Table of content

Jornal of Biotechnology Research Center

مجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية

ISSN: 18151140
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Biotechnology Research Center (BRC) in a Al-Nahrain University issued in 2007 the first edition of a tightly seasonal scientific journal named as the journal Biotechnology Research Center (JBRC) which got authorization in 2005 and held an impact number ISSN: 1815-1140.The journal accepts scientific researches in Arabic and English.
JBRC’s main interest is Biotechnology researches in the Medical, Molecular, Agriculture and environmental fields which have an important impact on the public and private sectors in Iraq.
JBRC’s structure consists of editing committee (headed by the manger of the BRC and the editor in chief), consulting committee (contains a well- known iraqi scientists in biotechnology) and editing secretary.
All researches are submitted to the JBRC’s regulations which is mainly is that they must be according to the journal directions and instructions , then the researches will be evaluated by three well-known scientists in the field and after that reviewing occurred by the editing committee to ensure and verify all JBRC’s instructions and regulations are taken into consideration .
A special edition of JBCR is issued to cover all researches that presented to the BRC’s scientific conferences which subjected to all regulations and instructions of publishing in JBCR.

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Contact info

brcn2012@yahoo.comيتم الاتصال عبر البريد الالكتروني لمجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية


0096407707766148او للاتصال تلفونيا
بسكرتارية التحرير
م.م. سعاد محمد مجيدب
محمد منير حسين

Table of content: 2014 volume:8 issue:2

Article
Detection of five substitution TPO mutations in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and thyroid hormones disturbance patients
تحديد خمسة طفرات TPO إستبدالية في مرضى متلازمة تعددالاكياس المبيضية واختلال هرمونات الدرقية

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS (is a complex disorder which reflects variable clinical symptoms. There is considerable heterogeneity of symptoms and signs among women with PCOS, and for an individual, these may change over time. The genetic base of PCOS is not clear and no concrete genetic correlation was built with PCOS. The current study showed the presence of multiple peripheral small cysts 5-9 mm also there was an increase in ovarian volume 3.7-3.9 cm and change in ovarian dimensions with the ovary being more spherical. 20.8% of the PCOS patients included in this study found to have hyperthyroidism. Thethyroid stimulating hormone-TSH level was significantly higher 17.34±5.12μIU/ml in 4 POCS patients with thyroid hormones disturbance than the level in POCS patients without thyroid disturbance or healthy control group )2.19 ±0.47 and 2.33±0.44 μIU/ml respectively(. On the other hand, the rest of POCS patients with thyroid hormones disturbance 7 Patients showed lower significance levels of triiodothyronine-T3 and thyroxine-T4 (0.96±0.029 and 51.33± 10.96 n.mol/L respectively) than other groups. At the molecular analysis five substitution thyroid peroxidase genes -TPO mutations were detected in 5 patients with PCOS and thyroid hormones disturbances. Three of them were detected in exon 8 and two in exon 9. The missense substation mutations detected in this study involve one transition of T to C (c.904T>C) and 4 transversion of C to G, C to A and G to C (c.904T>C, c.1280C>G, c.1265C>A, c.1617G>C and c.1603G>C respectively).


Article
Investigating Genetic Damage in Peripheral Lymphocytes of Radiation Workers at Al-Tuwaitha Site in Iraq Using Four Genetic End-Points
استخدام أربعة مؤشرات وراثية لدراسة التلف الجيني في الخلايا اللمفاوية لدم العاملين في حقول الاشعاع في موقع التويثة في العراق

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The present study aims to use the biological techniques in a genotoxicity assessment of DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of radiation workers at Al-Tuwaitha site due to decommissioning to radioactive contamination as a result of work during January 2010 to December 2011. The subjects were divided into two groups: (i) 85 workers from radiation workers at Al-Tuwaitha site; (ii) 50 controls were matched non-smoking and no alcohol drink. Fresh blood samples were collected from the workers and controls. Four genetic parameter were studied using the micronucleus (MN) test, nuclear division index (NDI) test, the comet assay and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutation assay. The results of the MN test showed that the average of MN per cell (Mean ± SE) in workers were 0.025 ± 0.0016 MN/ cells, which were significantly higher than those 0.010 ± 0.0006 MN/ cells in controls P< 0.01. While, the results of NDI test the average of NDI (Mean ± SE) in workers were 1.154 ± 0.0089 when compared with the control 1.322 ± 0.0117, which were significant increase p<0.01. It was found in the comet assay that the mean tail length (Mean ± SE) of radiation workers and controls were 17.69 ± 0.23 µm and 14.05 ± 0.13 µm, respectively. There was a significant difference between radiation workers and controls for mean tail length P < 0.01, but the difference between the mean tail moment (Mean ± SE) 14.22 ±0.21 of workers and mean tail moment 12.96± 0.15 of controls was not significant P> 0.01. Mean while, the results of the average of mutation frequency for HPRT were no significant differences rate for radiation workers compared with the control group P> 0.01. In conclusion, the results of our experiment suggest that the accumulation of genetic damage is detectable in peripheral lymphocytes of radiation workers at Al-Tuwaitha site. Also, the current results of frequency MN and NDI within of normal values according of the technical report of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) No. 405, 2001.


