Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:55 issue:1

Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Some Pyranopyrazoles and Pyranopyrimidines Derivatives as Antioxidants for Lubricating Oils
تحضير وتشخيص وتقييم بعض مشتقات البايرنوبايرزل والبايرنوبيرميدين كمضادات أكسدة في زيوت التزييت

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Abstract

6-Amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-cyano-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1, 4-dihydropyrano [2,3-c] pyrazole (compound 2) was prepared by condensation of 2-(4-hydroxylbenzylidine) malononitrile (compound 1) [which was prepared by Knoevenagel condensation of malononitrile with 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde ] with 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one. Reactions of compound 2 with different reagents formic acid, formamide, and ammonium thiocyanate under microwave irradiation leads to the synthesis of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,6-dihydro- pyrazolo [3', 4':5,6] pyrano [2,3-d] pyrimidine-5-one (compound 3), 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4, 6-dihydro- pyrazolo [3', 4':5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-imine (compound 4) and N-[4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- 3-methyl-1-phenyl-7-thioxo-7,8- dihydropyrazolo [3', 4':5,6] pyrano [2,3-d] pyrimidine-5-yl] thiourea (compound 5) respectively. Moreover a series of Schiff bases 6(a-f) were prepared by reaction of compound 2 with different aromatic aldehydes. The prepared compounds were characterized by FTIR, and most 1HNMR,13CNMR and evaluated as antioxidant additives by blending 1% of each compound with base lubricating oil 60 stock supplied by Midland Refineries Company, Baghdad, Iraq. The formulated blend of compound 6a showed better oxidation stability compared with the base oil (blank), while the oil blend of compound 5 gave higher oxidation stability than the blend with standard antioxidant supplied by Midland Refineries Company.


Article
Determination of Atenolol in pharmaceutical formulations by continuous flow injection analysis via turbidimetric (T180o) and scattered light effect at two opposite position (2N90o ) using Ayah 4SW-3D-T180 -2N90 -Solar - CFI Analyser
تقدير الأتينولول في مستحضراته الدوائيه باستخدام تحليل الحقن الجرياني المستمر عن طريق قياس التعكريه (T180o) وتأثير استطاره الضوء عند اتجاهين متعاكسين (2N90o) باستخدام المحلل Ayah 4SW-3D-T180 -2N90 -Solar - CFI

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Abstract

A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the analysis of Atenolol in pure and pharmaceutical preparation as an alternative analytical procedure were developed by continuous flow injection analysis via turbidimetric (T180o) and scattered light effect at two opposite position (2N90o). The method is based upon the formation of white precipitate for the ion pair compound by phosphomolybidic acid with Atenolol in aqueous medium. The precipitate is measured via the attenuation of incident light and scattering of the incident light in two opposite direction namely +90o and -90o angle were measured. Chemical and physical parameters were investigated. The linearity of Atenolol is ranged from (0.1-11) mmol.L-1, with correlation coefficient r=0.9938, lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.05 mmol.L-1(3SB)(S/N=3) for n=13 and the relative standard deviation for 7 mmol.L-1 Atenolol solution is lower than 3% (n=7). The method was applied successfully for the determination of atenolol in three pharmaceutical drugs. A comparisons were made between the newly developed method of analysis with the classical method ( uv-spectrophotometry at wave length 274nm) of analysis using the standard addition method via the use of t- test. It shows that there was no significant difference at α=0.05(95% confidence) between the two methods. Therefore the newly developed method can be accepted as an alternative method for the analysis of Atenolol, in addition to comparison between the official value and the calculated value for both methods


Article
Spectrophotometric Determination of Thymol in Pharmaceutical Preparations Via Oxidative Coupling Reaction with 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine in the Presence of Potassium Periodate
التقدير الطيفي للثايمول في المستحضرات الصيدلانية بوساطة تفاعل الازدواج التاكسدي مع 4,2- ثنائي نيتروفنيل هيدرازين بوجود بيرايودات البوتاسيوم

Authors: Ghadah Fadhil غادة فاضل
Pages: 27-34
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Abstract

A new, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of Thymol in pure and mouth wash preparations has been proposed in this study. The method was based on oxidation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with potassium periodate and coupling with Thymol in alkaline medium to form an intense violet water-soluble dye that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 570 nm. A graph of absorbance versus concentration shows that Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range of 0.25-10 μg.mL-1 of Thymol, with detection limits of 0.063 μg.mL-1. All experimental parameters that affect the development and stability of the colored product were carefully studied and the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Thymol in mouth wash preparations.


Article
Immunohistochemical Expression of Bcl3 in Human Breast Carcinoma
التعبير الكيميائي النسيجي المناعي لـ Bcl3 في سرطان الثدي بالانسان

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Abstract

B-Cell lymphoma 3 is a putative proto-oncogene that involved in central oncogenic pathways that regulate cell death, apoptosis and metastatic of tumor cells so it could be important as a target to validation as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in these tumors. This study revealed positive expression of Bcl3 in (76.6%) of 47 cases infiltrating ductal carcinoma and (61.7%) of positive were strong positive. These results showed no significant association of immunohistochemical expression of Bcl3 with clinicopathological features as well no relation with immunohistochemical expressions of estrogen rreceptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu).


