from the Quaternary age and the greater part of basin was located in the Mesopotamian valley. The basin was completed study hydromorphomatric and the morphomatricanalysis was explain three stream order. The identical bifurcation 4.43 and stream frequency 0.45 and the mass of basin were not good and discharge its bad. As while as the basin was by far from the roundess and the basin shape was nearby elongation and the relief was indicated .Quantity of Surface Run off in the basin 50.8mm that is 19,24% from the precipitation and 7.1% from the precipitation to basin was infiltration to nutrition the ground water

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Article
Improving Spatial Resolution Of Satellite Image Using Data Fusion Method
تحسين الدقة الحيزية للصور الفضائية باستخدام طرق الاندماج

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Abstract

While many remote sensing and GIS applications require both the spatial resolution and spectral resolution be high, image fusion, or in other words, image sharpening, is a useful technique. To date, numerous image fusion techniques have been developed to combine the clear geometric features of the panchromatic image and the color information of the multispectral image. This paper compares the results of four different pixel based fusion techniques, HLS, Brovey transformation,Gram–Schmidt and HSV techniques used to merge the ETM+ multispectral image with (28.5 m)spatial resolution and panchromatic image captured by SPOT satellite with (10m) spatial resolution, correlation coefficient , root mean square error and peak signal to noise ratio criteria have been used to achieve the comparison among the using techniques.

Keywords

image fusion --- HLS --- Brovey --- Gram-Schmidt


Article
Change Detection Study Of Al Razaza Lake Region Utilizing Remote Sensing And GIS Technique
دراسة بكشف التغيرات لمنطقة بحيرة الرزازة باستخدام تقنيات الاستشعار عن بعد و نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Abstract

Remote sensing techniques are now widely used for environment studies, surveys and monitoring. It became a need to study Razaza lake and the surrounding areas especially when the Antiquities Authority of the Ministry of Tourism announced, that the discovery of the effects under the waters of Lake Razzaza in Karbala province. The aim procedures carried out in this study, the first classified the study area by using unsupervised classification method to produce the land cover and land use ,deriving the elevations as a vector layer using TIN for the whole surrounding region of lake, the second part, the output is a continuous surface to be created by applying Kriging interpolation, the third step, obtaining maps of contour lines also used to show lines of constant density or brightness by implementations the contour lines , converting the result of interpolation method to a vector values that can be calculated, then the implementation of the classified process and calculating the area around the lake, all these steps are done by using ArcGIS. Finally a classification process for the same scene on a different date is applied and then compare it with the first scene using ERDAS.


Article
Studying soil salinity and degradation in Salamiyeh scheme- Syria with integration of remote sensing (RS) and Geographic information system (GIS)
دراسة تملح التربة وتدهورها في رقعة السلمية- سوريا بالتكامل بين بيانات الاستشعار (RS) عن بعد ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية (GIS)

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Abstract

The aim of this research study soil salinity and soil degradation with using data remote sensing (RS) and Geographic information system (GIS), with using program (Arc GIS). The integration of data led to dividing the soil salinity map, and soil degradation. In this research we made group of shape files (geologic, drainage) depending on a group of maps(geologic, topographic), and use Image Transformational on satellite images taken different times for this study for reach to salinity soil map by using (Erdas image 9.1) At the end of the research we pointed out the causes of soil degradation and salinization in the study area.

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Article
Wind Speeds Estimation on the Ground Level for Windmills Site Selection
تخمين سرعة الرياح بالمستوى الأرضي لاختيار مواقع طواحين الهواء

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Abstract

In the last few years, the world toward attention to the renewable and clean energy sources in order to reduce the environmental pollutions and reduce the coast. Therefore, the windmills technology was essential in these applications. In this paper, the climatic data and geographic information system (GIS) facilities were used to study and produce the wind speed map on the ground level for Iraq country. Many Field data, (climatic monitoring) from the periods, (1953-1970) and (1971- 2010) were collected and prepared. The data source was the Iraqi metrological department, this establishment operates and control wide climatic stations distributed around country. Many image processing and remote sensing techniques were used to present the results. The full Iraq photomap of Landsat TM (bands 1, 3, 5) with 28.5m in spatial resolution was used to overlay the results. The output of research was a photomap that locates the best sites for windmills .The locations have been selected through certain criteria. The results indicate that the Nasrya, Basrah, Nukhaib, Alhai and Hadeetha are promising places for establishing wind turbine due to the best wind velocities values.


Article
Prediction of Infiltration and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of the Soils in the Iraqi Central Alluvial Plain Using Remote Sensing Technique
التنبؤ عن غيض الماء والايصالية المائية للتربة في وسط السهل الرسوبي باستخدام تقانات الاستشعار عن بعد.