Article
Prevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection among Thalassemia patients in Ninavha Governorate/Iraq
انتشار الإصابة بفايروس التهاب الكبد نمط B و C وفايروس العوز المناعي البشري بين مرضى الثلاسيميا في محافظة نينوى/ العراق

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Regular blood transfusion in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia, particularly thalassemia, has improved their overall survival, but carries a definite risk of acquisition of blood-borne virus infection. Between march 2012 until May 2012, a total of 480 blood samples were collected from B thalassemia major patients attending thalassemia center in Ibn-Alatheer hospital in Ninavha governorate. out of 480 patients 273 (57%) males and 207 (43%) females. 50 out of 480 (10.4%) patients were found Anti- HCV positive, 44 out of 50 (88%) were found HCV RNA positive among Anti- HCV positive patients, 2 out of 480 (0.4%) were found HBSAg positive, and no any Case were reported from HIV positive among patients. The prevalence of HCV infection is much higher compared to HBV and HIV infection due to possibly infected blood transfusion among thalassemia major patients.


Article
Identification of diosgenin isolated from genetically engineered tissues cultures of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
تشخيص الدايوسجنين المعزول من المزارع النسيجية المهندسة وراثياً لنبات الحلبة Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

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Thediosgenin compound was separated, one of the secondary metabolic product in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. plants. Hairy roots cultures transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601, and their spontaneously formed callus contained "diosgenin". High performance liquid chromatography HPLC measurements proved the presence of diosgenin in these cultures that approach 158.3 and 156.5% respectively. It present in leaves of plants produced from seeds at 161.8%. Generally, these data pointed out that transformed tissues are often preferred as a continuous source of diosgenin and perhaps other secondary metabolites.


Article
Screening of some rice Oryza sativa L. genotypes for drought tolerance using SSR-PCR technique
غربلة بعض التراكيب الوراثية للرز Oryza sativa L. لصفة تحمل الجفاف بأستخدام تقانة المؤشرات الجزيئية للدنا SSR-PCR

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Abstract

Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were used to investigate the variations between drought sensitive and drought tolerant genotypes. Patterns obtained using RM328 and RM302 detected polymorphism between T14, T15 and Amber33, Amber Baghdad genotypes and those obtained using RM316 and RM201 for the tested genotypes suggested that these primers may have the ability to produce drought tolerance markers. According to the patterns obtained using RM189, RM3825 and RM212 primers indicated that these primers cannot be relied on as markers for drought tolerance.


Article
The Role of Zinc Sulfate in improving the blood proteins and immune response to Newcastle disease in broiler under heat stress
دور كبريتات الزنك المائية في تحسين مستوى بروتينات الدم والاستجابة المناعية لمرض النيوكاسل في فروج اللحم تحت ظروف الاجهاد الحراري

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Abstract

The study aimed to determine the effect of zinc sulfate supplementation in different levels on blood proteins and immune status in broilers, (120) broiler chicks one day old were used with (38) gr. Initial weight divided randomly into (5) treatment groups (24 chick/each) with 3 replicates (8 chick /each) . The dietary treatment groups were: T1: ordinary diet (control), T2: ordinary diet +30 mg/kg Zinc sulfate, T3: ordinary diet +45 mg/kg Zinc sulfate, T4: ordinary diet +60 mg/kg Zinc sulfate, T5: ordinary diet +75 mg/kg Zinc sulfate. The blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 25, 42 day of study for detecting the post albumin, γ_ globulin, and antibody titration for Newcastle disease in serum. The results showed that there were significant increase P≤0.05 in γ_ globulin and antibody titration for ND in the serum of T2, and T3 and with significant decrease P≤0.05 in post albumin compared with the rest treatments. Hence the study showed that the zinc sulfate is important for improving immune status and disease resistance in broiler under heat stress.


Article
Concentration and accumulation of some trace elements in water, sediment and two species of aquatic plants collected from the Main outfall drain, near the center of Al-Nassiriyia city/ Iraq
تركيز وتراكم بعض العناصر النزرة في الماء والرواسب ونوعين من النباتات المائية المستجمعه من المصب العام قرب مركز مدينة الناصرية/ العراق

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Abstract

Concentration and accumulation of seven trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn and Zn) were measured in water (dissolved and particulate) phase, sediment and two species of aquatic plants phragmits australis and Ceratophylum demerssum collected during summer season, 2012 from the main outfall drain, some environmental parameter (Temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH) of water were measured, also total organic carbon TOC%, sediment texture were measured and expressed as percentage. Higher concentration of elements under study were observed in sediment more than their concentrations in water and plants, while particulate phase of water concentrated trace elements more than their concentration in dissolved phase, whereas the accumulation of trace elements in plants, showed that their concentration in phragmits australis was more than their concentration in Ceratophyllum demerssum. The study observed that it can use the two species of plants as bioindicator for accumulation of trace elements also the concentration of TE in the study samples were in acceptable range, when it compared with world wide range. The study showed that the possibility of using both plants to remove this type of pollutant from the aquatic environment and can be used in bioremediation for processes.