Article
Methicillin resistance and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococci isolated from milk and white cheese in Iraq
مقاومة المثيسيلين وانتاج السموم المعوية من المكورات العنقودية المعزولة من الحليب و الجبن الأبيض في العراق

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Abstract

Two hundred staphylococcal isolates isolated from milk and white cheese samples, which were collected from local markets in Baghdad. The predominant species was Staphylococcus aureus 97 isolates (48.5%), followed by S.chromogenes 82 (41%) and 21 (10.5%) S.epidermidis isolates. The pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (COPS) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS) isolates to 3 antibiotics (Methicillin, Tetracyclin and Vancomycin) was determined using disc diffusion method; the results revealed that 80 S. aureus isolates (82.47%) found to be methicillin resistant (MRSA) while 8 isolates (8.24%) were vancomycin resistant (VRSA) and 18 S. aureus isolates (18.5%) resist tetracycline antibiotic. Sixty four CONS isolates (62.13%) were methicillin resistant, 28 CONS isolates (27.18%) resist tetracycline, and 5 CONS isolates (4.85%) were vancomycin resistant. Suckling mouse bioassay was tested to investigate the staphylococcal enterotoxin biological activity. Results showed that 131 isolates which constitutes 65.5% of the examined isolates, gave a positive result. Both COPS and CONS isolates were shown to be enterotoxigenic, COPS represented by S. aureus species occupied the higher ratio of the enterotoxigenic staphylococci, 86 S.aureus isolates (65.64% of the enterotoxigenic staphylococci) gave the positive ratio of the intestine weight to the body weight which was ≥ 0.083 while 45 CONS isolates (34.35%) were enterotoxin producers. These toxins were thermostable staphylococcal enterotoxins which gave the same toxic effect after heating to 100°C for 30 minutes.


Article
Evaluation of the activity of crude alkaloids extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. as coagulant agent in lab mice
تقييم فعالية المستخلص الخام للمركبات القلويدية لنباتات Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L. كعامل مسبب لتخثر الدم في الفئران المختبرية

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Abstract

As Alkaloids known for their pharmaceutical importance; this research included the extraction of crude alkaloids of three plants (Zingiber officinale Roscoe., Thymus vulgaris L. and Acacia arabica L.) and evaluate their activity as coagulant agent by using three degraded concentrations of each plant extract and tested them on lab mice through the observation of the variations in bleeding time (BT), clotting time (CT) and platelet count. The results revealed differences in the percentage of alkaloids in the plants under the study; Z. officinale extract was the higher one followed by T. vulgaris and A. arabica respectively. Z. officinale extract was also the most effective plant as coagulant factor than other two plants as it decreased both BT and CT and increased platelets count more than what T. vulgaris and A. arabica affected on blood characters mentioned before. This makes crude alkaloids extract of Z. officinale dry rhizomes is the best plant product therapeutically and commercially.


Article
Extraction, purification and characterization of lipoxygenase from Pleurotus ostreatus.
استخلاص, تنقية وتوصيف انزيم الليبوكسيجينيز من الفطر Pleurotus ostreatus

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Lipoxygenase was extracted from the cup of Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jaq : Fr ) oyster mushroom for the first time in Iraq, and purified homogeneously through precipitation with 40% saturation of (NH4)2SO4 as a partial purification then loaded on DEAE-Cellulose (Diethyl amino ethyl Cellulose) ion-exchange chromatography column and then the highly active elution parts have been passed through gel filtration column with Sephacryl S-300 as a final purification with 804 (U/mg protein) specific activity, 11.32 fold of purification and 36.54% yield . The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to 74 KDa by gel filtration Sephacryl S-300 column and the isoelectric point for enzyme was 5.3. The optimal pH for lipoxygenase activity and stability were 8 and 6-8.5 respectively, and the optimal temperature for the activity and stability of the enzyme were 30 and 10-45 respectively. Also the activation energy necessary for Lipoxygenase to convert lionleic acid to product and for enzyme denaturalization were calculated to 9.674 and 28.087 Kilo calorie/mole respectively.