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Abstract

Studies within the last two decades have pointed out the importance of remote sensing techniques to deduct soil properties. These techniques showed promising results as a suitable alternative with lowest cost in compare with other methods used to measure soil characteristics (10). The aim of this study is to test the relationship between landsat (ETM + sensor) data and infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils with ten different selected soil units. These soils which have variations in geomorphology and soil characteristics are located at the north of Kut city (Middle part of Iraq to the left of Tigris river). Statistical Analyses were performed and statistical models were built up to predict the two soil characteristics using remote sensing techniques. The results showed the statistically significance of the relations between the soil water infiltration rate values and the remote sensing data for the soil surface layer, with determination coefficient (R2) of 0.9 . while the saturated hydraulic conductivity for the soil layer at depth 25-50 cm, showed weak correlation .These results demonstrate the weak relation between ETM + sensor data and soil data with depth .

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Article
An Iteration Restoration Technique Of An Image Sequence
تقنية ترميم تكرارية لصور متعاقبة

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Abstract

This paper presents a new iterative Image Restoration based on the least-Square method. Based on adaptive this filtration algorithm is focused on transformation the given restoration model from the spatial domain to the Fourier domain. This implementation of derived models needs less storage capacity and far less time in execution. Also in this paper present ANew three Step Search for motion estimation technique (NTSS).In this paper two goal have been achieved, once obtained a restored image without adopted restoration technique on it (B-frame), also achieved a good rate of compression ratio by adopted motion estimation technique.


Article
Quantitative Analysis Of The Meteorological Data And Their Implication For Geo-Environmental Classification Map Of The Nineveh Governorate
التحليل الكمي لمعطيات الأنواء الجوية وانعكاساتها على خارطة التصنيف الجيوبيئي لمحافظة نينوى شمال العراق

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Abstract

Given the close interrelationship between the manifestations of geomorphologic landforms and landuse and landcover on the one hand and quantitative analysis of the Meteorological data and its implications on the classification map of the Governorate of Nineveh, on the other, the present study rely on the basic elements used in the style of the interpretation of visual multi-data images providing a main pillar for the diagnosis of some environmental problems, which began to suffer from Nineveh Governorate over time. Evidence suggests many of the elements in the analysis of climate change for the period (1974-2010) to speed up the processes of desertification and environmental budget imbalance of vegetation, which reflected negatively on the composition of dust storms and their conformity with the current reality of the geo-environmental classification map for the Governorate.

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Article
The Distortion in the HIS Methods to Fuse Satellite Images
التشوه في دمج الصور الفضائية بوساطة طرق الـ HIS

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Abstract

In this research three different HIS color modules had been studies as fusion methods to fuse high special resolution monochromatic satellite image with low special resolution colored satellite image for the same place to obtain high special resolution colored satellite image, the color distortion and the intensity variation in the resultant image had been studies and the solution to override them are presented

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Article
Image Compression Using Imaging Tomography Technique
كبس الصور بوساطة تقنية التصوير المقطعي

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Abstract

Imaging Tomography is very powerful tool as a nondestructive imaging method, it use forward and back projection technique to create an image for a slice of an object. This technique had been simulated in this research on images as a compression method. The result shows that imaging Tomography technique has high compression ratio for large images and it has forward relationship with the image dimensions. The Fourier Slice Theorem filter used to retrieve the images from its 2-D projection, image quality was acceptable (5-7 dB) comparing with compression ratio that achieved, using another filter it could give better result.

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Article
Using a Wavelet Based Method for High Resolution Satellite Image Fusion
استخدام طريقة المويجة لدمج صورة القمر الاصطناعي عالية الدقة

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Abstract

The number and quality of commercially available multispectral sensors and the data they provide are continually improving, but there is always compromise between achieving high spatial resolution, necessary for those applications that require high degree of detail, and high spectral resolution when a better feature discrimination level is needed. However, there are some situations that simultaneously require high spatial and spectral resolutions in a single image. The techniques of data fusion, or data merging, provide an alternative to that constraint, being used to combine low-resolution multispectral satellite imagery with higher resolution panchromatic or radar imagery, improving their visual quality and interpretability. Many algorithms and software tools have been developed for fusing panchromatic and multispectral datasets in remote sensing. Wavelet techniques are increasingly being used for the processing of images. The algorithm used in this paper was based on multiresolution wavelet decomposition. The image is decomposed into multiple channels based on their local frequency content, obtaining new images each one of them with different degree of resolution. A simple Wavelet Transform is used, which is implemented in the ERDAS Imagine Software package ver. 9.2. The procedure was based upon the wavelet transform is to improve the spectral quality of high resolution image acquired by LANDSAT 7 ETM+. Keywords: image fusion, merging, wavelets, multiresolution.