Article
Effect of Magnetized Water in Some Performance Traits in Mice
تأثير الماء المعالج مغناطيسيا في بعض مظاهر الاداء في الفئران

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Abstract

A Study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetized water in some performance traits of mice. 80 white Swiss mice, male and female 6-7 weeks of age were randomly divided into two groups; each group included 40 mice’s 20 males +20 females kept in cages separately. Group 1 treatment group were get magnetized water, group 2 control group were get tap water. After whole experimental period 16weeks and 3 days as preliminary period, some performance traits such as body weight BW, total gain TG and feed conversion ratio FCR, in both sexes were determined. Results obtained were revealed that magnetized water 450-500 gauss has no significant effect in BW at 4th, 8th, 12th weeks but males seemed significantly p<0.05 heavier 28.92 gm than females 25.82gm at week 16th in treated groups. TG was significantly p<0.05 higher in males than females in the treated group at 4th and 16th weeks, but it has lack of significance at 8th and 12th weeks. Treated males were progressed in TG in the comparison with control group at week 12th. Differences in FCR between two groups were significant p<0.05 for both sex at week 4th, after 8th weeks FCR tended to similarity, but males had significantly p<0.05 the highest means 1.04 in treated group in the comparison with females which had the lowest 0.94 value at week 12th, at the end of experiment week 16th females had significantly p<0.05, the lowest means 0.7 than males in both groups, but it was not significant in the comparison with females in the control group.


Article
Effect of sucrose and mannitol on Ajmalicine production from leaves induced callus of Catharanthus roseus L. G. Don in vitro
1- تأثير السكروز والمانيتول في انتاج الاجماليسين من الكالس المستحث من اوراق نبات عين البزون L. G. Don Catharanthus roseus خارج الجسم الحي

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An experiment on the effect of sucrose and mannitol on leave induced callus of Catharanthus roseus was conducted from February 2011 to May 2012. Callus induction was achieved by culturing leaves of the plant on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg /L 2,4-D and 1mg / L Kin, The best medium to maintain callus was on MS medium modified with 0.5 mg /L 2,4-D and 1.5 mg / L Kin. when different levels were added to MS medium for each Mannitol 0, 6000 ,8000 ,10000 mg /L and Sucrose 40, 60 ,80, 100 g /L in split experimental and control treatment was MS medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose. The results showed that medium supplemented with 100 gL of sucrose gave the highest quantity of Ajmalicine 32.27 µg/100 mg fresh weight of callus,as well as medium supplemented with 8000 mgL of Mannitol gave the highest value of Ajmalicine 120.19 µg/100 mg fresh weight of callus. The concentrations of Ajmalicine, derived from the leaves of the plants grown in pot, were lowest than the concentrations produced by the callus grown in vitro it was 0.047 µg/100 fresh weight of the leaves.


Article
Identification of Bacteriocin linocin M18 from Brevibacterium and Related Genera using PCR
التشخيص الجزيئي لـ M18 لينوسين المنتج من جنس Brevibacterium والاجناس المشابهة لها بأستخدام الـPCR

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Fifty bacterial isolates isolated from dairy product, skin and blood from cancer and kidney failure dialysis patients were identified to twenty two species and the following genera:- Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Actinomyces, Exiguobacterium, Kocuria, Micrococcus, Rothia, Rhodococcus using a set of phenetic characteristics. Twelve isolates of the different species from the genera Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Kocuria, Rhodococcus, Rothia were selected and probed for lin gene by polymerase chain reaction. One species Kocuria rhizophila which inhibited most of the tested organisms did not have lin gene in the chromosome, while, the species Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum, Arthrobacter comminsii, Arthrobacter oxydans have the lin gene. Our results found there wide distribution of the structural gene encoding this linocin M18 within coryneform bacteria and also in the genus Kocuria.


Article
Detection of Anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgG and Anti-HSV-1 IgG antibodies in sample of Iraqi Behcet's disease patients
التحري عن أضداد Chlamydia pneumonia وHSV-1 من نوع IgG في عينة من مرضى عراقيين مصابين بمرض بهجت

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Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammation with characterized lesion, including oral ulcer, skin lesion, genital lesion and ocular manifestation. It affects both genders. The etiologies of BD is unknown genetic, bacterial and viral have proposed as causative agents, for that reason the aim of this study to detect Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-1(HSV-1) IgG antibody and Anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgG antibody by ELISA in sera of seventy Iraqi patients and twenty Iraqi healthy control. 34.2% of patients have Anti-HSV-1 IgG antibody while 21.4% of patients have Anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgG antibody, this lead to suggest that HSV-1 and Chlamydia pneumonia may be one of the etiological factor in BD.


