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المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: معهد الهندسة الوراثية والتقنيات الاحيائية
اللغة: English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تاسست المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية سنة2001 وصدر اول عدد منها سنة 2002، وهي مجلة علمية محكمة نصف سنوية تصدر عن معهد الهندسة الوراثية والتقنيات الإحيائية في جامعة بغداد، متخصصة في الهندسة الوراثية والتقانات الإحيائية في مجالات علوم الحياة والبيئة والعلوم الزراعية والطب البشري وطب الأسنان والصيدلة والطب البيطري والبحوث المتخصصة بموضوع المعلوماتية الحيوية Bioinformatics)).

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2009 المجلد: 8 العدد: 1

Article
EFFECT OF SOMATIC CELLS ON LIPOLYSIS IN CHEDDAR CHEESE
تأثير الخلايا الجسمية في التحلل الدهني لجبن التشدر

المؤلفون: أزهار جواد الموسوي1
الصفحات: 275-288
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الخلاصة

This study was based on milk produced by Frisian cow related to the Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture, which was subjected to intermammary infusion of Escherichiacoli endotoxin into the four quarters, fallowed by milking afternoon. The induced inflammation caused by endotoxin resulted in high somatic cell counts milk.The yield of the cheddar cheese prepared from raw milk with high SCC (4.2 x 106 cell/ml) was lower (9.4%) than that of the control cheese (10%). The moisture content for cheese prepared from raw milk with high SCC was 40% which is higher than the control cheese (34.29%). While the percentage of fat and protein were lower in comparison to that of control cheese samples, there were no significant differences in both acidity and pH values between the two types of cheese during the entire ripening period. High SCC milk caused higher loss in fat and protein in the whey. Values of ADV for cheese prepared from raw milk with high SC were higher in comparison with control cheese samples with lower cell count during ripening period for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 weeks at 10oC. The enzymes activity in the cheese samples prepared from raw milk with high SCC was higher in comparison with control cheese samples during ripening period for 20 weeks at 10oC. The results of gas chromatographic indicated that total FFA in cheddar cheese was correlated with age during the ripening period of 20 weeks at 10oC, however, the acetic and butyric acid levels were higher in cheddar cheese manufactured from raw milk with high number of SC in comparison with control samples during all stages of ripening. The microbial load showed an increase in standard plate count and psychotropic bacterial count in cheddar cheese samples manufactured from raw milk with high numbers of SC while the numbers were lower in comparison with control samples during entire ripening period at 10oC. There was a rapid improvement in sensory evaluation for cheddar cheese made from milk with high number of SC up to 8 weeks of ripening, while the control cheese showed a gradual improvement in sensory evaluation through out the ripening period.

الكلمات الدلالية

Somatic cells --- Lipases --- Cheddar cheese.


Article
PRODUCTION OF POLYMYXIN ANTIBIOTIC FROM LOCALLY ISOLATEDPAENIBACILLUS PLYMAYXA A3
انتاج مضاد البولي مكسين من بكتيرياpolymyxa A3Paenibacillus المعزولة محلياً

المؤلفون: اقبال رزوق حنا
الصفحات: 289-303
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الخلاصة

Twenty five soil sample from different locations of Baghdad city were collected during February, March and April 2004. Eighty five isolates of the genus Bacillus were obtainted. The ability of these isolates to produce antibiotics against the test organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa was tested in solid media; Six isolates of them were antibiotic producers. After characterization four isolates were found to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, and these isolates showed better production of the polymyxin and one of them was the best and designated as P. polymyxa A3. The optimum cultural conditions for polymyxin production by P. polymyxa A3 were studied. Best results was obtained when the isolate P. polymyxa A3 was grown on media composed of 0.2% glucose, 0.15% ammonium chloride, 0.25% dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphat and 0.25% Sodium chloride, with initial pH of 7 and after 24 hrs of incubation at 37°C.

الكلمات الدلالية

Polymyxin --- Paenibacillus Polymayxa A3 --- Production.


