Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:1 issue:206

Article
The word prayer And legal implications In the Quranic text
لفظةُ الصلاةِ ودَلالاتُها الشرعيةُ في النص القرآني

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Abstract

This paper deals with the word Muslim is more words famous, and most heavily traded between Muslims namely the word prayer that called her scholars as the word legitimacy devotional, has more scientists talk them, was their words different in origin and implications. and came search to display those words, achievable and statement correct them . we have set single restraint Srvia and legitimate statement implications new multi . These connotations sophisticated about the original meaning of the term, namely: reading, supererogatory, and the mosque or the place which prayer is established, and praise, and sanctification 0 and these meanings were not known when the Arabs ignorance, they are new meanings enshrined in Islam . and this indication does not accept the slightest doubt that the language Arab generous living language, not the language of sterile as calling her by the enemies of Islam and Arabism .

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Article
Utterances Connected with Social Criticism in Stephen King’s PET SEMATARY
التعبيرات ذات العلاقات بالنقد الاجتماعي في رواية ستيفن كنج الموسومة بـ (مقبرة الحيوانات الاليفة)

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Abstract

Stephen King’s PET SEMATARY (Hence, abbreviated as PS) (1983) has seldom been studied from the perspective of utterances connected with social criticism. Usually, this work is thematically treated as a narrative text in the Horror Fiction genre. The present research analyzes some utterances and their meanings (clear or hidden) in connection with the social criticism in this novel, to determine how the Horror, or Gothic, element is used to express the manner of speaking as a critical interlocutor of Postmodern American culture, and the role, judgment and attitudes in specific narrative situations. The study highlights the nature of social criticism between interactants in the text, in relation to the relevant contexts. The approach enables us to examine what is communicated (i.e. discourse) and how it is communicated insofar as the narrative text is socially oriented with a critical intention that activate areas of articulation which may seem unrelated to any familiar socio-political background. Stephen King is perhaps one of the best known practitioners of Post Modernism in contents, themes, and techniques including the display of thought process and his use of untraditional language in Horror Fiction. He had a purpose in his genre. The aim of the paper is to reveal the unspoken message of the writer in using such utterances in this novel. It is not to achieve temporary gory effects that King composed such a novel, but for a more lasting social impact, as will be revealed in the analysis. This research selects a number of utterances from Stephen King’s PS to prove that despite the semblance of supernatural horror, the real source of fear in post modern times comes from the socially condemnable abd blameworthy points criticized in the course of the narrative.

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Article
La lingüística moderna y la traductología
علم اللغة الحديث ودراسات الترجمة

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The translation, which is an activity as old which was from the Epic of Gilgamesh, which led to five Asian languages in the third century. A.C., and the translatology, which is a new discipline appeared in the last decades of the twentieth century. It is a science that builds relationships with several disciplines, including linguistics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, artificial intelligence, etc. The process of translation between two languages-is what interests us in this study, one of the types of translation interlengual Roman Jakobson calls it-is that the translator converts text from one language , which is called the language of origin, to another, called the target language. So the linguistic sign is a cornerstone in the process of translation. But what are the basic properties of these linguistic signs or signals? And what is the nature of meaning? Are traditional theories about the meaning or linguistic sign sufficient to evaluate the translations also to evaluate the work of a translator, helping to carry out their work, etc..? In our research we will try to provide answers to these questions through our theory of meaning and the linguistic sign "The basic scheme of reference".

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Article
A Reading in Al-Sakhawi)’s Book)A Rebuke to the Disrespectful of History
قراءة في كتاب (الإعلان بالتوبيخ لمن ذمَ التاريخ ) للسخاوي

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This paper aims at introducing a historical book which has a rare theme and a variety of subjects by the historian Mohammad Bin Abdul-Rahman Al-Sakhawi. Through this book, the historian sought to answer those who attacked and belittled both history and historians. His answer was academically oriented, based on historical and religious evidences as well as examples from poetry and prose. In his book, he presented the concept of history and its expressions. He also talked about the significance of history and its value in life throughout the ages and the purpose behind the classification of his books. He gave a detailed record of the multiple benefits of his book to educated men, the sultan’s attendants and the public due to the relevance of the historical texts and opinions to people’s religious and secular lives. He also recorded an endless sources which have been invaluable to scholars and authors in the various fields of human sciences. The book is an example of the pioneer historians’ statues and the rich variety of their knowledge. In fact, Al-Sakhawi stands as a prominent figure among the giants of History, jurisprudence and Prophetic Tradition. He enriched the library with many books, some of which have been mentioned while introducing of this book.

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Article
The Idea of Philandering in G.B. Shaw's The Philanderer
مفهوم الغزل عند جون برناتشو

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Abstract

is one of the high-end plays which was summitted by Bernard Shaw The play is attractive , vivid and honest. The play presented two layers of upper-class society and middle- income people also the play discusesed marriage with love and marriage without love and the purpose of the play is not only to entertain but to raise awareness about social problems and at the same time criticizing of capitalist behavior. The play dealt with the gradual evolution in human rights.