Article
Influence of L-Tryptophan and salicylic acid on secondary metabolites production from leaves induced callus of Catharanthus roseus L.G.Don in vitro
تأثير L-Tryptophan و salicylic acid في انتاج المركبات الثانوية من الكالس المستحث من اوراق نبات عين البزون L.G.Don Catharanthus roseus خارج الجسم الحي

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An experiment was conducted to steady the effect of L-Tryptophan and salicylic acid on callus induced on leaf explants of Catharanthus roseus. Callus induction was achieved by culturing true leaves of the plant on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg /L 2,4-D and 1mg / L Kin. The best medium to maintain callus was MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg /L 2,4-D and 1.5 mg / L Kin. Different levels added to MS medium for each L-Tryptophan 0,200,300or400 mg /L and salicylic acid 0, 0.5,1or1.5mg /L. The medium supplemented with 30 g/ L sucrose was used as a control. Results showed the medium supplemented with 200 mgL of L-Tryptophan gave the highest quantity of Vincristine reached 48.66 µg/100 fresh weight of callus. MS medium content at the concentration 1 mg L of salicylic acid gave the highest level of Vinblastine recording 50.98 µg/100 fresh weight of callus. While MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg /L of salicylic acid gave the highest level of Serpentine 24.76 µg/100 fresh weight of callus. The concentrations of active compound derived from plant leaves were much less than the concentrations produced by the callus grown in vitro. The concentration of Serpentine was 0.059 while Vinblastine was 0.183 and the concentration of Vincristine was 0.064.


Article
Assessment of Adenosine deaminase specific activity in serum and saliva of patients with chronic gingivitis
تحديد الفعالية النوعية لانظيم الادينوسين دي امينيز في مصل ولعاب المرضى المصابين بالتهاب اللثة المزمن

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Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine. The enzyme is widely distributed in human tissues and work as a marker of cellular immunity, and its activity is found to be elevated in those diseases in which there is a cell-mediated immune response. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of ADA specific activity in serum and saliva as a biomarker of chronic gingivitis (CG). Thirty CG patients and 15 CG-free controls were enrolled in the study, and they were attendant of the Dental Clinic at the College of Dentistry Medicine (University of Baghdad) during the period January-March 2013. The results demonstrated that the ADA mean specific activity was significantly (P ≤ 0.001) increased in serum (17.58 ± 0.81 vs. 0.75 ± 0.03 U/mg protein) and saliva (85.43 ± 2.43 vs. 0.11 ± 0.03 U/mg protein) of CG patients as compared with controls. Accordingly, it is possible to conclude that ADA specific activity might be a good biomarker for CG, especially in saliva, and can reflect inflammatory and destruction processes in the periodontal tissue.


Article
Physiological and histological effect of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) on testicular function of albino male mice treated with lead acetate
التاثيرالفسيولوجي والنسجي للمستخلص المائي والكحولي لنبات الثوم على الوظائف الخصويه لذكور الفئران البيض المعامله بخلات الرصاص

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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Allium sativum (Garlic) on testicular function in male mice exposed to lead acetate. Sixty adult (7-8) weeks old male mice were divided into six groups (10 micegroup), first and second group were administered with 150mgkg body weight BWday of aqueous and alcoholic extract of plant respectively. However, the third group was treated with 100 mgkgBWday of lead acetate. While the fourth and fifth groups were administered with 150 mgkgBWday. Of aqueous and alcoholic extract combination with 100 gmkg. BW of lead acetate. The sixth group treated with distilled water and served as control group throughout five weeks. At the end of experiment, treated animals were sacrificed and sperm were collected from caudal epidydymis to use for following tests: sperm concentration, motility, deadalive sperm and morphological abnormalities. Serum was isolated to assay for the analysis of, FSH, LH and testosterone level. The results showed a significant increase in sperm concentration, motility and decrease in dead and abnormal sperm in the group treated with aqueous and alcoholic extract of Allium sativum. However, the results showed decrease in sperm concentration, motility and increase in dead and abnormal sperm in the group treated with lead acetate. The other groups of animals groups treated with aqueous and alcoholic extract combination with lead acetate showed improvement in sperm concentration and motility compared to that treated with lead acetate The FSH, LH and testosterone level significantly increased in treated groups with aqueous and alcoholic extract of plant compared to group treated with lead acetate. It's concluded that aqueous and alcoholic extract of Allium sativum were significantly improved fertility in treated medicine compared to animals treated with lead acetate.


Article
Effect of Using Probiotics with Prebiotics in Growth Indicia and Some Physiological Characters for Fingerlings Common Carp Cyprinus carpio L.
تأثير استخدام المعزز الحيوي Probiotics مدعوم بالسابق الحيوي Prebiotics على دلائل النمو وبعض الصفات الفسلجية لصغارِ أسماك الكارب الشائعCyprinus carpio L.