Article
Preparing a Map for the Surface Temperature Distribution of Baghdad and the Marsh Area Using Remote Sensing Technique
اعداد خارطة لتوزيع درجات الحرارة السطحية لمحافظة بغداد ومنطقة الاهوار باستخدام تقنية الاستشعار عن بعد

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Abstract

Temperatures are important factors that have an impact directly and indirectly on the human, so the attention to this aspect certainly will be in the interest of human life. It is no secret to anyone increased warming and cause concern in the scientific authorities. On this basis, interested search to produce digital map and classified chromatically for the temperature distribution and by taking advantage of the band 6 of the satellite Landsat ETM+ and TM, also introduced in the calculations standards sensor satellite mentioned within emissions equations for the purpose of extracting this map. Namely, that it is possible to know the temperature of any point in the study site through color classification of this map and easily find out the temperature of that site by color groups belonging to that class. As used thermal images belonging to the study area for consecutive periods of time for the purpose of knowledge over the difference in temperatures for that area during a certain period of time, Where the research show that the study area (Baghdad in the middle of Iraq and marshes in southern Iraq) suffering from a rapid increase in temperature, which reflected negatively on the ecology of the area specially in marshes. The method used in research can be applied using ENVI software to any part of the areas of Iraq as soon as you get the thermal band of Landsat ETM+ and TM, this method may lead to detect heat sources unknown and unexpected areas of difficult access and measure the temperature.


Article
Edge Detection in an Image by Using the Elimination Rule
كشف حافةِ في صورةِ باستخدام قاعدةِ الإزالةَ

Authors: Maha A. Hameed مها احمد حميد
Pages: 1017-1019
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Abstract

Edges are significant local changes of intensity in an image. In this paper, an elimination rule which based on triangular inequality elimination (TIE) has been adopted to perform the edge detection procedures. A new method has been included the combining between an elimination rule which based on triangular inequality elimination (TIE) and the differentiation operator by using the filters mask in one dimension. The introduced algorithm has been produced a good image quality by comparison with that which may be obtained by using the differentiation operator of sharpening an image. The proposed algorithm has been proved it is good for finding the edge in an image data.

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Article
Optimal Path Routing
إيجاد المسار الأمثل

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Abstract

Analyzing Google map to find optimal path routing is an important and advanced strategy in geographic information system (GIS), it provides strong decision support for the users in service area. Optimal path routing system built to allows the users, businesses, and militaries to find the optimal path (shortest and fastest path) between any two points (locations) on a road networks (edges) of Google map image.

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Article
The Study Of The Surface Area Change Of Lake Al-Razzaza Using Geographic Information System (GIS) And Using Remote Sensing Technology
دراسة تغير المساحة السطحية لبحيرة الرزازة باستخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية وتقنية الاستشعار عن بعد

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Abstract

Al-Razzaza, the second largest lake in Iraq and wider lower lakes being created at estimated surface area of 1810 km2 and is one of the important sources of wealth of fish, also; It described as being a blue dot surrounded by desert. Started the water level in the lake to decline starting from the eighties and became this decline accelerated since 1990 due to climate change and rising atmospheric temperature and evaporation process continuing and inadequate water contained the lake to compensate for the shortfall and also because of low water levels in the Euphrates River, which is one of the most important source the waters of the lake, all this led to a decrease in the water level and the surface area and increasing salinity of soil that threatened a real disaster for the lake. This study employed both remote sensing and geographic information systems to estimate the change in the ratio of the surface area to Al-Razzaza lake, starting from 1990 up to the year 2012. In addition, chromatic classified maps show the changes during that period of time based on satellite scenes of the Landsat ETM+, and Google Earth scene after registration process was made based on Landsat ETM+ image. Also, we present a table that clarifies the percentage of change of surface areas for above period of time that followed in 1990. Then we represent such a change through a graph gives an idea of the great loss suffered by this lake. Also, this graph gives an impression about what the lake shape will be in subsequent years. The results showed that the percentage change was significant during this period, such that the decreased surface area was from 1621 km2 in 1990 to 270 km2 in 2012.

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Article
Horizontal Accuracy Assessment of High Resolution Satellite Imagery for Mapping Purposes
تقيم الدقة الأفقية لصور الأقمار عالية التميز لأغراض إنتاج الخرائط

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Abstract

The New generation remote sensing satellites that are being designed to image objects on the Earth’s surface with a resolution of one meter and less. It is believed that such high resolution satellite imaging systems will lead to a paradigm change in mapping science, considering the high resolution, wide spectral range, and stereo mapping capabilities. This will be the first time that users around the world will be able to use satellite imagery to map products on the plane ground at a sub-meter level. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the horizontal accuracy of the new generation of high-resolution satellite imagery WV02 one of the Digital Globe productions for mapping purposes. Based on Evaluation of the planimetric accuracies of Worldview02 Ortho Ready Standard image acquired under a Space Imaging/NASA Data was found the value range to be (1.1 m and 1.55 m) CE90 at test site. The experimental results are very encouraging. It is demonstrated that with two or more GCPs, the sub-meter satellite imagery will have a potential to generate mapping products with a map scale of 1:4,000, which is sufficient for many GIS applications.