Article
Study adhesion ability of of Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from raw and drinking water in Baghdad city
دراسة قابلية الالتصاق لعزلات Aeromonas hydrophila المعزولة من الماء الخام وماء الشرب في مدينة بغداد

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The ability of A.hydrophila isolates (63 isolates) to form biofilm, was studied and the results showed that fifty six isolates (88.8%) gave positive results in Congo red agar, while 51 isolates ( 80.7%) gave positive results in Christensen method, sixty isolates( 95.2%) produced biofilm on Polystyrene microtiter plates. Results revealed that all drinking water isolates produced biofilm (18 isolates )and 42 raw water isolates produced biofilm (depending on Polystyrene microtiter plates test). The more two efficient isolates(one isolated from drinking water DW, and other isolated from raw watervRW) which produced biofilm was chosen to study the effect of different values of temperature and disinfectants on the ability of A.hydrophila to adhere to four solid surfaces (stainless steel SS, galvaze iron GI, polyvinyl chloride PVC and unplasticised polyvinyl chloride UPVC ) under different factors.Our results showed that higher number of A. .hydrophila was adhered on uPVC followed by the PVC and SS and GI was the least in ability to attraction of bacteria at 37°C. RW isolate appeared higher ability to produce biofilm on all surfaces than DW isolate. A. .hydrophila (DW, RW) has ability to adherence on four solid surfaces at low temperature 4°C greater than 37°C. The MIC values varied according to the type of disinfectants in the range (1550-7500 μg/ml. In this experiment, dettol was found as the best antiseptic against both isolates of A. hydrophila(DW, RW) recording a minimum value of MIC (1550) μg/ml, follows by bleach with MIC(7500) μg/ml, .The bleach at MIC concentration was the most efficient disinfectants than other disinfectants in its ability to remove the adherent bacteria on solid surfaces followed by dettol .

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Article
Physico-chemical and Biological Variables of Hospitals Wastewater in Erbil City
المتغيرات الفيزيوكيميائية والبايولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحي لمستشفيات في مدينة اربيل

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Abstract

Three hospitals were chosen(Maternity hospital, Raperin hospital and Rhizgari hospital) for the present survey within Erbil city. Water samples were collected at regular monthly interval periods beginning in January 2012 to December 2012. pH of all the studied sites were found to be up 7. Electrical conductivity ranged from (1318-1790 µs.cm-1 in Maternity Hospital, 1770-2232 µs.cm-1 in Raperin Hospital, 1010-1615 µs.cm-1 in Rhizgari Hospital). BOD5 and COD values ranged from 22- 80 mg.L1 and 280- 1410 mg.L-1 respectively, this indicated a high pollution situation in the studied sites in respect to organic matter content. The quantitative analysis of counted microorganisms was more than that describe by WHO guidelines standard.

Keywords

hospital wastewater --- BOD --- COD.


Article
Study the effect of Lysostaphin, on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus( MRSA) biofilm formation
دراسة تاثير اللايسوستافين على قابلية المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المقاومة للمثسلين على تكوين البايوفلم( MRSA)

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Abstract

This study included collection of 100 specimens from patients in AL-Kindy Teaching Hospital and teaching laboratories of Medical City Hospitals in Baghdad during the period from August to December 2012 ,these specimens differed in their sources which included 19 nasal swab, 16 wound swab,27 burn swab, 7 pus, 15 sputum, 10 corneal swab and 6 urine . Only 38 (38%) isolates was identified as Staphylococcus. In this study, 29 isolates (76.3%) were coagulase-positive (COPS), while only 9 isolates(23.6%) were coagulase negative (CONS), from total 38 isolates of Staphylococci. The distribution of Methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus spp. was investigated by disc diffusion method. In this study, 21 isolates (55.26%) showed resistant to the Methicillin while 17 isolates (44.73%) were sensitive. The ability to produce slime layer by MRSA isolates was also investigated and the results showed that all isolates of MRSA was produced slime layer when tested by tube method, but the amounts of adherent materials were differ among the isolates. However, the results by Congo red agar method showed that 57% of MRSA isolates produced strong slime layer and 43% of MRSA obtained negative result. Similarly the ability of MRSA to produce biofilm by tissue culture plate (TCP) was investigated and the results indicated that MRSA isolates showed highly and strong biofilm formation, and the OD value of biofilm formation ranged between 0.262 - 0.311. Additionally the OD value of biofilm formation significantly increased in addition of 1% glucose to the media. Statistical analysis showed slightly effect of lysostaphin under (5.625µg/ml MIC) on biofilm formation ability of (MRSA S3) optical density was reduced to (0.312 nm) in comparable with control group (0.389nm).

Keywords

lysostaphin --- S.aureus --- biofilm --- MRSA


Article
Effect of Toxoplasmosis Infection on Liver and Kidney Functions among Pregnant Women in Abo-Gharib District- Iraq
تأثير الإصابة بداء المقوسات الكونيدية على وظائف الكبد والكلية بين النساء الحوامل في قضاء أبي غريب- العراق

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The effect of toxoplasmosis infection on liver and kidney functions among pregnant women in Abo-Gharib District- Iraq was studied. Forty women that had positive test for toxoplasmosis by ELISA test were participated in this study. Also control group of apparently healthy women was selected (ten total women). This group had negative test for toxoplasmosis (ELISA test). The venous blood was collected from each patient and control individual to obtain serum. Liver function was evaluated by the estimation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT/ GPT) and serum alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities. Kidney function was evaluated by the estimation of serum creatinine and urea concentrations by the enzymatic methods. The results show that there is a significant (P< 0.05) increase in the means of AST, ALT and ALP activities as well as urea and creatinine concentrations in the serum of toxoplasmosis women compared with control group. In conclusion, this study indicates that toxoplasmosis affects liver and kidney functions as evidenced by the significant increase in the levels of some biochemical parameters in patients group; this may possibly affect some specific enzyme systems, which can, consequently, exhibit serious pathology, including hepatitis, pneumonia, blindness and severe neurological disorders.