Article
STUDY OF SOME FACTORS EFFECT IN THERAPEUTIC CHARACTERS OFBIFIDOBACTERIA
دراسة بعض العوامل المؤثرة في الخصائص العلاجية لبكترياBifidobacteria

المؤلفون: إلهام اسماعيل الشمري
الصفحات: 304-313
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الخلاصة

The resistance of Bifidobacteria to high acidity was studied by growing four isolates (2,4,6,8) of this bacteria in media with low hydrogen ionic number (2,3,4) and different duration of incubation (1,2,3hrs).It was note that the decline in number of viable bacteria increases with highacidity, long duration of incubation and high concentrations of bile salts (1,1.5,2%). There was a convergence of four isolates generation.The isolates characterized by their ability to reduce the cholesterolratio in MRS-EY medium. The decline was higher after 48hrs of incubation than 24hrs. The aim of this research is to studying the resistance ofsome local isolates of Bifidobacteria in intestinal of humaneand effect of this condition on the propiotic properties of this Isolates and consequently limitation the ability of uses it as therapeuticbacteria by pharmaceutical preparation or therapeutic food Products.

الكلمات الدلالية

Bifidobacteri --- Therapy properties --- Human health.


Article
PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL RENNET ENZYME FROM RHIZOMUCOR MIEHEI IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION
انتاج انزيم الرنيت المايكروبيمن العزلة المحلية Rhizomucor miehei بطريقة تخمرات الحالة الصلبة

المؤلفون: سعد خالد العكيدي
الصفحات: 314-325
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الخلاصة

Ten fungal isolate were selected which include Mucor, Rhizopus from different habitat.Tests conducted for the isolation of the best isolates that produce rennet.Results showed that isolate MucorT4 were the best for identification. The husks rice media was best productive media in solid state fermentation and the optimal condition for production use moisturizing ratio 1:1.6(milliliter distilled water from gram media), pH=6, temperature 40ºC, quantity of inoculums volume 1ml limits 1000000 spore/gm media and incubate for 3 days. It also extracted the enzyme from the production media using phosphate regulator concentration of 0.2 molar pH=6. The estimated effectiveness agglutination for the producer isolation which recorded the highest rate possible within the standards as determined through suitability of milk agglutination and an alternative to traditional rennet.

الكلمات الدلالية

Rennet --- Rhizomucor miehei --- SolidState Fermentation


Article
STUDY OF SOME CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF THE AEROLYSIN TOXIN PRODUCED BY AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ON LYMPHOCYTES
دراسة بعض التأثيرات الوراثية الخلوية لذيفان الايرولايسين المنتج من بكتريا Aeromonashydrophila في الخلايا اللمفاوية الطبيعية

المؤلفون: سناء جاسم البيضاني
الصفحات: 326-333
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الخلاصة

Aerolysin is one of the major virulence factors produced by Aeromonashydrophila bacteria. This bacteria produced two types of toxins, alpha and beta aerolysin. The toxin showed to have a toxic effects against many kind of cells such as epithelial cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes.The current study aimed to assist the genotoxic of the aerolysin toxin against lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were treated with three toxin concentrations.The results showed that all toxin concentrations have a toxic effect on cells. Also the results showed that mitotic index and blastogenic index were declines which reflex the toxicity of the toxin.

الكلمات الدلالية

Aeromonas --- Aerolysin --- Lymphocytes


Article
DETERMINATION OF SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE 1ANDESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 ISOLATES TO PRODUCE SHIGATOXIN BY USING ELISA AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION
تحديد قابلية Shigella dysenteriae1 و Escherichia coli O157:H7 على انتاج ذيفان الشيكا باستخدام تقنيتيELISA و التفاعل السلسلي للبوليمريز