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Article
نوح والطوفان في شعر أُمية بن أبي الصلت

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The research Paper entitled " Noah and the Flood in the Poetry of Umaya Bin Alsalt " . deals with he Religious Narrative Model in which the Poet seemed to have been influced by the Previous sacred books to Quran and Islam . The Research Proved that he style of the religious narration narrated by Common People or the old books or AL-Quran is a Phenomenon that deserves studying . The Poet could manipulate the others religious folluore ( The Old Testament ) and use its aratext in his narrative style; he was a Pioneer in that For he embodied that in the form of images with symbolic meaning with a Wisdom . Reading the verses of de Flood shows the clear influence of the Religious which had narrated this miraculous event, as if the poet brought new things unknown Previoously to the Arabs .

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Article
Walt Whitman: The Representative of American people
والت ويتمن :ممثل الشعب الامريكي

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This paper discusses the life of the modern American poet Walt Whitman or "the poet of Democracy" as they call him. The paper concentrates on the stages of his life as a man and his career before he publishes his first book (Leaves of Grass) in 1855. The paper also presents his theory about the concept of democracy and what it means, in addition to his philosophy about the freedom of American people and the importance of individualty, equality and self respect in American society.

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Article
Explanation Method In explaining the book (Al-Tashhil) for Ibn Mālik
منهج الشُرّاح في شرح كتاب التسهيل لابن مالك

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The study indicated the main features of the method, who led it to explain of (Book of Al-Tashhil) for Ibn Mālik Al-Andalusian, was evident in the counting of issues such as the multiplicity of ways to explain the text of Al-Tashhil, and the division of the book in the form of sections and chapters, and the order of topics and grammatical issues and connect with each other, and the corresponding imaginary of asking questions and then answer them, and the size of these annotations contrast between brevity and redundancy, and the responses of Explanation on Ibn Mālik and their objections and making right on the what is stated in his book different grammatical topics and how to order them, and their position on the workbook.

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Article
TRFFIC FLOW MODELS WITH THE CONSISTENCY OF ACLASS

Authors: Dr. Abdul Slaam .A. Al khazraji
Pages: 51-58
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Abstract

This note discusses a recently discovered internal inconsistency of a class of higher-order traffic flow models. It shows that this class of models are mathematically consistent, and that the supposed internal inconsistency is not part of their intrinsic property. Rather, it is a result of insisting on the universality of a special conservation law and imposing incompatible solutions on a equations.

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Article
Aesthetics receive poetic image in the poem Jaahiliyyah an applied study in the poetic meaning
جماليات تلقي الصورة الشعرية في القصيدة الجاهلية دراسة تطبيقية في المعنى الشعري

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Heading of this research, to study the aesthetics of receiving poetic image in the poem ignorance, as seen research show that the concept of aesthetic and formations in this study, is based in the womb of art, who mastered the creative graphic picture of the nice words, an updated impact aesthetically, hence, this specifically includes images poetic various emerging in mind, In this context, aimed at our research, (Aesthetics receive poetic image in the poem ignorance), to Lighting some appearances aesthetic and reconstructive and spontaneity, expressed by the Pre-Islamic Poetry, and try to interpret some forms of art, which seemed to some scholars, it is not only a fee artistic duplicate, making it drop a lot of cash trap approaches poetic form, it seemed like a hair typically bis text, while it is characterized in terms of the subcontractor and the diversity and originality of depth and abundant. The research was based on a descriptive and analytical approach tracks trends and poetic texts, and drilling at its manifestations, and diagnosis of the embodiment and the significance and raises some sort of dialogue based on the study of cognitive poetic phenomenon within the context of general technical, and not in the context of where I am and Zamani narrow.

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Article
Death and terms his approach in the Quran Study Tag
الموت والألفاظ المقاربة له في القرآن الكريم - دراسة دلاليّة

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Abstract

The death and closer words in Holy Quran - Semantics research. I used in my research the word of death and other closer meaning words , I arranged these words as alphabetical order. Which reach to twenty three words. I choose an closer words which has the same meaning or similitude words that near or far from the semantics of death, but the figural relations such as comparison , metaphor and metonymy but in the opposite side the same meaning of the word " death " , mean correspondence and comparison. I defined each word that means death as a language and I pointed to as a language and I pointed to it`s language root and it`s relation to death word.

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Article
Denote the words of strife in the Holy Quran
دلالة ألفاظ الفتنة في القرآن الكريم

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Abstract

Researcher believes that the issue of sedition of subjects fertile that deserve care and search for it was their meanings complex and verses where the variety and the context is al-Faisal to distinguish those meanings has developed a researcher introduction stating the main reasons that invited him to choose a topic and then knew sedition language and idiomatically, then stop on the meaning ofsedition in the states of the Koran, then ended the search conclusion stating the most important findings in the research and then a list of sources that margins helped to complete the search

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Article
Verbal noun, its noun, noun and the grammatical function
المصدر واسم المصدر والاسم، والعمل النحوي

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Abstract

Verbal noun (masdar) as giving and (speaking) in English has its effect on a direct object if its verb is transitive .Arab grammarians never disagreed about its indication of action like its verb. But its noun (ism ul-masdar) which we cannot translate into English because of its absence- has the same effect as Kufa grammarians believe, whereas Basrah grammarians think it hasn't. This research has clarified that it has. The third part (the noun) like (substantive) as the research called was almost concealed in the grammar sources and references except when mentioned occasionally to be put aside from the second part (ism il-masdar) in order to explain the difference including its freedom from action ('amal). Disagreement between the two main groups of grammarians has not shed light upon the difference between a word considered as (ism il-masdar) like ('ata') (عطاء) when indicating (al 'amal) and the same word indicating with no relation to this action regardless of its material or abstract sense. The research has set out and mentioned a collection of words as examples of the third part explaining the two distinguished senses. I believe this research will purify the view of such important subject in Arabic grammar.