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A total of 120 common carp Cyprinus carpio L. with average weight 20.45±1.24 gm/fish were assigned randomly into five groups of three replicates for each group, each replicate included 8 fishes. The fish were fed for 90 days on five diets that equal in isonitroenons 24.16% and isocaloric 1408.88 MJ/kg. Diet for control T1, local probiotic Iraq probiotic added at levels 5g/kg for diet T2, local probiotic added at 5g/kg from diet+5g/kg prebiotic which include fructo-Oligosacchardes FOS for diet T3, imported probiotic which include Enterococcus faecium added at 2g/kg diet for diet T4, imported probiotic which include E. faecium added at 2g/kg diet+2g/kg per diet prebiotic which include FOS for diet T5. The results showed there were significant distinction for T5 p<0.05 in growth parameter and food conversion and sufficiency rate FCR and FER and apparent coefficient digestibility ACD, there were no significant different between T5 and T4. The results of blood biochemical examination showed significant distinction for T4 from T1 and T2 in packed cell volume (PCV) and Hemoglobin Hb, there were no significant different between all treatment in erythrocyte and leukocyte count RBC and WBc.


Article
Molecular epidemiology analysis of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi used Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)
التحليل الوبائي الجزيئي لبكتريا Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi بأستخدام جهاز الترحيل الكهربائي ذا الحقل النبضي

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Strain typing is an integral part of molecular epidemiology used to discern the clonality of Salmonella Typhi involved in local epidemics. The purpose of this study is to identify sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi by conventional and molecular methods that include characterization by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and to present molecular epidemiology analysis. Thirty isolstes of Salmonella typhi from sporadic clinical cases of typhoid fever were obtained. They represent cases from Baghdad, Basra, Babylon and Diala provinces during the period between June 2005 to July 2006. Two biotypes were obtained, 26 isolates under biotype I and four under biotype II. Two antibiogram patterns were obtained: twenty-nine isolates were susceptible to all antibiotic used while the remaining isolate was of different pattern. Plasmid profiling allowed little or no differentiation amongst these isolates. Only 4 (13.3%) isolates were found to contain plasmids which were of three patterns, the majority of strains 26 (86.7%) isolates did not show any plasmid. BOX-PCR fingerprinting has revealed 9 distinct patterns.Cluster analysis by UPGMA based dendrogram revealed six clusters with 90% similarity. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of digested chromosomal DNAs from these Salmonella Typhi isolates was performed using the restriction endonucleases XbaI (5'-TCTAGA-3') and SpeI (5'-ACTAGT-3'). XbaI-based analysis was superior to SpeI restriction patterns. PFGE fingerprinting with XbaI restriction have yielded sixteen distinct patterns. Cluster analysis by UPGMA based dendrogram revealed seven clusters with 90% similarity. PFGE fingerprinting with the comparative use of the XbaI and SpeI endonucleases have proved high discriminatory value to other molecular methods and a helpful tool for the epidemiological typing of Salmonella Typhi isolates.


Article
Laboratory evaluation of azadirachtin isolated from Melia azedarach L. fruits against Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae)
تقويم كفاءة مركب الأزدراختين المعزول من ثمار نبات السبحبح Melia azedarach L. في أدوار البعوض Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) مختبرياً

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Efficacy of different concentration of azadirachtin isolated from fruits of Melia azedarach was investigated on the different stages of Anopheles pulcherrimus under lab. condition. Results showed that there was non-significant reduction in eggs hatching rate. There were high significant in larval mortalities which were depending on concentration. Different larval deformities were found. Second instars larvae were more sensitive then fourth larva instar , LC50 and LC90 for the second instars larvae were 35.99 and 67.99 ppm respectively and for the fourth instars larvae it was 63.09 and 139.8 respectively, significant prolongation in larval development period.


Article
Study of o Catechins as Antioxidant Extract from black, white shada seeds and waste of squeezed grape
دراسة الفعاليه المضادة للأكسدة للكاتكينات المستخلصة من بذور العنب شدة سوداء وبيضاء ومخلفات العنب المعصور

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Catechins were extracted from black shada, white shada seeds and waste of squeezed grape by mixed each sample with distilled water(1:10), with ethyl acetate(1:1) v/v. Detection of active compounds in the extracts done using IR technique β-carotene bleaching test and peroxide value(POV). Results showed that the black grape seed and the waste of squeezed grape have high antioxidant activity( 64 and 52 g/k grespectively), in comparison with BHT, while it was lower than PG which were 48 and 41.6g/kg compared with PG. On the other hand white grape seed extraction was in the middle between obvious two extractions and was 48 and 36g/kg in comparative with BHT and PG respectively. Peroxide value was determined in sunflower oil for 14 days at 65oc, and showed that these extractions have antioxidant activity and similar to butylated hydroxyl toluene BHT and propyl galate PG.