الصفحات: 334-341
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الخلاصة

One hundred fifty six stool specimens were collected from children under the age of six infected with diarrhea and attended the Children Protection Hospital in Baghdad during the months of Summer in the year 2005 for investigation and isolation of Shigelladysenteriae 1 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified depending on the morphological characteristics of the colonies, critical biochemical tests, api 20E strips beside latex agglutination test for each of S.dysenteriae1 and E.coli O157:H7. It was found that only one (0.6%) isolate belonged to S.dysenteriae1 and four (2.6%) belonged to E.coli O157:H7 from 156 stool specimens. Production of Stx was tested using ELISA technique. The test was done on 12 isolates (9 belonged to E.coli, 1 to S.dysenteriae1 and 2 belonged to S.sonnei). It was found that only 3 out of 12 isolates (25%) were producers for Stx; 2 out of 12 isolates (16.7%) belonged to E.coli O157:H7 and 1 (8.3%) to S.dysenteriae1, while the rest isolates (75%) were negative for Stx. Detection of stx gene in S.dysnerteriae1 and stx1, stx2 in E.coli O157:H7 isolates were done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique by using promegaPCR Core System II. stx2 gene was detected only in two isolates of E.coli O157:H7 and non of them carried stx1 gene. stx gene was detected in S.dysenteriae1 isolate which used for its detection the same primer used for stx1 detection.

الكلمات الدلالية

Shigella dysenteriae1 --- E.coli O157:H7 --- ELISA --- PCR --- Shigatoxins.


Article
THE CYTOTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY EFFECT OF DRUG SUSTANON "100" ON MALE GERM CELLS OF MUS MUSCULUS
التأثيرات السمية الخلوية والسميه الوراثية لعقار Sustanon"100" في الخلايا الجنسية الذكرية للفأر المختبري Musmusculus

المؤلفون: عباس عبد الله محمد
الصفحات: 342-315
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الخلاصة

In this study the effects of three doses (0.01, 0.02, 0.04 mg/kg) of Sustanon "100" has been investigated in male germ cells of Musmusclus. Five tests has been done the first is mitotic index, micronuclei, chromosomal central associated, chromosomal aberration and head sperm abnormalities. These doses induced significantly higher number of mitotic index,micronuclei, chromosomal central associated, chromosomal aberration (chromosomal, chromatid break, fragments, ringchromosome) especially after 21–35 day and also it has been found the sustanon has the ability to induce sperm head. Abnormalities at equal rate in control. For these side effects which have seen early during the course of treatment, so the treatment should be discontinued or appropriate therapy instituted after consult a medical.

الكلمات الدلالية

Genotoxic effects --- Sustanon" 100"


Article
EFFECT OF MAGNETIZED WATER IN SOME HEMATOLOGICAL ASPECTS IN MICE
تأثير استخدام الماء الممغنط في بعض صفات الدم في الفئران

الصفحات: 352-366
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الخلاصة

Study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetized water in some hematological aspect of mice.Eighty white Swiss mice, male and female (6-7 weeks of age) were randomly divided into two groups, each group included 40 mice's (20 males +20 females) kept in cages separately. Group 1 (treatment group) were get magnetic water, group 2 (control group)were get tap water. After whole experimental period(16weeks) and 3 days as preliminary period blood sample were taken from mice's heart directly after killed and before pulses were stopped to investigate the effect of magnetized water in Hb Conc.,PCV,RBC's,MCV,MCH,MCHC,WBC's, Monocytes,Lymphocytes,Granulocyte and Platelet.Results obtained were: Hb Conc. in females was highly significant than males in the first group, while PCV and RBC's were higher in males of the first group in the comparison with the similar in second group.MCV, MCH and MCHC had no significant differences between animals before and after drinking magnetic water.Effect of magnetic water on WBC's was not significant, while Monocytes in males of first group had the highest significant mean in the comparison with its similar in the second group, and it was significantly (p<0.05) higher than females in the two groups, in the contrast, males had the lowest mean of Lymphocytes in the first group than that of females in the same group. Granulocytes and blood platelets were not affected before and after treatment.

الكلمات الدلالية

Magnetized water --- Blood


Article
USING UREASE ENZYME PRODUCED FROM PROTEUS MIRABILISIN THE ESTIMATION OF BLOOD UREA CONCENTRATION
استخدامانزيم اليوريز المنقىمن بكترياProteus mirabilis في تقدير تركيز اليوريا في الدم

المؤلفون: علي حافظ عباس1
الصفحات: 367-374
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الخلاصة

This study concerned the usage of purified urase enzyme which purified from Proteus mirabilis local isolates that was isolated from UTI patients. This enzyme is extracted and purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation method with saturation percentage of 50% and 245 purification fold and enzyme yield of 24% in the estimation of the blood urea concentrationBrothelote method in both kits. The local kit in which the urase enzyme was the principal constituent and the trade kit that supplied by Biocon Company. A comparison was made between the results of urea concentration obtained using both, local kit and standard Biocon kit using statistical analysis T-Test. It was found that there is no significant differences (at confidence level 95%) between the results obtained from the two kits.