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Article
Assessment The Effects Of Climate Factors On Marshes Of Southern Iraq By Using Satellite Images
تقييم تأثير العوامل المناخية على أراضي أهوارجنوب العراق باستخدام تقنيات الاستشعار عن بعد

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Abstract

Remote sensing techniques have been used to measure the changes of Iraqi Marshland's area as well as the changes in the spectral reflectivity of types covered in the Marshland (water, soil and plants). This study comprises the main three Marshes in southern Iraq (Huwyizamarsh, Central Marshes and Hammar marsh). Satellite images of the satellite Terra-Modis on 15/1/2009, 20/4/2009, 21/8/2009 and 7/11/2009 have been selected in order to study the seasonal changes on the marshes took place during 2009. Result of supervised classification indicated presence on six land cover classes in marshes.The study shows that the dry soil reflectivity wasn’t obviously influenced by the climatic factors and that both temperature and evaporation influence directly on the other classes reflectivity. The rainfall influence reversely on the reflectivity of the dark soil, dense and spread vegetation but do not obviously affect the reflectivity of water and dry soil. The most bands show that the reflectivity of the marsh’s types has been directly affected by wind speed and inversely by relative humidity.

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Article
Applications of Camera Total Station System (CTSS) in the Construction Surveying
تطبيقات نظام كاميرا-جهاز المحطة الكاملةCTSS ) ) في المسح الانشائي

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Abstract

Engineering structures in general require at implementation conducting engineering surveys of the implementation stages of work to keep up with identical implementation of the technical specifications, on the other hand most of the facilities task (large structures, towers, dams, bridges, etc…) require the conducting of periodic monitoring to determine any change could happen with time in the three-dimension( X,Y,Z). The traditional approach in this proposal for this business is by conducting a field survey using ground surveying devices in addition to the photogrammetry survey, regardless of the manner of the work requires the provision of a number of well distributed ground control points for the purpose of the above required survey work. This research includes the application of(CTSS)system for a structural survey above as well as monitoring facilities disregarding the control points to provide cost, time and effort. The results using this technique(CTSS)are very promising (RMS in X= ±1.7 mm, Y= ±1.7 mm, Z= ±0.9 mm).which gives an overall precision of (RMS= ±2.6 mm).


Article
IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network in Medical Application
استخدام معايير IEEE 802.15.4 وتكنلوجيا ZigBee في شبكات المتحسسات اللاسلكية للتطبيقات الطبية

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As a new and promising technology, wireless sensor networks (WSN) plays an essential part in a large number of modern applications. Wireless Sensor Networks comprised of small, simple, and inexpensive wireless devices – the so-called sensor nodes. ZigBee technology provides the framework required to support wireless networks and fills the gap between the IEEE 802.11 WiFi and IEEE 802.15 Bluetooth standards in terms of transmission range and data rates. Generally ZigBee classified as a low-rate wireless personal area network (LR-WPAN) technology. This paper concerns with the use of WSN in one of many applications which it is patient monitoring. It performs patient monitoring system using ZigBee WSN. The modeled system consists of number of wards, each ward had number of sensors for each patient. Each sensor node represented with ZigBee end device that transmit the traffic to the master node which it is ZigBee coordinator. Then, The information can be accessed by the doctor by connecting the system through Ethernet LAN to the server. This simulation study was done using OPNET modeler V14.5. This paper study the performance of the modeled system in terms of delay, throughput, traffic received and other parameters that could be taken to study the performance of the modeled system if the number of patients was increased, the effect of increasing master nodes and the existence of router. The results showed that single coordinator (master node) system cause more delay, throughput than multiple coordinators system and the existence of router cause additional delay to the system. ZigBee based WSN for patient monitoring application resulted in online treatment, history as a database to lead the doctor in order to give proper instructions to the patient.

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Article
Study The Variations In Al-Hawizeh Marsh Area Using Maps And Satellite Images
دراسة التغاير في مساحة هور الحويزة باستخدام الخرائط والصور الفضائية

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The study area is located in the alluvial plain of Iraq, and specifically in the lower floodplain of the Tigris River, and a low naturally extends to a wide area and at a shallow depth and works a source of the floods when they occur, and it receives excess water for various uses. We are using ancient and modern maps with large scales to see the shape and space boundaries Al-Hawizeh Marsh, was the work mock maps of the area through a series of satellite images of different dates and with the help of remote sensing techniques. From the comparing to Al-Hawizeh Marsh area and make an exact time map of the marsh shows that the marsh has passed through several stages. Through this research that we shows the variance in the change recharges rivers rates that feeding of the Marsh at the months, seasons and years due to the climate changes of this region, where it was noted that the last time period had changed as a result of human intervention from the dams and barrages and canals and then launch water quotas by changing water policy, as well as the gripping desertification of this region. These factors mentioned above and the fact that Al-Hawizeh Marsh is one of the Iraqi largest marsh and is a Ramsar site with international significance, led to a large decline in the area because of decreasing of entering water and the decline of very large quantities and poor quality because of increases the salt concentration in it.