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Article
Conservation and development of the money in the Islamic economy
المحافظة على المال وتنميته في الاقتصاد الإسلامي

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money Find the Almighty God to serve man is a double-edged sword, one hand, it is of which satisfy human needs, and on the other, if that man became a prisoner of money deviated from the purpose for which created God Almighty created. In this research, we focused on the alert from the temptation of money and may affect Muslim who is tempted with money and showed Hadith indicate that. Then focused on maintaining this money that forced God to us and not to waste it. Then I stopped in the correct methods to which we send the Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and God and peace for the development of this money and invest it in a way beneficial to the owner of the money and on Islamic Almojtam a whole. It showed that the call for the acquisition of money does not mean to have a Muslim prisoner of money, but it is no Muslim is the engine of this money. And clarified that the money appoint a Muslim to increase his worship of Barry Almighty has given this money and make it Mstkhalaf it, search discussed the importance of saving, but not saving that leads to avarice. And then moved on to demonstrate the wealth that was when some companions and followers and how and Zvoha in obedience to God Almighty, how do good to act on its own spending.

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Article
Conversations take up arms and terrorize the Muslims and fight ((Collection, graduation and study))
أحادِيثُ حَمْلِ السِّلاحِ على المُسلمينَ وتَرْويعِهِم وقِتالِهِم ((جمع وتخريج ودراسة))

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Abstract

Knowing the meaning of which came legitimate prophetic for each subject, and religious duty of every Muslim man and woman, to understand the prophetic texts true without distortion or exchange from its true meaning. Hence the choice of this topic - conversations take up arms and terrorize the Muslims and fight them - because these conversations of great importance, especially in such a time that were opened where blood unjustly protected, and many a murder and intimidation. The goal of this research indicate what meaning the real legitimate for these conversations, with an indication of the meaning of exile faith that brought him all these things Terminator actor them. It was clear to me after searching conversations and audit: that the meaning of ((not us)) contained in most of these conversations means: not on our way and guided, and that the meaning of infidelity is not intended disbelief original that comes out of the pale of Islam - only those who Asthal that it disbelieves - great and the sanctity of the Muslim God - the Almighty - and Oveth prohibited all kinds. Finally, I wish to God Almighty that I have managed in this business, debt service, and praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be upon Muhammad and upon his family and companions and followers.

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Article
Water Hyacinth Echhornia crassipes (Martius) in Iraq
نبات زهرة النيل Water Hyacinth Echhornia crassipes (Martius) في العراق

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The water hyacinth is considered as invasive plant and distributed in the latest decades into different continents from its original habitat in South America. The paper deals with introducing and current status of this plant in Iraq. It also considers the control methods recently applied in Iraq along with some ecological notes on organisms associated with it.

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Article
Quantitative analysis of the land routes between urban centers in the province of Basrah
التحليل الكمي للطرق البرية بين المراكز الحضرية في محافظة البصرة

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This study addressed the quantitative analysis of the land routes between urban centers in the province of Basra. Located maintain astronomically between latitude (29 31) north and the longitude (3430 4830) in the east, the geographical location lies from the north province of Missan while bordered to the east Iran while bordered to the south Arabian Gulf and Kuwait while in the south-west and west bordered As the province to province of Muthanna Dhi Qar Fathdha of the north-west. The area of the province of Basrah (19070)km2.Includes conservative(16) urban center. The study focused on the quantitative analysis of several indicators including contract urban and turn indicator and the degree of centralization and threading as well as access. Overall, the index access (5) in the city of Hartha and was ranked first because of its proximity to the city of Basrah, which came in second place by (6) for being a conservative and center study ended a feed. Keyword ,Urban centers, province of Basrahm,degree of centralization

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The role of Geographic Information System in the production of contour maps (Khanaqindistrict)
دور نظم المعلومات الجغرافية في انتاج خرائط الارتفاع المتساوي (قضاء خانقين)

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Included the development of scientific and technological knowledge maps (Cartography), in terms of business fundamentals and tools, Including entry of computer and software that are used in dealing with the production of maps and field survey, It entered the GIS software, has provided great facilities for their high storage, And flexibility to deal with various forms of data types, and their ability to restructure data and devise new ones. That the different forms of map data of equal height, the imposition of a diversity of ways of dealing with them to get the best results to be achieved, there are data of coordinates, altitude, and tables that are in or are dropped directly by the global positioning devices (GPS), As there are more data (Raster Data), represented by paper maps that have been converted to digital form (Digital) by a digital scanner,There are files and digital elevation models (Digital Elevation Model), which are images of a satellite cells not only give the coordinates of each cell, but also give the value of the exact height of the surface of the earth. Maps to represent the height of equal use different ways is the most common fonts, and is also used deception in the spatial representation of the rise, One of the most important maps of equal height are not limited to the representation of the surface of the earth only, but can be used to represent various natural phenomena and human on the end either.