الكلمات الدلالية

Urase enzyme --- Proteus mirabilis.


Article
RATIONSUPPLEMENTING OF BROILER (ROSS) WITH FUNGAL CULTURE ASPERGILLUS NIGER AS PREBIOTIC ANDEFFECT IT ON THE MICROBIAL CONTENT FOR FED,LITTER ANDPROVENTRICULUS, JEJUNUM OF THE BROILER
تدعيم علائق فروج اللحم سلالة Roosبمزرعة الفطر Aspergillusnigerكسابق حيويوتأثيره في المحتوى الميكروبي للعلف والفرشة والمعدة الغدية والصائمللفروج

المؤلفون: علي عبد الحسين كاظم1
الصفحات: 375-385
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الخلاصة

To study the effect of broiler diet supplement with fungal Culture ( Aspergillusniger) on the microbial content for feed,litter and Proventriculus, Jejunum an experiment was conducted. After the gained of the fungal Culture A.niger from the wheat bran fermentation by the fungal A.niger by using solid state fermentation method. The fungal cultures ofAspergillusnigerwere added at 0,5, 10 and 15 g/kg of feed ,then total aerobic bacterial count, coliform bacteria and mold and yeast were determined.Adding the probiotic significantly decreased(p<0.05) coliform with three log cycle for the 4th treat as compared with control. The total aerobic bacteria counts decreased in the feed for all the treatments the 4th treat was decreased with one log cycle as compared with control, while the number of mold and yeast were increased with four log cycle significantly for the 4th treat as compared with control. The total aerobic bacteria in the proventriculus and jejunum significantly(p<0.05) decreased with one log cycle as compared with control treated,while coliform bacteriawas significantly lower than control(P<0.05) with three log cycle in the proventriculus and tow log cycle in the jejunum for the 4th treat.The number of mold and yeast were increased in the proventriculus but significantly(p<0.05) decreased in the jejunum as compared with control group.

الكلمات الدلالية

Aspergillusniger --- Prebiotic --- Broiler .


Article
STUDIES ON COUMARIN COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM MELILOTUS INDICA AND ITS EFFECT ON SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA AND HELA CELLLINE
دراسة تأثير مركبات الكومارين المعزولة من نبات الحندقوق Melilotus indicaتجاه بعض البكتريا المرضية وخط الخلايا السرطانيةHeLa cell

المؤلفون: فيصل كاظم مطشر1
الصفحات: 386-399
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الخلاصة

The active compounds in crude extracts have been separated by Liquid –Liquid extraction using diethyl ether. The separated compounds from two phases were studied by TLC. The ether phase of extracts prepared by solvents were contained compounds with Rf values (0.65,0.5,0.4,0.27, 0.2), but the aqueous phase was free of any compound belong to coumarins, while the ether phase of extracts prepared by buffer solutions were contained compounds with Rf values (0.65 and 0.4) , but the aqueous phase was free of any compound belong to coumarins. The concentrations of coumarin in crude extracts have been determined, the greater concentration were 1.501 and 2.734 mg/gm plant in acetate buffer extracts for the first and second times, respectively, and lowest concentration were determined in tris buffer extracts.The identified studies by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was revealed the presence of one peak with retention time(RT) 8.53min. which is the equal to RT of standard coumarin. The antibacterial activity of acetate buffer, ethanol 80% extracts and purified coumarin have been determined against pathogenic bacteria by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The MIC range of acetate extract were 16.2-19.7mg/ml against pathogenic isolates while the MIC range of ethanol 80% extract were 3.3-5.4mg/ml.Ps. aeruginosa was distinguished as most sensitive against extracts. The MIC values of purified coumarin were 0.62-1.37mg/ml and the most sensitive isolate against compound was E.coli. Cytotoxicity of standard and purified coumarin were tested against cell line (HeLa cell) by using four concentrations (25,50,100 and 200μg/ml) for exposure time 48hrs. The results revealed that standard and purified coumarin had cytotoxic effect with increasing effectiveness with concentration under our study.