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Article
Drought Risk Assessment In Iraq Using Remote Sensing And GIS Techniques
تقييم مخاطر الجفاف في العراق باستخدام تقانات التحسس النائي ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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This paper aims to investigate the drought levels in Iraq using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques. Meteorological and Agricultural droughts were calculated based on Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Anomaly of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), respectively. The drought risk maps were prepared by calculating the classes frequency of droughts. Finally, a resultant risk map was obtained by integrating agriculture and meteorological drought risk maps. The results indicated that 14.4% area has Slight drought, 61.6% area face moderate risk, 23.2% area face severe risk and 0.8% area face very severe risk within the study area. It was evident from the study that northwest of Iraq is more prone to drought.


Article
Change Detection in Hour-Ibn Nnjam / Middle of IRAQ by Using Water Index (W.I) Algebra
كشف التغاير في هور ابن نجم/وسط العراق باستخدام دالة المعامل المائي

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Change detection is one of the most widely used processing techniques in remote sensing. It is a process of identifying differences in the state of a geographic feature or phenomenon by monitoring at different times. In order to detect the changes in a phenomenon, the function Water Index (WI) is used to identify changes in water content of the marsh during different periods of time. Landsat satellite data is used of sensors MSS for the years 1974 &1992 and sensors TM 1984 and ETM sensors for the years 2003, 2006, 2009 By using Arc GIS software, the results are converted to thematic maps which represent water index coefficient through multiple years, as well as the use of Erase tool in the toolbox in the Arc GIS software, in order to find out the increase and decrease of the water content of the Marsh during the past years. The results showed that there is an increase in the area of the marsh in 1974 and 1984 and 1992 with an areas 210, 237, 219 km2 , respectively and a decrease in 2003, 2006 and 2009 of 52, 58, 74 km2, respectively.

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Article
Classification of Breast Tissue for Mammograms Images Using Intensity Histogram and Statistical Methods
تصنيف نسيج الثدي لصور Mammograms باستخدام histogram intensity والطرق الإحصائية

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Abstract

In order to classify a image texture it must be segmented into a number of regions. each region have the same properties. a circular mask has been used. after the required region is obtained a intensity histogram and then as set of histogram features has been calculated in order to classify the required images. The statistical features of a mammogram are extracted using image processing techniques. The extracted statistical features are the mean, standard deviation, smoothness, third moment uniformity and entropy for each of the histogram intensity and first order statistic a compare between the two results in order to obtain the best for classification the Breast tissue.


Article
Design and Performance Analysis of Building Monitoring System with Wireless Sensor Networks
تصميم وتحليل أداء نظام مراقبة المبنى مع شبكات الإستشعار اللاسلكية

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The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) provides a potential technique for monitoring the indoor environment. The proposed system consists of several wireless sensor nodes that are deployed in a building in addition to a local server hosting web base application for storing sensing data. The widely adopted standard for wireless sensor network platform is the IEEE 802.15.4/ ZigBee. It is considered as the “technology of choice” due to low-power, cost-effective communication and the reliability it provide. This paper will simulate and explore the performance of ZigBee using OPNET Modeler 14.5. The paper will study and analyze various parameters that include changing the network topology, number of nodes and different performance parameters such as network delay, throughput, and others. The web base application is designed to interact with a WSN, allowing a user to consult sensor states and receive sensor alerts. Sensor alerts will be received when a sensor's threshold value exceeds the limit. Therefore, the user will be notified whenever there are changes in the WSN. The web base application system allows the manager or owner of building to remote monitoring sensing data via Internet by using a web browser.


Article
Evaluate Retinex Enhancement Method for Captured Images at Different Camera Aperture Using Minimum Distance Classifier
تقييم طريقة تحسين الصور Retinex للصور الملتقطة باقطار فتحة كاميرة مختلفة باستخدام تقنية اقصر مسافة

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In this paper, have been studying the effects of changing camera aperture diameter on image quality, after that had been classified the captured images through using Minimum Distance Classification method, after that evaluating the statistical properties of the original images and analyzing the results. Next step is enhancing the original images, and using Multi Scale Retinex algorithm, and then classify the enhanced images and analyze the effects of classification for the enhanced images through evaluating its statistical properties. We concluded that there was a noticeable improvement in the results, comparing between the classified original images with the classified enhanced images, the original image had bad color appearance, after enhancement it become quite easy to distinguish between different image’s classes, there was kind of consistency in the average values of each color band. The language used in this research is MATLAB language (ver. 2008).