Article
Pollutionary effect of the Medical city waste water on the Tigris river bacterial indicators on Baghdad city
التأثيرات التلوثية لمياه الصرف الصحي لمدينة الطب على المؤشرات البكتيرية لنهر دجلة في مدينة بغداد

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Bacteriological characteristics of Tigris river water were assessed monthly to monitor the impact of pollutants of Medical City waste water for the period from January to June-2013. Four stations were selected for the study, the first station placed before the Medical City Complex (500 meters). The second station represent Medical City sewage discharge into the river, where represents the study area. The third station placed (500 meters) after the second station, and the forth station is located on (2000 meters) after the second station. Samples collected monthly to monitor the changes of water indicators showed that: Total Bacterial Count (10000 to 2700000 cells/1 ml), Total Coliform (200-3700 cells/100 ml), Fecal Coliform (100-2400 cell/100 ml), Total Streptococci (200-2800 cells/100 ml), Fecal Streptococci (0-2000 cells/100 ml) and the FC: FS ratio is (0-8).


Article
Bioremediation of Polluted Water with Crude Oil in South Baghdad Power Plant
المعالجة الحيوية للمياه الملوثة بالنفط الخام في محطة جنوب بغداد لإنتاج الطاقة الكهربائية

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae appears good growth when replicate to culture with heavy crude oil. K. pneumoniae was less ability to biodegrade the heavy crude oil (66.22 wt.%) compare with P. aeruginosa 74 wt.%). Also the emulsion percent were about 64.8 % and 62.5 % for K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results showed that the emulsions produced from both the strains decrease the surface tension of the media from 68.43 Mn/m (for control sample) to 44.50 and 43.30 Mn/m for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for the hydrocarbons biodegradation were 28 ºC and 7, respectively. The incubation period of 28 days of the isolated increased hydrocarbons biodegradation, which were (78 %) for P. aeruginosa, and (83 %) for K. pneumoniae. While, P. aeruginosa recorded heavy oil biodegradation percents were 76.94 and 71.73 % for oil concentrations 1000 and 2000 mg/l, respectively. While the percentage of biodegradation by K. pneumoniae to heavy oil were 74.87 and 69.92 % for 1000 and 2000 mg/l, respectively.


Article
The removal of Zinc, Chromium and Nickel from industrial waste water using Corn cobs
أزالة ألزنك وألكروم وألنيكل من مياه ألفضلة ألصناعية بأستخدام كوالح ألذرة

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The aim of this study was to use low cost adsorbents, which consist of corn cobs as plant wastes adsorbents in treatment of Industrial waste water by fixed bed column technique and study the effect of two variables (pH value and contact time). The sample of plant waste (Corn cobs) was tested to determine its activity which gives the best performance in heavy metals removal and other pollutants (TSS, TDS and COD). Adsorption tests showed the corn cobs adsorbents had significant heavy metal removal efficiency. The best removal efficiency 95.05% of Cr was occurred at pH 5.4 and 4.18hr. Higher removal efficiency 99.90% of Ni was occurred at pH 6.5 and 2.38hr. While, lower removal efficiency 91.35% for Zn obtained at pH 6.5 and 0.15hr. Removal efficiency for TDS, TSS and COD were 56%, 65.7% and 83.3% respectively.


Article
Immunohistochemical Study of Estrogen, Progesterone Receptor and Her-2neu Oncogene with Her-2neu Biomarker Estimation by ELISA Technique in Primary Breast Cancer before Chemical Therapy
دراسة نسيجية مناعية لمستقبل هرمون الاستروجين والبروجستيرون والهير 2 نيو الورمي مع حساب العلامات البايولوجية للهير 2 نيو عن طريق تقنية اللايزا في مريضات مصابات لسرطان الثدي قبل العلاج الكيمياوي