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Article
Power when Max Fiber
السلطة عند ماكس فيبر

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Power is the phenomenon of social care by man since ancient times of Socrates and Plato through Hobbes and Locke and Max Weber and to our time, but, this interest varies from one era to another. And power known within the concept or the character and one which is the concept of "bullying of people on a group of individuals by virtue they are strong physically or mentally. Cared Max Weber all kinds of authorities, including the bureaucracy is that he supported, a power that constitute the foundations of industrial management or business of any State, and this power is that replace Sultan inspiring or traditional, and this power is in the service of society as a whole, a better authority of contemporary societies - in opinion Weber. Department Weber power to for three are: power rationality: which derives its legitimacy from the law, and in the modern states of democracy, they practice and according to the law. authority charismatic: They have had the most interest after put Max Weber, a power that led ordinary person, "supernatural" has recipes charismatic real . As traditional power: it depends this authority on faith traditions inherited from the past, a passed in the beginning stages prevailed the idea that God is the source of power, and then turned to the governing authority of the same family, then chief of the tribe, and the King and Prince.

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Article
Impact Machiavellian in contemporary philosophy of pragmatism
أثر الميكيافيلية في الفلسفة البراجماتية المعاصرة

Authors: D. Heba Adel د.هبة عادل
Pages: 279-286
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We have tried through our statement impact Machiavellian in the philosophical school of pragmatism, and after that our to analyze Mikiavlje of human nature, and in his virtue, and history, as well as other topics. We were able to reach the impact الميكيافيلية in this school philosophical and clear, and we can say it is strong. But that American policy, and to a large extent adopted the views الميكيافيلية, and their views on particular policy.

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Article
Ad-Daleel Najafi Magazine and its Cultural Role in Iraq (1946-1948):
¬مجلة الدليل النجفية ودورها الثقافي في العراق (1946 -1948) ( دراسة تاريخية )

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This study has shed light on Ad-Daleel Najafi Magazine which was considered as one of the important cultural events that the city of Najaf had witnessed late in the first half of the 20th Century. The magazine had tackled various topics such as the different aspects of economical, political, and social reformation. Famous writers of Iraq wrote for the magazine in different specializations. The present study has followed up the publications of the magazine and its echoes among the Najafi community particularly and among the Iraq educators in general.

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Arab-Islamic aesthetic environment and its impacts In modern Arab painting ))Artist Iraqi Salman Abbas and Egyptian artist Salah Anani model (( " A comparative analysis "
جمالية البيئة العربية الإسلامية وانعكاسها في الرسم العربي الحديث (( الفنان العراقي سلمان عباس والفنان المصري صلاح عناني أنموذجاً )) دراسة تحليلية مقارنة

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The aim of this study is to detect environmental impacts as a key element in aesthetic composition. And to identify the technical carried out, and then make a comparison in the stylistic and technical side of their work. The limitation of this study is (the work of artists artist Salah Anani and Salman artist Abbas, which included the Islamic dome as an essential element in the composition of the period (1960-1990 AD), which appeared in the exhibition halls and cultural publications, as well as to the technical sources). Following this introduction, the first chapter, which included two sections, the first section titled impact the environment in the artist's life. The second part, however, contained the first two axes Me study style artist Salman Abbas, but the second intake study style artist Salah Anani. The second chapter procedures for research and analysis models appointed, while the third chapter addressing the most important results, including the emergence of exploits environmental such as domes Islamic and Social in paintings artists (Salah Anani, Salman Abbas), and that each artist of them approach his special presence certainly pillar in the form of productive art such as vocabulary and shapes that belongs the artist, or express them was a prominent appearance processed humanitarian heritage in general and which were a variety of forms processed, through the diversity of subjects given by that attribute Then margins and said the most important sources adopted in this study. Aesthetic, environment, reflection, graphic, modern

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The Environment in Ismail Alshaikhli's paintings
البيئة في رسوم الفنان إسماعيل الشيخلي

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Including the activity of the art knowledge, in terms of practice and received (to taste), so we should see nature in all its aspects, which is the environment one of the factors pressing in the vicinity of the artist and that does not stop that is controlled by a factor of influence may vary the case when individuals and different groups and must be embed this introduction as referred to by the modern philosopher( Benedetto Krochh )On the issue of creativity, the creative talent the artist cannot be separated from the ocean in which it operates. some studies on topics of contemporary Iraqi art mean in both its theoretical and applied in inventory features and advantages associated with the words artist for citizenship (identity) and to identify characteristics, to learn or to reach the reflection of an environment artist, marks and symbols in his works of art and the impact his art that the environment and how to express them work .