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Article
Studying for the Enhancement Captured Images at Different Lightness Directions and Levels Distribution Based on Using Histogram Equalization Method
دراسة عملية تحسين الصور الملتقطة تحت شروط إضاءة مختلفة في مستويات الشدة واتجاه التوزيع بالاعتماد على تقنية معادلة المخطط التكراري

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Abstract

In this research we study the effect of the light distribution on the quality of captured images under different amount of lightness conditions then enhancing the captured images by the imaging system using an adaptive histogram equalization method and Lee method depending on the space YIQ depending on lightness component where use the reverse of this space to the basic RGB color space, then corrected using the mathematical model based on human vision system. The results were analyzed and compute the quality of the enhancement images by using various statistical criteria based on the mean and standard deviation. Adaptive histogram equalization technique gives a high quality for the enhanced images for different lightness conditions.

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Article
Using the Edge Detector for Face Recognition Based on Eigenedge Faces Method
باستخدام الكشف حافي لتمييز الوجه المستند على طريقة حافات الوجوه الذاتية

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In this paper is designed a system capable to recognize and distinguish a human face on the others are located within the database, depending on the method of eigenedge faces, after the effect edge detection (Sobel operator), the system is running by the language of MATLAB. The comparison has been complete between the test image and the group of different images by criterion Minimum Mean distance. Power system has been test on one of the problems can occur between the test image and the camera, in terms of the shift image (to the right, left, up and down) from the camera.

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Article
Control System Design and Simulation for Video Tracking
تصميم ومحاكاة منظومة السيطرة لتعقب الاجسام بواسطة التصوير الفديوي

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In this paper, a proposed video tracking system is introduced. The proposed system consists of two parts: motion estimation and tracking. Motion estimation is carried out by computing the difference between two successive images. The difference is dark image contains small relatively brightness at the region of existence the moving object. The average location of the moving object in the difference image is the target location, the tracking aims to make the head of camera facing the target location. Such that, the relation between the head of the camera and the target location relative to camera location is modeled to computes the deflection in the head. The tracking part depends on the head deflection, which make the control of camera motion toward the target location is modeled depending on the head deflection with regarding continual and soft motion of the camera. Such motion is made by constraint the rate of changing the head of camera at each control interval. The simulation results show reality and acceptable motion of the camera, this ensures the efficiency of the tracking method and correct proposed model.

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Article
Use Digital Elevation Model In Extracting Drainage Network And Measurements Hydroformetric Of Al-Uthaim Basin
استخدام نموذج الأرتفاعات الرقمية في استخلاص شبكة التصريف المائية وقياساتها الهيدرومورفومترية لحوض العظيم

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This study aimed to build data base of the morphometric properties in the Udhaim basin , through analyzing the digital elevation model ( DEM ) by using a model in a geographical information systems programs , which integrated together in order to obtain the morphometric variances & measurements. This is done to understand its hydrologic significances & consequently understanding the water movement on the surface of the base. The study depended on the data of the digital elevation model accurately 30 m while the results gave a good matching with the Satellite images. Moreover, the study shows that the form of the catchment's areas is closed to the triangle while the main basin does not close to that shape, so that it characterized by systematic flow increased in the spring time .Also it is noticed that there is uniformity in the form of the catchments areas due to the similarity in the geomorphic processes.

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Article
Iris Recognition Using Semantic Indexing
مطابقة هوية قزحية العين بأستخدام الفهرسة الدلالية

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Abstract

The iris of human eye is one of the most useful traits for biometric recognition. This paper presents an iris recognition system based on semantic indexing. The proposed system uses the concepts of latent semantic indexing (LSI) for iris recognition. One technique of LSI is the singular value decomposition (SVD). The SVD is an information retrieval uses numerical decomposition methods to compute one characteristic value (i.e. SVD) for each iris image to be used as a recognition feature. The proposed system consists of two phases: the training and recognition. The training phase is responsible on storing the iris models in the database, while the task of recognition phase is to compute the similarity measure between the SVD of the query iris image and SVDs of the iris images found in the database. The recognition decision is made according to the normalized similarities and appeared as a text message tells what the identity it is. The successful recognition rate was about 96%, which ensure the successful of the employed method and correct path of computations.

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Article
Three Dimensional Information Extraction of Buildings Using Shadow From A Single Image
استخلاص معلومات ثلاثية الأبعاد لبنايات باستخدام الظل لصورة منفردة

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The three dimensional information of buildings is an important issue in urban monitoring, planning, management and various economic activities, and as a result of the tremendous development in the devices and remote sensing sensors, there is a need to obtain information about geographical locations with less cost, therefore the goal of this research is to extract the three dimensional information of buildings using shadow analysis appears in the 2D image and solving for the slope of view for this shadow without the need for additional data (another overlapping image or digital elevation model).