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Abstract

Breast cancer is one of the comments malignant tumors worldwide especially in Iraq; it is a leading cause of death in Iraqi women. Determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors status is helpful in selecting the patients most likely to receive benefit from endocrine therapy, and provide prognostic information on recurrence and survival since their expression is related to the degree of the tumor differentiation. From November 2012 to March 2013, 150 breast cancer patients at Al-Amal Hospital in Baghdad were attended to start treatment of disease for the first time. All patients included in this study did not receive chemotherapy. Patients were asked to bring their paraffin embedded tissue blocks to participate in estrogen, progesterone and Her-2/nue receptors estimation. Blood samples were also collected from the patients to estimate positive Her-2nue cases in serum. Age distribution in women with breast cancer showed that 44%of cases at age group (40 – 49) years. 23% of the patients had a positive family history (first and second degree). Histological types of breast carcinoma showed that 82%, 14% and 4% were ductal, lobular and mixed carcinoma respectively. The Makee classification showed that Grade I, II, and III were detected in 10%, 64% and 26% respectively. TNM staging revealed that 16% of the patients were recorded in stage I, 44% in stage II, 32% in stage III and 8% in stage IV. It was demonstrated that 72% and 70% of breast carcinomas were positive for ER and PR respectively; both markers correlated with age, family history, type, histological grade and stage of the disease. Her-2/neu showed 28% expression in Iraqi breast cancer cases. HER2/neu over-expression (>15 ng/ml) was observed in 36 out of 150 patients (24%) Her-2/neu serum level at ELISA diagnosis and in 42 out of 150 (28%) at immunohistochemistry method (IHC).There were significant (P <0.001) association between tissue HER-2/neu and serum HER-2 levels. Detection Her-2/neu in serum by ELISA technique could be used as a method for detection with high rate reached to 78% after mastectomy, also it considered as an excellent method for follow up.

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Breast Cancer --- ER --- PR --- Her2/neu


Article
Sequence Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships Among Ten Iraqi Rice Varieties Using RM171 Marker
العلاقات التطوريه والتغاير التسلسلي لعشرة اصناف من الرز العراقي باستعمال مؤشر الرز الوراثي (RM171)

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In the present study rice microsatellite marker (RM 171) was used to evaluate the genetic diversity and determining cultivar identity among ten rice varieties (oryza sativa L.) (Seven local and three commercial varieties). PCR technique was performed using two specific primers. The result showed presence of a band (305bp) DNA sequencing was done to PCR product to detect sequence variation between the ten rice varieties. In order to detect the relationship among all varieties, alignment of RM171 marker sequence was carried out for each variety. Amber and Daawat varieties showed the highest similarity with 98% identity, while the difference (2%) consists of two gaps and two transition mutations (T/C) and (C/T). Furthermore, Amber was aligned with mashkhab-1; 6% variation was noticed includes 5% gaps of 16 nucleotides which are not found in Amber that distributed in four different locations. In addition to the gaps, two transversion mutations were identified (G/C) and (G/T). Phylogenetic relationships among varieties were achieved, which showed that genetic distances were ranged from 0.029 to 1.999 among rice varieties. Cluster analyses grouped the ten varieties into five main clusters depending on their geographic origin, their ancestor and their aroma characteristics and this revealed relatedness between aromatic and non -aromatic with few of independent varieties. The result of this study could be helpful in the future for rice breeding programs.


Article
Inelastic longitudinal electron scattering C2 form factors in 48Ca nucleus by using sigma meson as a residual interaction.
الاستطارة الالكترونية الطولية غير المرنة C2 في نواة 48Ca باستخدام ميزون سكَما ∑ كبقية تفاعل.

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Abstract

Inelastic longitudinal electron scattering C2 form factor in 48Ca has been utilized to study the effects of fitting parameters on the sigma meson exchange type potentials as a residual interaction. By coupling the core particles with model space particle, where the latter used as an active part of residual interaction in the so called core polarization process, it is included as a correction with first order perturbation theory to the main calculation of model space, and the excitation energy has been carried out with ( ). A model space wave vectors are generated in full fp shell model with FPD6 as effective interaction with mixing configuration technique and harmonic oscillator as a single particle wave function. Theoretical results are consisted with experimental data.


Article
The Formation Models of Gypsum Barrier, Chemical Temporal Changes and Assessments the Water Quality of Sawa Lake, Southern Iraq
موديل تكوين الجدار الجبسي والتغيرات الكيميائية الزمنية وتقييم نوعية مياه بحيرة ساوة, جنوب العراق

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This study deals with formation models of gypsum barrier, chemical temporal changes, and assessments of the Sawa Lake within the Al- Muthanna province, Southern Iraq, it is a very important issue to find the water quality and water assessments of this lake. Eleven water samples are collected from Sawa Lake. Many scientific concepts are used such as major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), major anions (SO4=,Cl-,HCO3- and CO3=) with minor anions ( PO43-, NO3-) and H2S . Trace elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, Co, Cu, Mn, Fe, As, Sr And B) and bacterial test were analyzed in each sample. Total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), pH and temperature (T) were directly measured in the field. The equilibrium state between the concentration and evaporation contributed actively to build the salt wall surrounded the lake. The building wall of the Lake is a barrier of gypsum, which is in a dynamic state between construction and dissolution.The length of gypsum barrier surrounding the lake is 12.5 km with 3-6 m high. Gypsum wall collapse occurs in abundance in the sites that face the wind which activates the erosion processes. The chemistry of Sawa Lake during 1977, 1983 and 2003 was Na- SO4=; then it was changed to be as Mg-Cl from during 2007and 2011 (present study). This study revealed that theSawa Lake water is as unsuitable for drinking, livestock and irrigationpurposes.