Article
Multiplex PCR for Identification of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A by Selective Amplification of tyv, prt, viaB, fliC-d and fliC-a Genes
استخدام تقنية تفاعل التضاعف المتعدد لسلسلة الدنا لكشف بكتريا Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi و Paratyphi A بالتحري عن الجينات tyv, prt, viaB, fliC-d, fliC-a

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Salmonellosis is responsible for large number of infections in both human and animals. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a causative agent of typhoid fever and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A is a causative agent of paratyphoid fever. Conventional methods of isolation of Salmonella strains take 4-6 days to complete and are therefore laborious and require substiantial manpower. Therefore development of a PCR assay that can target multiple genes for rapid detection of S. Typhi and S.Paratyphi A. Methods: Synthetic primers for O, H, and Vi antigen genes, tyv , prt , fliC-d, fliC-a, and viaB, were used for the rapid identification of S. Typhi and Paratyphi A with Multiplex PCR. Results: All the clinical isolates examined were accurately identified by this PCR technique, that differentiated S. Typhi and Paratyphi A, based on size and number of amplified fragments. S. enterica serovar Typhi, yielded four bands of tyv(tyvelose epimerase gene, 615bp),prt (paratose gene, 258bp),flic-d(phage-1 flagellin gene for d- antigen 750bp) and viaB ( vi antigen gene, 439bp); S.enterica serovar Paratyphi A yielded only two bands prt (paratose gene, 258bp) and flic-a (phage-1 flagellin gene for a- antigen 329bp). Conclusion: These data indicate that multiplex PCR is a potentially valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A from clinical isolates.


Article
Specific activity of thymidine nucleotide biosynthetic enzymes in hairy roots extracts of Sesamum indicum L. transformed by two strains of Agrobacteruim rhizogenes
الفعالية النوعية لأنزيمات بناء نيوكليوتيد الثايمين في مستخلصات الجذور الشعرية في السمسم المحَولة وراثيا باستخدام سلالتين من Agrobacteruim rhizogenes

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The study concluded induction of transformed hairy roots from leaves and decapitated seedlings of Sesamum indicum L. using two strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes considered as natural vector of transformation. The strain R1601 stimulated roots on leaves and seedlings during 20 days of inoculation placed on solidified Arnon and Hoagland medium. Whereas they involved 12 days when inoculated with the strain R15834. Generally strain R15834 was efficient in inducing these roots and their numbers than strain R1601 which approached 54.4% and 41.6% respectively. The results indicated an increase in the specific activity of enzymes Thymidlate synthase (TS), Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), Serine hydroxy methyl transfrase (SHMT) in extract of transformed hairy roots producing agropine by stain R15834 and approach 4.610, 1.057, 0.480 µmolmin mg of protein respectively compared with the activity of 1.256, 0.097, 0.125µ molmin mg in the control samples. This was coupled with an increase in amount of DNA and RNA that approached 105, 1020 µg per gram respectively compared to 44, 462 µg per gram in control samples. The transformation of these hairy roots was pointed out through the separation of agropine spots from their extracts when electrophoreted in the presence of standared agropine.


Article
Moving bed biofilm reactor technology as batch system in wastewater treatment
تكنولوجيا الطبقة الاحيائية اللزجة المتحركة كنظام مستقر في معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي

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Abstract

Biofilm slime layer is one of the advanced biological treatment technologies for industrial and municipal wastewater treatment with the capacity to reuse of treated water for agricultural purposes. Bacterial, fungal and algal biofilm slime layer were grown on the interior surfaces of polyethylene pellet (carrier) and suspended in municipal wastewater for organic pollutants removal. Bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus megaterium, Sphingobacterium thalpophilum), fungal species (Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum) and algal species (Nostoc linckia, Scendesmus dimorphus) were used separately for biofilm slime layer growth under controlled laboratory conditions (pH, temperature, and aeration). Bacterial biofilm layer thickness was measured and recorded 9, 6 and 5 mm respectively as compared with 3mm for control group through the retention time of 16 day. Bacterial P. aeruginosa biofilm slime layer showed an efficiency for COD, TOC, NO3 and PO4 removal after 24 hour of 75%, 65%, 69% and56% respectively while the removal rates of the same factors using the fungal biofilm layer of P. citrinum was 83%, 78%, 53% and 60% after 48 hour respectively. The algal biofilm reactor with S. dimorphus showed the highest percentage removal rate of total nitrogen 93% as compared to control group 87% after 72 hours of treatment due to the biofilm slime thickness of S. dimorphus 7.5mm as compared to the thickness of the N. linckia slime layer 5.3mm. Mixture of microbial species biofilm layer was used for wastewater treatment through 18 and 24 hours, using aerobic and anoxia. The mixture of microbial species biofilm layer showed removal rates for TOC, COD, and TN of 90%, 83%, and 59% respectively in an aerobic condition, while the removal rates were 66%, 52%, and 84% in an anoxic condition. From the above results, one concludes that controlling the biofilm slim layer is a promising technology for municipal wastewater treatment, as long as it is used under the suitable conditions.