Article
Statistical Features Segmentation Technique For MR Images Of Brain’s Tumors
تقنية الانقسام باستخدام الخصائص الإحصائية لصور الرنين المغناطيسي لأورام الدماغ

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Medical image analysis has great significance in the field of treatment, especially in non-invasive and clinical studies. Medical imaging techniques and it analysis and diagnoses analysis tools enable the physicians and Radiologists to reach at a specific diagnosis. In this study, MR images have been used for discriminating the infected tissues from normal brain’s tissues. A semi-automatic segmentation technique based on statistical futures has been introduced to segment the brain’s MR image tissues. The proposed system used two stages for extracting the image texture features. The first stage is based on utilizing the 1st order statistical futures histogram based features such as (the mean, standard deviation, and image entropy ) which is local in nature, while the second stage is based on utilizing the 2nd order statistical futures (i.e Co-Occurrence matrices features). Similar coloring and semi-equal statistical features of the tumor area and the Gray Matter (GM) brain’s tissue was the main encountered problem in the first presented segmentation method. To overcome this problem, an adaptive multi-stage segmentation technique is presented, in which the mean value of each pre-segmented classes has been used to distinguish the tumor tissue from others. The segmentation process is followed by a 2nd order classification method to assign image pixels accurately to their regions, using the invariant moments parameters weighted together with the Co-Occurrence parameters. Different samples of MR images for normal and abnormal brains (i.e. T1 and T2-weighted) have been tested, for different patients.


Article
Identify Traffic Congestion Using Speed Data Measured By Gis, Gps Technique
تحديد الاختناقات المرورية باستخدام بيانات السرعة بتقنيات نظم المعلومات الجغرافية و نظام التموضع العالمي

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With the rapid vehicle volume growth on roads, the performance of urban road traffic systems is a major concern to transportation planners, road users, and all members of the urban community. The evaluation of the performance measures relies on the accuracy and reliability of the collected traffic data. This study investigates traffic speed measurement using GPS technique for parts of Al-Karada Khareeg road by identify the congested segments. The collected GPS points were mapped to the highway using "Arc Map 10" program in a GIS environment. Travel time, speed and congestion index values were measured along selected highway segments for evaluating the traffic condition of the highways. The benefit of this way is simple, and easy to understand.


Article
Monitoring Vegetation Growth of Spectrally Landsat Satellite Imagery ETM+ 7 & TM 5 for Western Region of Iraq by Using Remote Sensing Techniques
مراقبة النمو الخضري بواسطة الأطياف المنعكسة من القمر الصناعي لاندسات ETM+ 7 و TM 5 لمنطقة غرب العراق باستعمال تقانة الاستشعار عن بعد.

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Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. In this paper the two sensors are used to monitoring the agriculture condition and detection the changing in the area of plant covers, the stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch although it is not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. By referring to statistical values for the classification process, the results indicated that the state of vegetation in 1990 was in the proportion of 42.8%, while this percentage rose to 52.5% for the same study area in 2002.


Article
The Effect of Metallicity on the AGB Stars Evolution by Using Synthetic Model
تأثير المعدنية على نشوء نجوم طور التقارب العملاق باستعمال النموذج التركيبي

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Stars whose initial masses are between (0.89 - 8.0) M☉ go through an Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase at the end of their life. Which have been evolved from the main sequence phase through Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). The calculations were done by adopted Synthetic Model showed the following results: 1- Mass loss on the AGB phase consists of two phases for period (P <500) days and for (P>500) days; 2- the mass loss rate exponentially increases with the pulsation periods; 3- The expansion velocity VAGB for our stars are calculated according to the three assumptions; 4- the terminal velocity depends on several factors likes metallicity and luminosity. The calculations indicated that a super wind phase (S.W) developed on the AGB phases, operates only during the latter part of the quiescent phase. The results indicate that the time scale of mass loss depends on the metallicitiy of stars and mass core.


Article
Locating Drainage Pattern for Qaraqosh Valley by Merging ETM+ with SPOT Satellite Image

Authors: Ahmed. F. Aqeel
Pages: 1175-1180
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To perform a good interpretation and spatial analysis for remote sensing data like satellites images, it is better to enhanced these images by using Image Processing techniques. In the same time to make good interpretation for any study area it is better to collect more than one data about this study area. In this research the study area located in Qaraqosh District in Southern East of Mosul city north Iraq. Two remote sensing data are collected about this area; spectral bands of Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus sensor (ETM+) Landsat 7 satellite, and panchromatic band of SPOT satellite. The spectral bands of Landsat 7 satellite with high spectral resolution (8 bands) with spatial resolution 28.5 meter. While panchromatic band of SPOT satellite consider as high spatial resolution (10 meter). The merging technique which applied in this search are called Brovey transformation. The side effect of this merging caused blurring in merged image. To enhance this blurring, convolution filter has been performed. Finally the enhanced merged image (with high spectral and spatial resolution image) is ready to interpretation and classification.