Article
Delineation of groundwater aquifers using VES and 2D imaging techniques in north Badra area, Eastern Iraq
تحديد خزانات المياه الجوفية باستخدام تقنية الجس العمودي الكهربائي و تقنية ثنائي البعد في شمال منطقة بدرة, شرق العراق

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Abstract

The resistivity survey was carried out by using vertical electrical sounding (VES) and 2D imaging techniques in the northern Badra area, Eastern Iraq. Eleven VES points distributed on two parallel profiles and six 2D imaging stations were applied using long survey lines. In general, two types of aquifers are recognized in the study area. The first is the Quaternary aquifer, which appears in all geological sections and inverse model of 2D imaging stations (2DS).This aquifer can be divided into upper and lower aquifers as shown in (2DS1), (2DS3), and (2DS4). Generally, the thickness of this aquifer ranges between (30-200 m) which occurs at a depth of (10-30m) according to geological sections, while its thickness ranges between (35-180m) and occurs at depth (10-45m) according to the inverse model of 2D imaging stations. The second is the AL-Mukdadiya aquifer, which appears only in 2DS1 at a depth of (140m), and it thickness is more than (80m). The comparison between VES and 2D imaging techniques revealed that the VES technique is the best in delineating the boundaries between layers. However, the 2D imaging technique is better at delineating the aquifers, and at determining the vertical and horizontal changes in resistivity within layers and aquifers, and it also succeeded in recognizing the upper and lower aquifers of quaternary aquifer as shown in (2DS1), (2DS3), and (2DS4). Therefore, 2D imaging is better at recognizing more layers or aquifers than that of VES technique, especially with the gradual decrease (or increase) in resistivity values or layers with small thickness. Also, the VES technique showed a high depth of investigation (DOI) in comparison with 2D imaging technique.


Article
Integration Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Evaluate Land Use-Land Cover of Baghdad Region and Nearby Areas
مكاملة تقنيات التحسس النائي ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية لتقييم استخدامات الارض- غطاءات الارض لمنطقة بغداد والمناطق المجاورة

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Abstract

The study area of Baghdad region and nearby areas lies within the central part of the Mesopotamia plain. It covers about 5700 Km2. The remote sensing techniques are used in order to produce possible Land Use – Land Cover (LULC) map for Baghdad region and nearby areas depending on Landsat TM satellite image 2007. The classification procedure which was developed by USGS used and followed with field checking in 2010. Land Use-land cover digital map is created depending on maximum likelihood classifications (ML) of TM image using ERDAS 9.2.The LULC raster image is converted to vector structure, using Arc GIS 9.3 Program in order to create a digital LULC map. This study showed it is possible to produce a digital map of LULC and it can be constantly updated .The image was classified into five main classes, these are: Urban and Built-up land class, vegetated land class, Water class, Barren land class and Agricultural none vegetated land class. The accuracy assessment for classification was 93.70% and Kappa coefficient was 0.8833.


Article
Use GIS to Draw the concentrations Maps of the Heavy Elements and Boron of Groundwater In Southwest Karbala Governorate/Iraq
أستخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافية GIS لرسم خرائط تراكيز العناصر الثقيلة والبورون للمياه الجوفية جنوب غرب محافظة كربلاء/العراق

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Abstract

The area of study is located at southern east of Karbala governorate, in basin of Dibdiba formation (upper Miocene-Pliocene), between longitudes (43ο 57' 34.2" & 44ο 09' 49.2ʺ) and latitudes (32ο 23' 16.4" & 32ο 36' 03.2"), this area about ( 336 ) km2. It is consists the geochemical and hydrochemical studies of heavy elements (Co, Ni, Mn, Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe) and (B+3) and measure the concentration of elements from samples of groundwater of 16 wells. After data collection from the analysis of the samples of water we are saving the results on the computer, with GIS software techniques, and draw different maps which represent the zones of the distribution of concentrations the metals. From the maps we are seen the zone of higher concentrations toward south and southeast toward the movement of groundwater(the area of discharge), and from the chemical analysis of water we can seen all water samples exceeded the limit for (B+3) and (Ni,Pb), while the other elements (Mn, Zn, Cd) within the permissible limits, while (Co)was within the permissible limits except in the well (14), and (Fe) was within the permissible limits except in the wells (13,15,16 and 20). From the results of the study we are finding that all water of the wells are contaminated because the farmers are used many kinds of fertilizers to the vegetations of the surrounding area, the chemical compositions of these fertilizers mainly composed from heavy metals, and when the farmers irrigated the farms the dissolved minerals penetrated the soils to reach the aquifer of groundwater, therefore the water of wells used just for irrigation the vegetations, and when compare the results with the Iraqi and International standers for drinking water, we can’t used all the water of the wells to human s drinks.


