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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2010 volume:13 issue:1

Article
SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHORAMIDATE DERIVATIVES OF 5-FLUROURACIL AS A POSSIBLE PRODRUGS FOR TARGETING CANCER TISSUE

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Abstract

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used widely as an anticancer drug to treat solid cancers, such as colon, breast, rectal, and pancreatic cancers; although it s clinical application is limited because 5-FU has gastrointestinal and hematological toxicity. An approach to improve the cancer cell selective properties of 5-fluorouracil is the chemical transformation into reversible derivatives (prodrugs) which are converted to the parent drug by virtue of enzymatic and / or chemical hydrolysis within the cancer tissue. In the present study, three derivatives of 5-fluorouracil has been designed to be synthesized as 5-fluorouracil phosphoramidate prodrugs, compounds (I, II and III) to selectively deliver the 5-fluorouracil into the cancer cells. The generation of the target compounds I, II and III were accomplished following one-pot reaction procedures. The reaction and purity of the products were checked by TLC, the structure of the final compounds was confirmed by their melting points, infra red spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. The hydrolysis of compounds I, II and III in aqueous buffer solution of pH 6, pH 7.4 and in serum were studied. Compounds I, II and III had acceptable rate of hydrolysis at pH 6 (t = 45.05 min, t = 41.22min and t = 38.80min respectively) and enough stability at pH 7.4 (t = 348.72 min, t = 395.31min and t = 345.38min respectively); and enough stability at serum; therefore these three compounds can selectively deliver 5-fluorouracil into the tumor cells which have pH approximate to (6). According to the results mentioned above, compounds I, II and III can be good candidates as 5-fluorouracil prodrugs that can selectively deliver the parent drug into the cancer cells by the effect of pH and /or enzyme.


Article
BATCH AND FLOW INJECTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODSFOR DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL IN PHARMACEUTICALPREPARATIONS VIA OXIDATIVE COUPLING WITH4-AMINOANTIPYRINE

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Abstract

A simple, rapid and sensitive batch and flow injection spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of paracetamol in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods are based on the oxidative coupling reaction of paracetamol with 4-aminoantipyrine in presence of ammonium persulfate in alkaline medium to produce an orangereddish product that having absorptivity maximum at 461 nm. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters have been evaluated. Linearity was observed from 2-16 and 100-700 g mL -1 paracetamol by batch and flow injection procedures, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results and comparison with results by the British Pharmacopoeia method are also reported.


Article
DETERMINATION OF SERUM TRACE ELEMENTSMAGNESIUM, COPPER, ZINC, AND SELENIUM IN ASTHMATIC PATIENTS BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

Authors: Nahla A. Al-Assaf
Pages: 20-25
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of trace elements Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), and Selenium (Se) in blood sera of asthmatic patients by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentrations of Mg, Cu, and Zn have been determined by Flame Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Se with flameless Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The study involves (55) asthmatic patients as study group and (28) subjects as control from both genders. Serum levels of Mg, Cu, and Se were significantly higher (p<0.001 for all) in patients when compared with healthy subjects, while Zn level was relatively significant (p<0.05). Our observations confirm the efficacy and applicability of (AAS) in determination of trace elements levels in blood sera of asthmatic patients and the effect of these elements in pathogenesis and treatment of the disease.

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Article
SYNTHESIS OF SOME NEW N-SUBSTITUTED-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROCARBAZOLE DERIVATIVES AND STUDY THEIR BIOLOGICALACTIVITY

Authors: Ali, M.N. Al-Quaz --- Suaad M.H. Al-Majidi
Pages: 26-35
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Abstract

The aim of this research synthesis compounds different heterocyclic new rings, sulfur and nitrogen containing in structures, substituted-N-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazol) [THCz], through the prepared a-chloro-N-tetrahydocarbazol acetamide [2] which was prepared two ways. The first method by condensation [THCz] with chloro acetyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine and dry benzene as solvent. The second method the prepared [THCz]2Hg [1], then condensation with chloroacety chloride in DMSO. Which was treated hydrazinehydrate to give a-hydrazine-Ntetrahydrocabazol acetamide [3]. The hydrazine derivative [3] with five acid anhydrids [Maleic, Phthalic, Succinic, Glutaric and Citraconic] to produce novel diazine which contain the acid refered above on substituted-N-tetrahydrocarbazol acetamide [4a-e] respectively. The compound [2] was treated with each of urea and thiourea to give compounds [5,6] respectively. Followed the cyclization of compounds [5,6] by used p-phenylphencylbromide gave oxazol [7] and thiazol [8] on substituted-N-tetrahydrocarbazol acetamide, furthermore, new Schiff base [9a-e] were prepared through the reaction of the hydrazine derivative [3] with aromatic aldehydes. The prepared compounds identified by spectral methods [UV, FTIR, H-NMR, 13 CNMR] and measurement some of its physical properties and some specific reaction, furthermore we were studied the effects of the preparing on some strains of bacteria.