الكلمات الدلالية

Coumarin --- Isolation --- Melilotus indica.


Article
POLYMORPHISMS OF CYP1B1 AND COMT GENES AND THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER IN SOUTH IRAQI WOMEN
التعدد الوراثي في الجينين CYP1B1 و COMT وخطورة الإصابة بسرطان الرحم في النساء جنوب العراق

المؤلفون: عدنان عيسى البدران1
الصفحات: 400-411
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الخلاصة

This study was designed to study the polymorphisms of CYP1B1 and COMT genes and the risk of endometrial cancer in south Iraqi women. A total of fifty patient with endometrial cancer, aged between 15-72 year were contacted after surgery in cancer centre in Basrah, and fifty healthy women with same age and state were served as control.The blood samples were collected in sterilized tube with EDTA for DNA extraction and PCR experiments. The results showed that the frequency of CYP1B1 homozygous wild type Leu /Leu was 14% and 68% in patients and control respectively, wile the homozygous mutant Val /Val was 32% and 28%, respectively. The heterozygous mutant allele Leu /Val was 54% in endometrial cancer cases compared to 4% in control. The statistical analysis showed increased risk of endometrial cancer with homozygous mutant Val/Val genotype with an OR of 5.55 (95% CI 2.¬578- 11.951 ) and with heterozygous Leu/Val with an OR of65.5 (59% CI = 20.407-210.687 ).When the patients stratified according to different stages , we found no association between the endometrial caner and stage IC, the risk increased to two fold with stage IIB , while in stage IIIA and IVB the risk was highly increased to more than six fold with an OR of 6.138 and 6.277, respectively .The frequency of COMT homozygous wild type Met/Met genotype was 2% in patients and 70% in controls, while the homozygous mutant Val/Val genotype was 40% and 14% in cases and controls respectively. The heterozygous allele Val/Met increased to 58% in Cassese compared to 16% in controls.When stratified the patients according to different stages, the risk of cancer increased to 2 folds with stage IC with an OR of 2.66 ( 95% CI = 0.686-10.356 )and to 4 folds with stage IIB (OR of 4.0, 95% CI = 0.849-18.836),while the risk was less than 2 with stage IIIA and IVB with an OR of 1.777 and 1.333 respectively.According to the grade of the cancer, the OR was 1.714 (95% CI=0.468-6.499) with grade II. The risk highly increased with grade III with an OR of 6.584 (CI=6.210-16.25).The risk of endometrial cancer increased to 2.5 fold in patient how had CYP1B1 mutant alleleLeu/Val and COMT mutant allele.

الكلمات الدلالية

CYP1B1 --- COMT --- Endometrial cancer.


Article
EFFICACY EVALUATION OF INACTIVATED LOCAL VACCINE AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN BROILERS
تقيم كفاءة لقاح مبطل محلي ضد مرض نيوكاسل في دجاج اللحم

المؤلفون: علي عبدالحسين شلش
الصفحات: 412-418
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الخلاصة

Locally prepared vaccine, precipitated with alum and sodium hydroxide (IAPSHV) in embryonated chicken eggs. Different programs were carried out to evaluate its efficacy. Two hundred and fifty broiler chicks were divided equally into five groups. Different vaccination programs were used a follow. G1: vaccinated with live attenuated vaccine (B1) by intraocular route at 1, 10, 17 and 27 days of age. G2: vaccinated with live attenuated vaccine (B1) by intraocular route at 1 day of age and vaccinated also with (IAPSHV) at 1 day of age. G4: Vaccinated with (IAPSHV) only, by subcutaneous route at 1 day of age. G5: Control group left with out any vaccine. Indirect (ELISA) and Haemagglutination inhibition tests (HI) were used for evaluation of antibodies titer before and after vaccination, challenge test also used with virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus. Results showed that G3 gave the highest titer by both ELISA and (HI) test and low mortality in challenge test. It was concluded that (IAPSHV) at 7 day of age with attenuated live vaccine at the same age gave the best result than other groups. The applied program, and (IAPSHA) vaccine is recommended.