Article
A Modified Hestenes-Stiefel Conjugate Gradient Method and its Global convergence for unconstrained optimization
تطوير طريقة Hestenes-Stiefel للتدرج المترافق وتقاربها الشمولي في الأمثلية غير المقيدة

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Abstract

In this paper, we proposed a modified Hestenes-Stiefel (HS) conjugate gradient method. This achieves a high order accuracy in approximating the second order curvature information of the objective function by utilizing the modified secant condition which is proposed by Babaie-Kafaki [1], also we derive a non-quadratic conjugate gradient model. The important property of the suggestion method that is satisfy the descent property and global convergence independent of the accuracy of the line search. In addition, we prove the global convergence under some suitable conditions, and we reported the numerical results under these conditions.


Article
Modules With Chain Conditions On δ -Small Submodules
المقاسات التي تحقق خاصية السلسلة للمقاسات الجزئية δ الصغيرة

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Abstract

Let R be an associative ring with identity and M be unital non zero R-module. A submodule N of a module M is called a δ-small submodule of M (briefly N << M )if N+X=M for any proper submodule X of M with M/X singular, we have X=M . In this work,we study the modules which satisfies the ascending chain condition (a. c. c.) and descending chain condition (d. c. c.) on this kind of submodules .Then we generalize this conditions into the rings , in the last section we get same results on δ- supplement submodules and we discuss some of these results on this types of submodules.


Article
A Genetic Algorithm for Minimum Set Covering Problem in Reliable and Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
الخوارزمية الجينية لمشكلة المجموعة الادنى للتغطية في شبكات الاستشعار اللاسلكية الموثوقة والفعالة

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Abstract

Densely deployment of sensors is generally employed in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to ensure energy-efficient covering of a target area. Many sensors scheduling techniques have been recently proposed for designing such energy-efficient WSNs. Sensors scheduling has been modeled, in the literature, as a generalization of minimum set covering problem (MSCP) problem. MSCP is a well-known NP-hard optimization problem used to model a large range of problems arising from scheduling, manufacturing, service planning, information retrieval, etc. In this paper, the MSCP is modeled to design an energy-efficient wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that can reliably cover a target area. Unlike other attempts in the literature, which consider only a simple disk sensing model, this paper addresses the problem of scheduling the minimum number of sensors (i.e., finding the minimum set cover) while considering a more realistic sensing model to handle uncertainty into the sensors' target-coverage reliability. The paper investigates the development of a genetic algorithm (GA) whose main ingredient is to maintain scheduling of a minimum number of sensors and thus to support energy-efficient WSNs. With the aid of the remaining unassigned sensors, the reliability of the generated set cover provided by the GA, can further be enhanced by a post-heuristic step. Performance evaluations on solution quality in terms of both sensor cost and coverage reliability are measured through extensive simulations, showing the impact of number of targets, sensor density and sensing radius.


Article
Intrusion Detection Approach Based on DNA Signature
كشف التطفل اعتمادا على توقيع الحمض النووي

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Abstract

Intrusion-detection systems (IDSs) aim at detecting attacks against computer systems and networks or, in general, against information systems. Most of the diseases in human body are discovered through Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) investigations. In this paper, the DNA sequence is utilized for intrusion detection by proposing an approach to detect attacks in network. The proposed approach is a misuse intrusion detection that consists of three stages. First, a DNA sequence for a network traffic taken from Knowledge Discovery and Data mining (KDD Cup 99) is generated. Then, Teiresias algorithm, which is used to detect sequences in human DNA and assist researchers in decoding the human genome, is used to discover the Shortest Tandem Repeat (STR) sequence and its position (i.e., pattern or keys) in the network traffic. Finally, the Horspool algorithm is applied as a classification process to determine whether the network traffic is attack or normal. The performance of the proposed approach in terms of detection rate, accuracy, and false alarm rate are measured, showing the results are reasonable and accepted.


Article
Molecules mixture model to explain the nature of interstellar matter
نموذج خليط الجزيئات لتفسير طبيعة المادة بين النجوم

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Abstract

The nature of interstellar matter has been explained by presenting a model consists of organic and inorganic materials mixture in the wavelength range (9-12) µm. Laboratory samples of different concentrations of these materials were prepared and examined by using FTIR spectrometer device. Results of spectra for these samples are compared with observation of Trapezium nebula in the same wavelengths range. The best mixture model found to fit with observation is a sample consists of:11.96 % (Diatom silica (98% pure silica)) + 14.35 % (Carbon (C)) +27.63 % (Tryptophan amino acid) + 46.06 % (Tyrosine amino acid), this are done using convolution technique. Interstellar matter could be explained biologically, as the contribution of organic material is almost 88%.


Article
Study of Sunspot Effect on Radio Jove Telescope Observation
دراسة تأثير البقع الشمسية على ارصادات التلسكوب الراديوي جوفا

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Abstract

In this research, study the effect of sunspots on electromagnetic radio signals when it passed through F layer. The evaluation for this effect is carried out on radio Jove telescope frequency (20.1MHz) observations result. Radio emission for Jupiter storm burst observations over 11 years (1999-2009) from Hawaii, USA station (about 37611observations must be attended), are used in this research. Two data limitations are applied on number of observation for Hawaii station, first due station location, second due to the reception of telescope antenna. The number of observations are reduced to 337 due to these limitation, but the actual number that be detected by station telescope is only 20.A model for ionospherical effect ,only due to sunspot number in observation day, is achieved in this paper. The behavior of this effect depending on actual observations (20 observations) is represented by polynomial equation of order degree three. The range of K sunspot value according the effect curve representation is determined by difference calculation between actual observation day sunspot number and the sunspot number must be to achieve the model curve this range is 25.