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The impact of a training program for the development of sports among students force applied to the power of sports Second grade students average
أثر برنامج تدريبي لتنمية القوة الرياضية لدى الطلبة المطبقين على القوة الرياضية لدى طلبة الصف الثاني المتوسط

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The research aims to establish the effect a training program for the augmentation of the (Math power) of student-teachers and its effects on second intermediate stage. The researched community covered all the fourth grade fulltime students of the Mathematics Department at "Ibn Al-Haytham Faculty of Education". By random selection, 'Section A' which had 50 male and female students was chosen to be the 'Experiment group' while grade C' which also had 50 male and female students was chosen to be the 'general achievement group'. Group compatibility was assured by the following variables (age, final grade, curricula and teaching methods, intelligence) The following students were also excluded (those who already teachers, non city dwellers and those who failed in the previous year). as a result we were left with 46 male and female students in two groups of (23) each. The researcher prepared the training course to satisfy a specific Math power standard. He also utilized a group of concepts and definitions pertaining to the required Math power standard along with a group of activities and exercises related to the subjects of the second intermediate stage ,some of which were to be solved independently and in groups during (17) meetings( two-hour periods). The researcher prepared pre training and post training mathematical tests for student-teachers; he also prepared a final Math power test for the students of the second intermediate stage and two more tests to calibrate and evaluate the results. All tests were verified for validity, consistency and Psychometric properties. The "research group" was given the pre-training Math power test after which they were trained from the start of the scholastic year 2011-2012 in accordance with the special training course curriculum for augmentation of Math power. At the rate of 2 two-hour periods per week after which they were given the post training Math power test then . the performance of the experimental group which comprised( 23) male and female student was monitored as was the performance of the control group which had only (20 teachers selected (after the compatibility procedure) from those who were not trained; this was done by attending 2 separate classes being taught by each one of them. After that, students of the second intermediate stage were given the post training Math power test at the middle of the second scholastic term. Male and female students of both experimental groups totaling ( 758) taught by the top 10 student-teachers of the post training exam. The control group was made up of ( 367 ) male and female students taught by 10 student-teachers that had not received training. Students of both test groups were chosen randomly by the student teachers themselves. The ( T ) test was applied upon two connected samples and two non connected samples, - Concord factor Percentage, accordance - Pearson's connectivity factor , - Alpha Kromebach factor, as statistical criteria for the research. Research results indicated the following;- 1- An indicative statistical difference was found at the Level 0.05 between the mean Math power of the student teachers who attended the special training course at both pre-training and post-training tests in favor of the post-training test. 2- An indicative statistical difference was found at the Level 0.05 of the Math power for the second intermediate stage ,between the mean of the two samples control and experimental groups (in favor) of the experiment group, whose teachers participated in the training program over those whose teachers did not participate.

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The effect of strategy Initiation – Response- Evaluation in the achievement of female students in the subject of History
اثر استراتيجية (البداية، الاستجابة، التقويم) في تحصيل طالبات الصف الأول المتوسط في مادة التاريخ

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The aim of present research to treat the problem of the low level students in the subject of history by using strategy Initiation- Response- Evaluation in raising the level of achievement of the first class female intermediate student in the subject of history. Female students had been chosen to achieve this aim (74) dividing on tow groups. The first group is experimented have (36) and the second group is (38) female students. The first group had been taught by using the strategy Initiation- Response- Evaluation, and the second one had been taught by traditional method. So, the research had been prepared the behavior aims, teaching plans, and the research tool of re-test which consist of (30) items that had been applied at the end of experiment and after correcting it and treating the data statistically, the results show that the first experiment group that had been taught by Initiation- Response- Evaluation is superior than the second group that had been thought traditional method. According the results of the research presents many recommendation and suggestion.

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Building standards to evaluate the administrative and academic functions of the department heads in the light of the quality of education
بناء معايير لتقويم المهام الإدارية والأكاديمية لرؤساء الأقسام في ضوء جودة التعليم الجامعي

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This study aimed to build standards to evaluate the administrative tasks and academic department heads at the University of Baghdad in light of the quality of education, and to achieve the research objectives and through informed researcher on the literature and previous studies has built (nine) criteria to evaluate the administrative tasks and academic department heads, and to achieve the veracity of these standards has offer a number of experts in educational administration and measurement and evaluation to verity the truthfulness virtual standards, has got all the paragraphs on the agreement of experts and by more than (80)%, and verity the stability criteria, the researchers applied to a sample of (40), head of the tested randomly from sections colleges Mustansiriya University, has been achieved researcher of indicators of stability are (re-testing, Alvakronbach) and these procedures check researcher of the validity and reliability standards, and to achieve the objectives of the other search dish researcher standards on a sample study of (87) head section of the colleges Baghdad University disaggregated specilaization by (40), head of the scientific discipline and (47) in the specialty humanitarian and by (34), head of service is less than (4 years) and (53), which increases their service for (4 years), and the researcher to a group of results notably positive use of department heads these tasks to perform adminstrative tasks and academic different competences and years of sevice they have a preference for departmrnt heads in the scientific specialization in functions (planning, organization, leadership, scientific research) and the existence od a preference for department heads with (sevice more than 4 years) in tasks (organization, leadership, direction, decision-making) and in accordance with these findings the researcher set of recommendations and proposals.