الكلمات الدلالية

Newcastle disease --- Inactivated vaccine --- Broilers.


Article
USING OF PLASMID SCANNING IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION FOR SALMONELLA TYPHI BACTERIA IN POLLUTED WATER SUPPLY AND PATIENTS IN AL-SADER CITY
استخدام المسح البلازميدي في التحري الوبائي عن جرثومة Salmonella typhiفي عينات من مياه الشرب والمرضى في مدينة الصدر

المؤلفون: آمنة نعمة الثويني1
الصفحات: 419-427
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الخلاصة

A total of 452 water samples collected from Al-Sader city were examined from the 1st of January 2007 to the 1st of September 2007. The results revealed the contaminated of 169 (37.4%) samples with different types of pathogenic bacteria, 31 isolates were identified as Proteus mirabilis, 10Citobacter spp., 15Streptococcus spp., 94Escherichia coli, 15 non-vibrio cholerae 01 and 4 as Salmonella typhi. While 76 isolates of S. typhi were isolated from 2517 patients, depending on biochemical identification and Api system epidemiological markers of the samples were studied including biotyping, serotyping and plasmid profile for both source of isolates as epidemiological index. The results of plasmid profile confirmed the similarity in the plasmid bands arrangement in all S. typhi isolates from patients and water samples which indicate that infection was transmitted through water.

الكلمات الدلالية

Water pollution --- Epidemiology --- Salmonella typhi.


Article
USING OF CARROT JUICE DAUCUS CAROTA FOR RECOVERING OF UTI IN PREGNANT WOMEN
استخدام عصير الجزر لمعالجة التهابات المجاري البولية عند النساء الحوامل

المؤلفون: حسين كاطع عبد السادة1
الصفحات: 428-435
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الخلاصة

Fifty one pregnant women have urinary tract infection were tested to isolate the organisms and to test action of carrot juice in curing the infection. In this study Escherichia coli accounts for 54.9% of infections. Other gram-negative rods such as Proteus spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae are also common. Gram-positive organisms such as group B streptococci and Staphylococcus spp. are less common causes of UTI. By drinking of carrot juice from the patients about 7 days (200ml three times daily), 78.43% of women have been recovered. The antibacterial study revealed the role of carrot juice in the inhibition growth of bacteria, 18mminhibition zone has been reported against E. coli, 23 mm in case of Proteus spp.,12 mm in case of K.pneumoniae and group B streptococci, and less than that in case of Staphylococcus spp. These results may be reveal to more safety of using carrot juice during pregnancy from the using of any antibiotic that can not be use during primary stages of pregnancy. Because of the long list of chemical constituents and their activities, yet the active material of carrot against these bacteria can not be known.


Article
RESTRICTION MAPPING OF TOXIN A GENE FRAGMENT IN CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE
رسم خارطة القطع لقطعةالجين المشفرة للسم A في بكتيريا Clostridium difficile

المؤلفون: محمد الحجاج
الصفحات: 436-446
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الخلاصة

Toxin A variant strain was identified by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) as type CF2, was not detected by an immunoassay for C.difficile toxin A. Culture supernatants of CF2 failed to elicit significant enterotoxic activity in the rabbit ileal loop assay but did produce a typical cytopathic effects in cell culture assay. Southern hybridization, PCR amplification, and DNA sequence analysis were performed on the toxin A (tcdA) and toxin B (tcdB) genes of type CF2 isolate.According to these facts we had tried to obtain new restriction map for the fragment of these genes by PCR and (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) - RFLPs methods using various restriction enzymes such as HindIII, pstI and Eco RI.In this work various fragments had been identified with 250-700bp lengths. Restriction map of fragment 250bp was preformed.The results showed a new restriction map by which obtained a new variation at the same fragment

الكلمات الدلالية

Clostredium difficile --- Toxin.