Article
Thermal Emission from Binary Millisecond Pulsar Stars (MSPs)
الانبعاث الحراري من نجوم الثنائية النابضة من نوع ملي ثانية

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Pulsar stars divided into two types depending on the periods of rotation, normal emission Pulsar and Millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In this paper, the effect of the strong magnetic field on the thermal emission in Millisecond pulsar stars is concentrated. Also the luminosity spin down (Lsp) are calculated depends on the periods (P), and Period derivative ( ) for sample stars which were adopted. The relation between internal and surface magnetic field is illustrated. The model that which adopted is Hallo Cone Model (HCM)). The total magnetic dipole radiation power (heating power Wh) of all super fluid neutrons in MSPs stars is calculated. For sample stars of MSPs , the value of transition period (Ptr) was determined by depending on the some properties of pulsar star. The results indicated that heating power of our model (A) would be larger than the model (B) that's due to the huge value of the moment of inertia (I). Also the results showed that the maximum surface luminosity of stars occurs at the values of Magnetic field ≥ 5.5 1012 Gauss.


Article
Video Image Compression Using Absolute Moment Block Truncation Method with Orthogonal Search Motion Estimation Technique
ضغط الصور الفديوية بأستخدام طريقة عزم البلوك المستقطع مع تقنية البحث المتعامد لتخمين الحركة

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Image compression has become one of the most important applications of the image processing field because of the rapid growth in computer power. The corresponding growth in the multimedia market, and the advent of the World Wide Web, which makes the internet easily accessible for everyone. Since the early 1980, digital image sequence processing has been an attractive research area because an image sequence, as acollection of images, may provide much compression than a single image frame. The increased computational complexity and memory space required for image sequence processing, has in fact, becoming more attainable. this research absolute Moment Block Truncation compression technique which is depend on adopting the good points of other techniques. As well as algorithm of efficient block's position has been adopted to achieve this research. Also in this paper was introduce A modify of the orthogonal search algorithm (OSA) for searching scheme has been introduced which is contributed in decreasing the motion searching time of the successive inter frames.


Article
AL-Dibdiba Formation Basin Hydrological Aspects Extraction Using GIS techniques and Quantitative Morphometric Analysis
استخلاص الخواص الهيدروليكية لحوض تكوين الدبدبة باستخدام تقنيات نظم المعلومات الجغرافية والتحليل المورفومتري الكمي

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The drainage basin's hydrological aspect studying is considered to be important issue because of their influence (especially in arid to semi-arid regions) on the water management projects, agricultural management projects, and grazing ones. The importance of this study is coming from the fact that AL-Dibdiba formation basin climate is arid to semi-arid and there are human activities (habitation and agricultural) in the east part of it, so the water resources management is needed for this basin. The morphometric analysis illustrates the hydrological aspects in a quantitative form; the problem is the use of the traditional schemes in the calculation processes (such as the topographic map and the planmeter), which coast time and money and accuracy as well (the data generalization case). In this study the morphometric analysis achieved using the SRTM DEM as ancillary data and the ArcGIS 9.3 as a tool for measuring and analyzing. Two new approaches introduced in this study, the first to overcome the No data pixels problem by using the circular focal mean with threshold pixel values, the second approach is basin borders delineation perfectly by applying the 3D analyst tools (interpolate line and create profile graph) on the corrected 30m SRTM. AL-Dibdiba basin drainage pattern derived from DEM showed to be dendritic for the low orders and parallel for the high orders, the morphometric parameters were computed using GIS techniques, then categorized into three classes (linear, areal, and relief) aspects; for the first class there are 938 1st order streams, 428 2nd order stream, 251 3rd order streams,126 4th order streams, and 2 5th ones, the 1st order streams length is 1389520.54m, the 2nd order length is 770265.45m, the 3rd order length is 412819.23m, the 4th order length is 210484m, and the 5th one is 3776m, the 1st order bifurcation ratio is 2.191, the 2nd order bifurcation ratio is 1.705, the 3rd order bifurcation ratio is 1.992, and the 4th order bifurcation ratio is 63. The average (after excluding the anomaly 4th order one value is 1.962, for the second class the drainage density is (1.028kmˉˡ), the drainage frequency is 0.64 stream /km², Drainage Texture is 2.999 stream / km, the elongation ratio is 0.6724, the circularity ratio is 0.34, the form factor is 0.354, the infiltration number is 0.658, and the length of the overland follow is 0.486 km, for the third one the basin relief is 148m, the relief ratio is 0.00169, the channel gradient value is 1.68 m/km, and Constant of Channel Maintenance is 0.97 km.

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