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Article
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSITION METALCOMPLEXES OF 2-THIOACETIC ACID BENZOTHIAZOLE LIGAND

Authors: Yang Farina --- Emad Yousif --- Ahmed Majeed
Pages: 36-42
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New metal complexes of the ligand 2-thioacetic acid benzothiazole with the metal ions Fe(III), Rh(III), Pd(II), Pt(IV) and Au(III) were prepared in alcoholic medium.The prepared complexes were characterized by FTIR Spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. Molar ratio and continuous variation studies in solution gave comparable result with those obtained from solid state study. From the spectral measurements, monomer structures for the complexes were proposed.


Article
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITYOF SOME METAL IONSWITH 2-THIOACETIC-5-PHENYL-1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE

Authors: Ahmed Ahmed --- Hadeel Adel --- Hanan Ibraheem
Pages: 43-47
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New metal complexes of the ligand 2-thioacetic-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole with the metal ions Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Sn(II) were prepared in alcoholic medium. The prepared complexes were characterized by FTIR Spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy 1H NMR, 13C NMR, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. From the spectral measurements, monomer structures for the complexes were proposed. Square planar geometry was proposed for the copper complex. The other complexes were proposed to be tetrahedral. Preliminary in vitro tests for antimicrobial activity show that all prepared compounds display good activity to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherishia coli, Pseudononas aeroginosa and Cndida albicans.


Article
IMPACT OF URBAN EXPANSION ON SURFACE TEMPERATURE INBAGHDAD, IRAQ USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES

Authors: Salah A. H. Saleh
Pages: 48-59
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Baghdad city has experienced a rapid urban expansion over the last decades due to accelerated economic growth. This paper reports an investigation into the application of the integration of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) for detecting urban built up growth for the period 1961-2002, and evaluate its impact on surface temperature in Baghdad city. The purpose of this study is to analysis and verifies the spatial distribution property of the surface temperature with urban spatial information, related with land cover / land use and NDVI using remotely sensed data and GIS. Surface temperature, land cover pattern and NDVI were extracted from Landsat7 ETM + data. Then surface temperatures, was linked to land use data of Baghdad region for further investigations of the relationship between temperature behavior and urban structures. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to examine the relation between thermal behavior and vegetation cover amount. The results showed that the negative average correlation more than 85 % was identified by the results from the correlation and regression analysis of the extracted surface temperature from Landsat data image with NDVI. Also this research verified the distribution of urban surface temperature was very different depends on various land cover type of surrounding areas. Water and forest cover types show low day temperature differences compared to residential, commercial cover types. The integration of remote sensing and GIS was found to be effective in monitoring and analyzing urban growth patterns and in evaluating urbanization impact on surface temperature.

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Article
DESIGN OF AN ELECTROSTATIC IMMERSION LENS USING THECHARGE DENSITY METHOD

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A computational investigation has been carried out in the field of non-relativistic chargedparticle optics using the charge density method as a boundary value problem with the aid of a personal computer under the absence of space-charge effects. This work has been concentrated on designing a two-electrode electrostatic immersion lens whose electrodes are cylindrical in shape separated by an air gap. The variable parameters of the two electrodes are the applied voltage ratio and the radii of the two cylindrical electrodes. The axial potential distribution of an electrostatic immersion lens has been computed by taking into consideration the distribution of the charge density due to the voltages applied on the two cylindrical electrodes. Potentials have been determined anywhere in space by using Coulomb s law. The optical properties of the immersion lens have been investigated under finite and zero magnification conditions.