Article
Evaluation the efficiency of Soil Solarization, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Glomus mosseae and nematicide furfural against root-knot nematode Meliodogyne javanica on tomato plants
تقييم فاعلية البسترة الشمسية والفطريات Trichodema harzianum, ,Trichoderma viride , Paecilomyces lilacinus, Glomus mosseae و ومبيد Furfural ضد نيماتودا العقد الجذرية Meloidogyne javanica على نبات الطماطة

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Abstract

This study has been conducted to evaluate the interactive effect of soil solarization, Trichodema harzianum, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Glomus mosseae and Furural on root- knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. The results revealed that there were significant effects of solarization alone or in combination with the other control agents on all tested growth parameters of tomato plants. The length of stem and root were 10.6, 12, 5.2, 5.7cm with solarization and non-solarization soils respectively. There were synergistic interaction between solarizaton and control agents, the length of stem and root in Furfural, T. harzianum, T. viride, P. lilacinus, G. mosseae treatmens were (25.3 , 38.2),(18.8 , 29.2),( 15.8 ,17.3), ( 15.2 , 23.1), (13.8,18.8) cm with solarization and (14.7 , 15.2) , (15.4, 21.5 ) , (12.1, 12.1 ) , (9.8,15.1) , (11.2,11.3) cm with non- solarization respectively. The solarization was found to be efficient in reducing the number of root knots per one gram of root of tomato with synergistic interaction with all control agents especially Furural. Generally, Furural has significant superiority in its effect on all growth parameter, followed by T.harzianum, and it was the most effective in reducing number of root-knot (5.6,29) knots for solarized and unsolarized soil respectively followed by T. harzianum , P. lilacinus, .G. mosseae( 42,45,49 )knots /gm roots with solarization.


Article
Detection of insulin-like protein and some active compounds in Bauhinia variegata Linn. leaf ethanolic extracts and the effect in reducing blood glucose levels in mice
كشف البروتين-شبيه الانسولين وبعض المركبات الفعالة في الخلاصة الايثانولية لأوراق نبات خف الجمل Bauhinia variegate Linn. والتأثير في خفض مستويات سكر الدم في الفئران

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Abstract

The study aims to detect the insulin-like protein and determine the active compounds in Bauhinia variegata L. leaves ethanolic extracts that help in reducing the blood glucose levels for white albino mice. The chemical detection of leaves ethanolic extract revealed the presence of tannins, terpenes, steroids, and flavonoids as active compounds. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method, using C18 column resulted in presence of insulin-like protein in the leaves extracts. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels after 3 days of the treatment, and high reduction obtained after 6, 9, 12 days as compared with the human swine insulin used as a control. It was concluded that the crude ethanolic extracts and the partial purified insulin of B. variegata was used to examine the existence of insulin-like protein in this plant. In this study, an attempt has been made to report plant insulin that may be useful to the health professionals and scholars working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop alternative medicine to cure diabetes in animals and man.


Article
The functional response of, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) larvae on different nymphal instars of Dubas bug Ommatissus lybicus De Berg.
الاستجابة الوظيفية ليرقات المفترس( Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens تجاه اطوار مختلفة من حوريات دوباس النخيل Ommatissus lybicus De Berg.

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The functional response of second and third larval instars of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), against different nymphal instars of Dubas bug Ommatissus lybicus De Berg. was studied.The larval instars of the predator exhibited Type II functional responses against the prey. Based on disk equation the attack rate (a) of the second larval instars of the predator were estimated to 1.03± 0.043 , 0.94± 0.015 , 0.88± 0.009 and 0.77 ± 0.02 and the handling time (Th) were 0.0031, 0.0039, 0.0083, and 0.008 day for second, third, fourth and fifth nymphal instars respectively. The third instars larvae of the predator, the attack rate against these nymphal instars were 1.11± 0.01, 1.04 ± 0.29 , 0.97± 0.017 and 0.89 with handling time 0.0019, 0.0028, 0.0064, and 0.0067 day respectively. The theoretical maximum predation(T/Th) of the second larval instars were 322, 256, 120 and114 nymphs for second, third, fourth and fifth nymphal instar respectively; while they were 526, 357, 156, and 149 for the third larval instar. According to this study this predator have a good predation potential in preying on nymph of Dubas bug especially the small nymphs (second and third ).