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Article
Investigate the effectiveness of each of the strategic thinking aloud and fish bone strategy in the development of scientific inference for students and their achievement of scientific knowledge
استقصاء فعالية كل من إستراتيجية التفكير بصوت مرتفع وإستراتيجية عظم السمكة في تنمية الإستدلال العلمـــي للطلاب وتحصيلهم للمعرفة العلمية

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Abstract

After re-reading the previous studies and educational literature related to the subject of Scientific Reasoning ,it was clear that the reduction of Arabian Studies which deal with this subject has affected greatly on developing students abilities to practice higher thinking skills (giving evidences , putting assumptions and compare them , and concluding results). The developing of students abilities in Scientific Reasoning considers a target that all educational systems endeavor to achieve in all studying stages, at the same time it is a mean to improve the level of persons and community. It is also a necessary tool that should be acquired by everyone to be able to produce, innovate and to be able using knowledge practically in solving life problems. For the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), the developing of student’s abilities on Scientific Reasoning considers one of the main targets for the process of Science within the American Association for Advancement of Science (AAAS) which is known as (2061) project or the science project for all American (AAAS, 1993, NRC, 1996). The Strategy of Thinking Aloud considers one of teaching strategies which reveals invisible ideas of someone to others. It helps teachers to see their students thinking skills and provide them with feedbacks when it is necessary. It also gives learners an opportunity to listen to their thinking and to learn how to observe the process of their thinking .For them certainly will be not able to get knowledge by writing data down on an empty paper in their minds. But on the contrary they base their knowledge actively and mix it with the previous knowledge to be integrated (Abdul-Hameed 1999). One of the other Teaching Strategies that based on Active Learning is Fish Bone Strategy. It can be called with many names like Ishikawa Diagram or Cause and Effect Diagram. Fish Bone considers a wonderful tool to analyze problems, by participating those who are reasons of these problems or at least they are the main components of them, to determine whether the problems were scientific or scientific calculating ones. This diagram helps to analyze and find out all problems even if they were small or vain. This Diagram considers one of the essential tools to practice comprehensive quality .The Fish Bone helps in realizing the complicated problem and change them into simple ones. This method aims to draw attention to the positive impact (Abu Al-QAMPAZ, 2010) The Research aims to investigate the following:- 1-Activity of both strategies Fish Bone and Thinking Aloud in developing Scientific Reasoning of students. 2- Activity of both strategies Fish Bone and Thinking Aloud in helping students to get their Scientific knowledge. The Research deals with the following:- 1-Students of Institute of Preparing Teachers /Al-Karkh/5th class branch of Science and Math, academic year of 2011-2012. 2- The first semester of academic year of 2011-2012. 3-The first fifteen experiments of practical Science Textbook/5th class branch of Science and Math adopted by Ministry of Education. 4-The two experimental groups of designation which complete each other have been chosen. The designation can be draw as follow:- The first experimental group Strategy of ( Thinking Aloud) Independent variable Scientific Reasoning and getting knowledge The second experimental group Strategy of ( Fish Bone) Independent variable Scientific Reasoning and getting knowledge The Researcher choose students of Institute of Preparing Teachers /Al-Karkh/4th class branch of Science and Math .The sample of research consists of 64 students divided into two sections .Each one consists of 32 students . She (the Researcher) used Scientific Reasoning Test which developed by (Lawson).It was translated into Arabic by (Naseer, 2004).The test consists of (12) section. The test has been chosen by the Researcher is the best among many others because it is more creditable and reasonable. The results of research show that the strategy of Thinking Aloud has more effective in testing Scientific Reasoning. Statistic differences between the two experimental groups may be belonging to use Thinking Aloud as a teaching strategy which participates in achieving the following:- 1-Active tool to teach how to think in solving a task and predicting results of an experiment. 2-Developing the ability of planning to perform the task, say questions and mix with others. The study results showed that there are no differences within the strategy of the variable of getting the scientific knowledge. The reason belongs to:- 1-Learning according to strategies of Fish Bone and Thinking Aloud is based on developing thinking through language, social reactions, debates and dialogue to build content and change ideas and opinions. 2- The two strategies participate in realizing the components of science such as: facts, conceptions, instructions, laws and theories. According to the study results, the researcher recommends the follow: 1-Preparing training course for teachers in service to train them how to use the strategy of Thinking Aloud in teaching sciences to develop the creative thinking. 2-encouraging teachers to use the strategy of Thinking Aloud because it allows students to express their needs and participate in planning for activities. __Due to the targets and results of the current study, I can suggest the following studies and researches:- 1-Study the impact of Thinking Aloud strategy in teaching sciences on developing other learning aspects like methods of various thinking. 2-Using Thinking Aloud strategy in teaching sciences in developing the creative thinking in all school stages. Key words:- Thinking Aloud strategy, Fish Bone strategy, Scientific Reasoning

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Article
Measuring Anxiety Level Of Practical Teaching Of The Students In Institutes Of Teachers Prepare On the First Day Of Practicing In Primary Schools
قياس مستوى قلق اليوم الأول من التطبيق العملي لدى طلبة معاهد إعداد المعلمين والمعلمات