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Article
INVESTIGATION OF STRUCTURAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF Sb2S3 THIN FILMS

Authors: Salma M. Shaban
Pages: 69-72
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Sb2S3 thin films were obtained by evaporating the powder of Sb2S3 compound onto glass substrates maintained at room temperature and at substrate temperature 423 K under vacuum pressure of (2 10-5) torr. The composition of Sb2S3 powder was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy .The deposited films at room temperature were amorphous but the deposited films at 423K were polycrystalline structure. Optical parameters like absorption coefficient, energy gap, and refractive index were measured by the analysis of the experimental transmission spectrum over the wavelength range (200-1100) nm.

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Article
DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF INDUSTRIAL POLYMERCOMPOSITE MATERIALS

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Frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric constant ( ) and dielectric loss ( ) in pure epoxy resin and polymer composites with glass fiber are studied in the frequency range 40Hz-110 MHz and in the temperature range (25-150) 0 C.The experimental results show that and increased with the addition of glass fiber in epoxy resin. The value of ( ) decreased with increasing frequency which indicates that the major contribution to the polarization comes from orientation polarization .Dielectric loss peaks were also observed in the composite materials at high temperature due to Tg of epoxy .The value of ( ) increased with increasing temperature, and is due to greater freedom of movement of the dipole molecular chains within the epoxy at high temperature.


Article
EFFECT OF EXPOSURE BUILDUP FACTORS ON REACTOR SHIELDING

Authors: Adnan A. Abdulfattah
Pages: 78-83
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The gamma ray buildup factor for a point isotropic monoenrgetic source (0.1, 1 and 10 MeV) have been studied up to a depth of 10 mean free paths (mfp) for water, iron , lead and uranium dioxide (UO2). Also the exposure buildup factor for gamma radiation in heterogeneous (double layer) shielding were determined for different order of layer (layer closer to the source consist of either a low atomic number material followed by a high atomic number material or a high atomic number material followed by low atomic number material).

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Article
THE EDITION EFFECT OF NATURAL FIBERS ON POLYMERIC MATERIALS AND STUDY SOME OF THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

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This research has been done by reinforcing the matrix (polyester) resin with natural material (frond palm). The fibers were exposure to chemical treatment before reinforcement. Different volume fractions were used (0%, 15%, 20%). After preparation of composite material some of the physical properties have been studied of samples preparation. They were Tensile strength test, Impact test, and Thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity was studied, the values of thermal conductivity were increased with increasing of volume fraction of all specimens and also the tensile strength and flexural strength were decreased with increasing volume fraction of fibers, while the impact strength was increased with volume fraction 15% but with continuouity of reinforcement, the impact strength wasdecreased, and also the chemical treatment of fibers improved the mechanical and thermal properties.

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Article
DETERMINATION OF URANIUM CONCENTRATION IN TEETH MALESAMPLES USING FISSION TRACKS IN CR-39 FROM DIFFERENTCOUNTRIES.

Authors: Sallama S.Hummadi --- Nada F.Tawfiq
Pages: 91-95
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The aim of this project is to measure the uranium concentration in teeth male samples collected from different nationalities. The uranium concentration in teeth samples were measured by using CR-39 track detector. The nuclear reaction is used as a source of nuclear fission fragments is (n, f) obtained by the bombardment of U-235 with thermal neutrons with flux (5000 n cm -2 s -1) from (Am-Be) neutron source. The concentration values were calculated by a comparison with standard samples which prepared. The obtained results show that the concentration is ranging from (0.72 0.1ppm) in Egypt to (0.24 0.03ppm) in Pilipino for male, the uranium concentration was the highest in Egypt for male.

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Article
AERODYNAMIC SURFACE ROUGHNESS LENGTH OFBAGHDAD CITY

Authors: Aqeel G. Al-Draj --- Monim H. Al-Jiboori
Pages: 96-102
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A field study carried out to calculate the displacement height, Zd, and roughness length, Z0, for Baghdad city according to several commonly standard criterions. Meteorological equipments such as anemometer, wind vane and thermometer were used to observe wind speed, wind direction and air temperature at two levels of 15 and 20 m. The results show that large variations in Zd and Z0 depend strongly on roughness element height, wind direction and the changes in the upwind fetch. Also, Baghdad city is classified as medium density and urban surface according to the values of measured Zd and Z0.