Article
Toxigenic Potential of Vibrio cholerae O1and O139 Serotypes Isolated from Cases of Diarrhea in Baghdad hospitals
سمية ضمات الكوليرا الأنواع المصلية المعزولة O1و O139من حالات الإسهال في مستشفيات بغداد

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Abstract

Cholera is most important water borne pathogen. The public health significance of a V. cholerae isolate is routinely assessed by two critical properties: the production of cholera toxin CT and the possession of either the O1 or O139 antigen, which acts as a marker of epidemic potential. The objective of this study is to detect V. cholerae serotypes directly from stools and determines their toxiginicity potential. Sixty four stool samples were collected from four hospitals in Baghdad from November 2010 to February 2011. The age of patients was ranging from two months to 12 years, 26 females and 38 males. Immunochromatographic test used for qualitative detection of O1and /or O139 serotypes was used in addition to routine culture for isolation of V. cholerae. Using specific primer cholera toxin gene, ctxA2-B, was amplified and the PCR product was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Out of 64 stool samples only 16 (25%) was positive. Fifeen 93.7% of these samples were positive for O1serogroup and just one 6.3% was positive for O139 serogroup. Stool sample culture on alkaline peptone water and then on TCBS agar enhance the growth of 11(17.2%) V. cholerae isolates, 10 (90.9%) were belong to O1 serotype and one 9.1% belong to O139. The results of ctxA2-B gene amplification show that, 9 (90%) out of 10 O1serotypes was positive. While the only one 100% O139 serotype was positive. As conclusion, the incidence of cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 is more than that caused by V. cholerae O139 in Baghdad hospitals. Immunochromatographic test is a rapid and sensitive test in recover V. cholerae O1 and O139 serotypes. PCR is a simple molecular tool to determine the toxigenicity of V. cholerae isolates.


Article
Acclimatization of freshwater bacillus diatomas Navicula sp. for living in salty waters
أقلمة دياتومات المياه العذبة العصوية .Navicula sp للمعيشة في المياه المالحة

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Abstract

Bacillus diatoms. Navicula sp. were isolated from fresh water (Tigris River) and were acclimated progressively to grow in salty environment with alkaline media pH = 9. Bacillus diatoms Showed very good ability to acclimate for living in gradient salty water starting from 0.5 - 5 ppt. of samples of underground water containing Total Nitrogen 2.25, 1.07, 0.952, 9.005, 0.53 ppm, respectively, and Total Phosphorus 1.58, 1.61, 1.75, 0.565, and 0.785 ppm. consumed of TN: TP in ratio16:1 as in the following results 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 1.005,0.01 ppm. for TN and 1.439, 1.327, 1.68, 0.065, 0.755 ppm. for TP. by using Least significant difference-LSD test, results showed significant differences for decreasing cells when the value of P <0.05 for increasing of adapted cells in ground water with gradually salty concentrations also for reducing TN before and after experiment, also a significant difference for reducing P in sample (4) of ground water in concentration 0.565 ppm before experiment which reduced to 0.065 ppm after experiment.


Article
Laboratory Study to Limitation Degree-Days Which Prerequisite for Stages Development of Waterhyacinth Chevroune weevil Neochetina bruchi (Hustache) Coleoptera: Curculiondeae and the Lowest Developmental Threshold
دراسة مختبريه لتحديد الوحدات الحرارية اللازمة لتطور الادوار المختلفة لسوسة زهرة النيل المخططة Neochetina bruchi (Hustache) (Coleoptera : Curculiondeae) وعتبة النمو الدنيا لكل دور

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The results of this study showed that the lowest developmental threshold of eggs, larvae and pupae of N. bruchi was 12, 12 and 11°C respectively at 20,25 and 30°C. While there were no hatching and development of larvae and pupae at 15°C ,While 35°C killed all the stages were tested. The results also showed that the lowest developmental threshold of male and female was 15 and 14°C respectively at 15,20,25 and 30°C While 35°C killed these stages tested too. The accumulated days degree for the development of egg, larvae and pupae was 143, 500 and 500 thermal units at 20,25 and 30˚C.While it was 333, and 333 thermal units of male and female respectively at 15,20,25 and 30°C. So there are no accumulated days degree for the development of egg, larvae, pupae, male and female at 35°C because it was killer for these stages. While there are no accumulated days degree for the development of egg, larvae and pupae at 15°C because there are no developing for these stages.


Article
In vitro plant regeneration of Iraqi cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars through embryonic axis
تجديد نبات القطن (Gossypium hirsutum L.) في الاصناف العراقية تحت ظروف المختبر من خلال محور الجنين

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Abstract

In plant tissue culture studies, obtaining new plantlets from different parts of plant is a very important feature with direct or indirect ways of regeneration. The plant show different regeneration capacities from species to species. In this present study, in-vitro direct shoots development from embryonic axis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Lashata) were comparatively studied. Embryonic axis, embryonic hypocotyl and plumule obtained from five days old in-vitro grown seeds. All explants were cultured on MS media supplemented with 1- 4 mg/l Benzyl amino purine (BAP) + 0.1 mg/l Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 3 mg/l activated charcoal. Cultured explants were kept at growth chamber with photoperiod for 16 hours light and 8 hours dark, at 25oC. Reproducible in-vitro plant regeneration was obtained from embryonic axis when cultured onto MS medium supplemented 1 mg/l BAP + 0.1 mg/l NAA and 3 g/l Activated charcoal. Shoot induction was to be noted 53.3%, 36.7% and 12.3 in embryonic axis, plumule and embryonic hypocotyl respectively. All these shoots were capable of rooting on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA, and establishing in soil 3-4 weeks.

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