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the Target of current search was to build a scale to measure anxiety level of practical teaching for students in institutes of preparing teachers on the first day of practicing in primary schools. this anxiety and his physical and psychological manifestations depending on the variables of the entire sample and sex (male - female), As well as to know the statistically significant differences in practicing anxiety and it's physical and psychological appearances depending on sex variables (male - female). To achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers built a scale for this purpose, and verification of the standard features of the items and scale. The scale applied on a sample of (200) students (male and female) from teaching prepare institutes in the province of Baghdad. The research found the following results: That all sample, as well as sex variable (male and female) suffered from anxiety of teaching practicing on the first day of teaching in primary schools. And females are suffering from this anxiety and from physical and psychological appearances more than their male counterparts

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Article
Psychological Security among Adolescents
الأمن النفسي لدى المراهقين

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To know the psychological security level among adolescents according to age and gender variables, and significant differences among these two variables. The research sample included (150) teenager, selected from secondary schools in Baquba the city the center of Diyala province, ages between (15, 16, 17 year) by (50) teenager for each age group. The researchers was prepared measuring tool to measure psychological security consisted of (40) items after reviewing literature and previous studies, and researchers extracted psychometric characteristics to measuring tool. The researchers concluded the following results: 1-The teenagers did not reach psychological security level to the theoretical 2. No effect of each variable type in of psychological security level among adolescents. Researchers came up with set of recommendations and proposals.

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Article
Evaluating the Professional Performance of the faculty in terms of their Student's Points of View
تقويم الاداء الوظيفي لعضو هيئة التدريس من وجهة نظر طلبتهم

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The present study aims at identifying the professional Performance level of the faculty from their student's points of view, and finding the statistical differences according to the gender variable (Males, Females), and specialization variable (humanity, scientific). The population of the study consists of 5339 male and female university students from the 3rd and 4th stages selected from different colleges at the university of Baghdad. The sample includes 400 male and female students distributed on four colleges: two Humanity College, and two scientific others. A questionnaire is constructed to achieve the aims of the study. It included 44 items distributed on three domains: teaching skills, personality, and evaluation methods, and to set five options per item. Reliability coefficient is computed by applying Pearson correlation coefficient and Alpha-Cronbach formulas, where they are found to be 0.88 and 0.85 successively. Results show that there are no statistically significant differences in the faculty level of professional performance according to gender variable (male, female).

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Article
Difficulties in memorizing the poetic texts for the fourth classes –literary dept in accordance to teachers of the subject
صعوبات حفظ النصوص الشعرية لدى طلبة الصف الرابع الأدبي من وجهة نظر مدرسي المادة

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This study is seeking to embody difficulties that confront students of fourth elass in literary departmemnt memorizing poetic texts chosen in book of literature and texts from the teachers point of view . The two researthers chosed as a sample for their study ,30 schools divided into 15 schools for boys and- 15-ones for girls from day secondary and preparatory schools followed to the general directorate for Baghdad education , AL–Rusafq the first 0 The two researchers have prepared aquestionnaire containing 22 articles representing . difficulties It became certain of this tool and its precision 0 in memorizing poetic texts caming these difficulties , This questionnaire was being put in to practice on sample of the study with a total number of 60 male and female teachers . After taking the data and repetitions stastistically the researchers used The preferred weight and percentage weight and person correlative coefficient results of the study showed existing real difficulties , confronting students in memorizing poetic texts and memorizing them0 The two researchers have recommended 0The number of recommendations and suggestions0

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Article
Family Environment and Its Effect on Developing Creative Thinking of Basic Stage Children
البيئة الأسرية وأثرها في تنمية التفكير الإبداعي لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الأساسية

Authors: RIM Saadoun م . م ريم سعدون
Pages: 597-616
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This study aims at revealing the effect of family environment on developing creative thinking of the basic stage children in Homs Governorate as well as revealing the differences between their parents which define the effect of family environment on developing creative thinking according to gender. To achieve this goal, the study has adopted the analytic and descriptive curriculum and used questionnaire as a means to collect the necessary data. The questionnaire included 30 items, and the sample of study included 200 parents of the children. The study has reached the following result: The effect of family environment on developing creative thinking is confined to encouraging children to talk and express themselves, to practice imaginative and dramatic plays, to stay far from the way of exaggerated protection, to avoid mocking at the thoughts and plays of children and to encourage children to practice the activities of drawing and colouring. There are no differences that have statistic denotation between parents in defining the effect of family environment on developing creative thinking according to gender .

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Article
Trends Arabic language teachers at the elementary level about homework in Arabic
اتجــاهــات معلمي اللغــة العربيـــة في المرحلـة الابتدائيــة نحــو الواجبـــات البيتيــة في مــادة اللغــة العربيــة

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Targeting current research to identify trends Arabic language teachers about homework. To achieve the objectives of current research adopted researchers barometer "of (40) paragraph. They apply to students Prim and formulated paragraphs style phrases discretion with (3) alternatives to answer the first measures the OK and the second I do not know me and the third is OK and gives alternative first pitch (3) and the second pitch (2) The third pitch (1) and thus the highest degree can be obtained by effector (120) and lower (40) were verified properties Alsaiko metric to measure the validity and reliability were presented to a total of experts in a statement teaching methods and measurement and evaluation to identify the validity of its paragraphs. Given answers experts and judgment on the vertebrae measure adopted researchers percentage agreement (80%) in the opinions criterion for survival paragraph To calculate stability used researchers way retest this way the researchers apply the scale on a sample of teachers Directorate General of breeding Rusafa first hit (20 ) teacher and mentor randomly selected "from schools breeding Rusafa first and after the first test for two weeks was applied standard on the sample itself and then by the correlation coefficient (Persson) between grades teachers with an application to measure trends has reached (0.86) In light of the findings the researchers The average grades trends teachers about homework (52.598) degree which is less than the average theoretical measure of (80) degrees and believes researchers that the reason that teachers have contentment full of self-reliance and thought in the Arabic language courses and the researchers recommended value of homework They suggested some studies and research . .