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Article
PREVALENCE OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUSAUREUS (MRSA) IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PRIMARY PYODERMA

Authors: Mariam K. Ali
Pages: 103-106
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Background: Although prevalence of MRSA strains is reported to be increasing, there are no studies of their prevalence in community-acquired primary pyodermas in Iraq. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of MRSA infection in community-acquired primary pyodermas. Methods: prospective survey carried out in Dermatology Department of Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Baghdad. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients with primary pyoderma, visiting the dermatology outpatient, were studied clinically and microbiologically. Sensitivity testing was done for vancomycin, sisomycin, gentamicin, framycetin, erythromycin, methicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, penicillin G and ciprofloxacin. Results: The culture positivity rate was 83.7%. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in all cases except two. Barring one, all strains of Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to methicillin. Conclusions: Methicillin resistance is uncommon in community-acquired primary pyodermas in Baghdad. Treatment with antibacterial active against MRSA is probably unwarranted for community-acquired primary pyodermas.


Article
PERFORMANCE OF ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYVERSUS LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST IN THE DIAGNOSIS OFACUTE GASTROENTERITIS BY ROTA VIRUS

Authors: Walaa Najm Abood
Pages: 107-111
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In this study we use two types of methods for detecting Rota virus in 91 stool specimens from children with acute gastroenteritis. The aim of this study to determine the performance (sensitivity & specificity) of latex agglutination (LAT) and enzyme linked immunos-orbentassay (ELISA) for evaluation children acute gastroenteritis by Rotavirus. Fecal samples were collected from ninety one children suffering from acute gastroentritis. their age ranged between(1 132) months. The highest sensitivity was(92.5%) obtained with LAT followed by ELISA (84.09%). while the highest specificity was(93.6%) obtained with ELISA followed by LAT(86.3%). the highest predictive positivity value was obtained with ELISA(92.5%) followed by LAT (84.09%). LAT is easy to performance and gave high sensitivity with accepted specificity therefore, could be applied successfully for routine diagnosis and Epidemiological study. But ELISA techniques allow quantitative estimation of Rotavirus antigens.

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Article
THE EFFECT OF CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ONBIODEGRADATION AND BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BYSERRATIA MARCESCENS UTILIZING WEATHERED DIESEL OIL

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The capability of a Serratia marcescens isolate to biosurfactant production from spilled weathered diesel oil has been studied in batch culture. Several cultural and environmental conditions were analyzed to optimized condition for growth and biosurfactant production. Results showed that the optimized conditions which for growth was, pH 7, incubation period for 72 h, supplementation of the production medium with (NH4)2 SO4 0.4 % and weathered diesel oil in a concentration of 5 % which yielded 8.6 g/l biomass. Optimized condition for biosurfactant production was, pH 8, incubation period 96 h, (NH4)2 SO4 0.2 % and weathered diesel oil in a concentration of 6 % which yielded 10.5 g/l biosurfactant. Temperature 30 C was optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. Surface active properties of isolate studied during cultivation with weathered diesel oil at the concentration 6 % (w/v) at different incubation period. The isolate has synthesized extra cellular compounds which increase the E 24 % emulsion index of culture medium to 58 % and emulsification activity to 0.9. The presence of these substances (crude form) lower the surface tension of the culture until 43 mN/m. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity (BAH) as measured by analyzing cell affinity towards aliphatic, aromatic and mixed hydrocarbons was also determined. The isolate was found to have a surface hydrophobicity (Hydrocarbon affinity) in the following order: aliphatic, mixed and monoaromatic hydrocarbons. The present study concludes possibility of using surface active agents (Biosurfactant) produced by Serratia marcescens mainly in: petroleum industry in enhanced oil recovery and in variety of biotechnological applications, including bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminated sites.


Article
PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) AMONG THALASSEMIAPATIENTS IN IBN-ALBALADY HOSPITAL