Article
Adaptive Selective Predictive For Image Data Compression
طريقة الانتقائية التنبؤية المطورة لضغط بيانات الصورة

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In this paper, an adaptive selective predictive coding method is proposed for intraframe coding techniques. The adopted techniques overcome the complexity residual ideal case (i.e., residual does not become random noise) where the residual still suffers from the existence of redundancy. The suggested techniques attempt to sift over any redundancy embedded in the residual where the quality improves than that of traditional predictive coding, selective predictive coding and of fixed predictor coding. Index Terms- Predictive coding, Selective coding, Predictive coding of fixed predictor.


Article
Change Detection Methods Using Band Ratio and Raster to Vector Transform
تقنيات كشف التغيير باستخدام نسبة الحزمة والتحويل مصفوفة الى متجه

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LandSat Satellite ETM+ images have been analyzed to detect changes in Euphrates river boundaries area at the middle of Iraqi country from the year 1990 to the year 2001. Changes are determined by applying the rationing method on the bands 3 and 5 then using Raster to Vector (R V)Transform method .GIS 9.1 program is used to apply the rationing method and Raster to Vector (R V)Transform technique then determined the results (changes in boundaries area were calculated).

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Article
Class Prediction Methods Applied to Microarray Data for Classification

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The use of microarray data for the analysis of gene expression has been seen to be an important tool in biological research over the last decade. The important role of this tool is indicated by providing patients a great benefit of predicted treatment. There is an important question about a classification problem. The question is which genes play an important role in the prediction of class membership? There are many classification methods applied to microarray data to solve the classification problem. In bioinformatics, Statistical method is addressed by using microarray data. For example breast tissue samples could be classified as either cancerous or normal. Microarray expression profiling has provided an exciting new technology to identify classifiers for selection treatments to patients. Sometime in special cases, prognostic prediction is included in class prediction. In order to predict which patient will respond to a specified treatment we can think about two classes, including responders and no responders. The objective may be to predict whether a new patient is likely to respond based on the Microarray expression profile of her or his tissue sample. That it is mean accurate prediction is of obvious value in treatment selection. To achieve the above objectives I used many methods for class prediction using gene expression profiles from microarray experiments. This research aims to explain what these methods are, how these methods are applied to the microarray dataset, analyzes the results and how feature selection is used for classification. Furthermore, comparison of these methods and cross validation will be used to evaluate the predictive accuracy.


Article
Using Corel Draw In Modern Mapping (Application In Geographical Health Mapping)
رسم الخرائط الحديثة باستخدام برنامج Corel Draw

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The development of the mapping from traditional methods (manual) to the modern drawing methods (Computer) is an important step in the mapping, as the modern digital maps play a big role in the geographical analyses in all branches. There are many software in this field have been used such as Corel Draw which is used for geographical health mapping, through which has been mapping the Prevalence of cancer infections in Iraq based on the Central Statistical Organization data taken from the Ministry of Health data which showed the number of cancer diseases in all area of Iraq for 2005 and 2006, through drawing two maps and use the methods of circles and survey shading in the cartographic representation. After analyzing the two maps we observed that the highest number of infections in cancer diseases was in Baghdad and these numbers are increasing in (Karkuk, Baghdad, Basrah, Babil, Najaf) and these numbers are decreasing in (Arbil, Sulaymaniyah, Anbar).


Article
Assessment of Land for the Cultivation of Wheat in the Northern Island Irrigation Project Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems
تقييم الاراضي لزراعة القمح في مشروع ري الجزيرة الشمالي باستخدام الاستشعار عن بعد ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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The research aims to assess the suitability of Wheat cultivation in North Al-Jezira Irrigation Project Nineveh Governorate at the actual and in the potential after major improvements possible. By using remote sensing to classify land use and land cover, also using geographic information systems for input and save the data to building data bank of land resources and land characteristics relate to the land evaluation, also the requirements and limitations for the cultivation of Wheat in the study area, in the processing and building computer model for the evaluated and classification of land suitability actual and potential for the Wheat cultivation in the study area, then display the results which showed that the actual land suitability classification for Wheat cultivation in the study area Is S1, S1-S2 ,S2 ,S2-S1, S3, which occupies area of 44%, 17%, 35, 2%, 2% respectively for each class, it is possible improvements and reclamation some of the limitation for the cultivation of Wheat in the future to change the land index .

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Article
Satellite Image Gap Filling Technique
تقنية ملء الفجوات في صور الاقمار الصناعية

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In the current research work a useful gap filling method was presented. Images over Al Mosel city in Iraq were used as tested images. The linear algorithm for high resolution (H.R.) image interpolation were based. The difference between the proposed algorithm and conventional nearest neighbor algorithm is that the concept applied, to estimate the missing pixel value, is guided by the nearest value rather than the distance. In other words, the proposed concept selects one pixel, among four directly surrounding the empty location, whose value is almost equal to the value generated by the conventional bilinear interpolation algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method demonstrated higher performances in terms of H.R. and thus is applicable to gray level satellites images.

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