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Article
The Role of clues in explaining the Meaning
رؤلَى نيشانة لة روونكردنةوةى واتادا ليَكؤلَينةوةيةكى واتاسازيية

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This research is entitled by (The Role of clues in explaining the Meaning) which aims to clarify the role of clues in explaining the semantic and pragmatic meaning. The important role of the clues is that it is the key used to interpret and analyze texts and conversations, it is a tool to infer invariable event from variable event due to the relevance between them. The clues are divided into three types: (physical, mental and linguistically), which can be divided into mental and conventional clues. The research consists of introduction, conclusions, and two chapters the first one deals with the following areas: the clues, and types of clues, the second deals with the clues and meaning, and its role in explaining the meaning. In the conclusion the researcher mentioned the most important results which he has proven and abstract in English and Arabic languages.

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Article
Animal names in Kurdish language
ناوى طيانداران لة زمانى كورديدا

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This research represents a study about animal image in Kurdish culture, and Kurdish language treatment with the animal names. In Kurdish Society, the recognized animals of Kurdish nature, because of people's treatment and experience, they got a mental image in the mind of Kurdish individuals. These images either represent their own feature, color, and form or they depend on their behavior. Sometimes the animal names come in the legend, a famous literary or religious text, and human being pictures them different from his own feeling. As a result, these images become a part of Kurdish individual thinking and culture, it reflects in language and the name of large number of animals builds a number of idioms, proverbs and sayings. Comparatively, their names are used for human being in form and behavior. The research consists of two parts: the first part talks about animals in Kurdish culture and its reflection in language. The second part deals with naming animals and their role in Kurdish language.

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Article
The impact of local dialect in (Hemni mukuryany)s writings
كاريطةرى شيَوةزارى ناوضةيى لة نوسينةكانى (هيَمنى موكريانى) دا

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Often in nations, the standard language becomes the language of literature for all scholars but for Kurds as the standard language is yet to be established, various dialects have their own literature and frequently the registers and vernaculars have been reflected in our written literature. The central Kurdish has to some extent become the standard language and it's a long while literature is written in this dialect. This dialect is the extension of the dialect in which Nali, Salim, Kurdi,… versed poetry. Poet Hemin is one of the native speakers of Mukriyani register which belongs to central Kurdish, therefore, in his writings he has adopted this standard dialect. Despite this, since Hemin spent most of his youth life in the countryside environment and in agricultural, mountainous and summer quarters of Mukriyan district and mastered the words and terms of this districts well, he was influenced by this rich and original lexicon which since the childhood he focused on and the one which he could not avoid when composing a poem or prose to an extent that when one reads one of his poems he will know that the owner of the piece is form Mukriyan district. This study is an attempt to indicate the reflection of register on Hemin and the extent register is rendered in his works. The study apart from the introduction and conclusions consists of a preface and three sections. The preface is devoted to explaining the divisions of the Kurdish language into some dialects and registers and a summary of Hemin's biography. In the first section the differences between the standard and Mukriyani forms in terms of phonology which have been reflected in Hemin's poems are presented. In the second section the impact of the register in terms of morphology and lexicology on Hemin's prose are indicated. Similarly, in the third section such influences in terms of syntax have been pointed out.

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Article
THE IMPACT OF CHANGING HARUZ FROM HAROZ AND ZARB IN RADYS VERSES
كاريطةرى طؤرِانة عةرووزييةكان لةعةرووز و زةرِبى ديَرةشيعرةكانى ( رِاجى ) دا

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THiS RESEAECH (TOPIC )UNDER THE TITLE " THE IMPACT OF CHANGING HARUZ FROM HAROZ AND ZARB IN RADYS VERSES" IT CONSISTS OF TWO PARTS IN THE FIRST PART TALKS ABOUT ZIHAF AND HILLA IN RAGYS VERSE . WE IDENTIFY ALL ZIHAFVES AND HILLA WHICH HAVE BEEN USED FROM THE TOTAL (OUT OF ) 451 HARUZES POETRY DIVAN THAT has been IdentIFIED AND EXPLAINED .IN THE SECOND PART ALL DIFFERENCES THAT CAN BE FOUND IN ( HARUZ AND ZARB VERSE) HAS BEEN EXPLAINED AND EXAMPLIFIED WHTH POETIC . THEN THE DIFFERENCES IN ADDING AND REMOVING THE NUMBER OF THE SYLLABLES IN HALF VERSES OR PROLONGING AND KEEPING IN HALF VERSE AFTER THAT EACH PROBLEM HAS SHOWN THE DIFFERENCES SEPARATELY .

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