Authors: --- Baydaa Ahmed Abed
Pages: 121-126
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Background: thalassemia is one of most dangerous disease; it is an inherited impairment of hemoglobin production, in which there is partial or complete failure of the synthesis of globin chain. Objective: the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection among thalassemic patients in Ibn-albalady hospital in Baghdad. Patients and methods: The study was carried out on 111 transfusion dependent beta-thalassemia (74 males and 37 females) with a mean age 12.51 yrs attending to the Ibn Alba lady Hospital, in Baghdad during the period March 2008 to September 2008. The control group was thirty one (12 males and 19 females) with mean age of 11.5 yrs and investigated to serve as a control group; they were randomly selected from community. Blood sample was collected in morning for biochemical assays (hepatitis C virus (HCV), Glutamic Oxaloacetic (GOT),Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), Alkaline phosphates (ALP), Total serum bilirubin (TSB), Direct serum bilirubin( Dir.SB), Indirect serum bilirubin (Indir.SB). Results: Out of 111 thalassemic patients there was 51 (46 %) sera was confirmed positive for antiHCV- antibodies. The remaining 60 (54 %) were seronegative, while among 31 healthy controls only one (3.22%) was seropositive the result was statistically of a high significant difference (P=0.0001).Out of 51 seropositive, 13 (72.3%) patients were positive among those above 20 years, while only one (16.7) was positive among those from (0 4) years. It was found no significant correlation in (sex, TSB, Indir.SB, ALP) between patients with HCV+ve compared with HCV -ve. The current study demonstrated that there was a highly significant difference in (GPT, GOT, and Dir.SB) levels between patients with seropositive HCV and patients with seropositive HCV. Conclusions: The main causes of liver injury in thalassemia are hepatitis C virus and the finding suggests that HCV is the main cause of abnormal liver function in patients with thalassemia.

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Article
ON MARCINKIEWICZ-ZYGMUND INEQUALITIES IN LP,³-SPACES, 0 < p } 1

Authors: Saheb K. Al Saidy
Pages: 127-130
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We found the relationships between Marcinkiewicz-inequalities and linear trigonometric operators in the quasi-normed spaces Lp,m, 0 < p £ 1.

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Article
THEOREM FOR FIXED POINTS, COMMON FIXED POINTS,COINCIDENCE POINTS BY MODIFIED ITERATIVE SEQUENCE

Authors: Eman Mohmmed Nemah --- Salaw Salman Abd
Pages: 131-141
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In this paper the technique of convergence for modified Mann and Ishikawa schemes are used to proving many results about the existence of fixed points, common fixed points and coincidence points.

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Article
SOME CHARACTERIZATIONS OF WEAKLY* m-CONTINUOUSMULTIFUNCTIONS

Authors: Umilkeram Q. Al-Ramadhan --- Bassam Jabbar J
Pages: 142-149
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In this paper we introduce some characterizations of weakly * -m -continuous multifunctions and some results about strongly-m-continuous multifunctions.

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Article
CONVERGENCE ACCELERATION OF HERMITE-FEJ RPOLYNOMIALS BASED ON LEGENDRE NODES INTHE INTERVAL [-1,1]

Authors: Hussain Ali Al-Juboury
Pages: 150-156
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The rate of uniform convergence for Hermite-Fejer polynomials to any continuous function f(x) in each closed sub-interval of (-1,1) has been given by Schonhage in 1971 by means of estimating the rate of convergence. The present paper deals with the acceleration of convergence and the rate of convergence by improving the estimate given by Schonhage, throughout two parallel ways, firstly, by use of the averaged moduli of smoothness or -moduli that gives much better estimation than that of the moduli of continuity or -moduli. Secondly, by make use of the necessary and sufficient conditions that we borrow from Szego in 1959 together with the well-known Fejer's identity (3.8) and the properties of -moduli in addition to some known results that have been given by Murray Spiegel in 1981 pp299-345.


Article
ON HOLLOW-WEAK LIFTING MODULES

Authors: Sahira M.Yaseen
Pages: 157-159
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Let R be any ring and let M be any right R-module. M is called hollow-weak lifting if every semisimple submodule N of M such that M/N is hollow has a cossential submodule that is a direct submmand of M. We prove that M is hollow-weak lifting iff every semisimple N of M such that M/N is hollow has strong supplemented in M.And show that M is hollow-weak lifting iff every semisimple submodule N of M such that M/N is hollow can be written as N=KÅL with K is direct summand of M and L is small submodule of M.

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Article
A FIXED POINT THEOREM IN GENERALIZED D-SEMI METRIC SPACES

Authors: A.A.Sahib Mohamed
Pages: 160-162
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The aim of this paper is to consider and study the concept of D-distance on a complete D-semi metric spaces and the fixed point theorem has been established on the D semi metric spaces.

Table of content: volume:13 issue:1