Article
ASSESSMENT OF CANCER RISK AND HEREDITARY GENETIC DAMAGE TO BAGHDAD'S POPULATION RELATED TO RADIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE TO NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION
تقدير مخاطر الإصابة بالأورام السرطانية والتأثيرات الجينية الوراثية لسكان مدينة بغداد بسبب التعرض للنشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي

المؤلفون: نبيل هاشم أمين
الصفحات: 446-457
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الخلاصة

The risk of cancer incidence (morbidity) and mortality to individuals in Baghdad’s population related to external exposure to ambient gamma radiation is evaluated in this study by using linear, no-threshold (lnt) dose-response model. Exposure rate measurements are carried out outdoors and in a house built from bricks and a building constructed from concrete by using BGS-4 gamma-ray scintillation counter (Scintrex, Canada). Absorbed dose rates in air and in human tissues are determined by applying typical conversion factors available in the literature. Age-dependent radiation dose is calculated for infants, children, and adults. Dose-to-risk conversion factors are applied to estimate potential risk to various body organs and tissues as a result of exposure to ambient gamma radiation. The effective dose equivalents to individuals living in houses and in buildings are found to be less than the allowable dose limit for the public. However, the results indicate that there is one cancer risk incident (morbidity) expected for every 329 individuals (0.3%) exposed to ambient gamma radiation. The lifetime fatal cancer probability (mortality) is found to be occurs at a rate of 0.21% (1 per 473 exposed individuals).Other consequences of radiation injury (genetic effects transmitted to succeeding generations) are expected to occur at a rate of 0.0325% in the offspring of Baghdad population as a result of changes transmitted via the genetic mechanisms due to irradiation of gonads.

الكلمات الدلالية

Cancer risk --- Hereditary genetic damage --- Background radiation


Article
THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE FENUGREEK SEEDS AND CORN SILK EXTRACTS
الفعالية المضادة للبكتريا لمستخلصات بذور الحلبة وشعر الذرة

المؤلفون: نرجس هادي منصور السعدي1
الصفحات: 457-464
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الخلاصة

Fenugreek seeds extract included separation of trigonelline alkaloid, crude saponin, oil, cold and hot alcohol extract. Also corn silk extracts included separation of crude saponin, cold and hot alcohol extracts as well as cold and hot water extract. All these extracts were tested for their antibacterial effects. The oil and trigonelline of fenugreek seeds inhibited the growth of both Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella aerogenes at concentration of 80 and 8mg/ml, respectively. Crude saponin showed more potent inhibitory effect against the growth of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenesat concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml, respectively. Crude alkaloids did not show any activity against uropathogenic bacteria that were tested. Hot alcohol extract of corn silk showed more potent effect than cold alcohol extract against growth of Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella aerogenes and E. coli at a concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml. Hot and cold water extracts of corn silk showed a slight inhibitory effect against Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella aerogenes and a mild inhibitory effect against E.coli at a concentration of 25mg/ml for hot water extract and 50mg/ml and 100mg/ml for cold water extract.

الكلمات الدلالية

Fenugreek seeds --- Corn silk --- Antimicrobial activity


Article
MEASUREMENT OF MALONDIALDEHYDE AND THIOL LEVEL IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH GASTRO DUODENAL DISEASES
قياس مستوى الثايول وثنائى الالديهايد عند المرضى العراقيين المصابين بإلتهاب وقرح المعدة

المؤلفون: نوح عبد القادر محمود
الصفحات: 465-472
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الخلاصة

It has been suggested that the free radicals are closely related with peptic ulcer disease and gastritis. Although many studies have been undertaken to clarify the role of oxygen-derived free radicals, most of them were carried out animal models. The aims of this study were to assess the reactive oxygen species activity and the damage in Helicobacter pylori infected gastric mucosa in humans. In a total 50 patients there were 35cases of peptic ulcer, 15 cases of gastritis and12 control subjects. Measurement of plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, was used to assess oxidative damage to membranes in patients with peptic ulcer and gastritis. Plasma glutathione concentrations were also measured in order to study whether reactive oxygen species generation affects levels of the antioxidant peptide. Results showed that plasma levels of glutathione were significantly reduced (p <0.001) and malondialdehyde was higher (p<0.001) in patients with peptic ulcer compared to controls. In patients with gastritis, glutathione was also lower (p<0.001) and malondialdehyde higher (p<0.01). The study concluded that depletion of plasma glutathione in cases with H. pylori positive peptic ulcer and gastritis may be caused by accumulation of free radicals that can initiate membrane damage by lipid peroxidation that increased plasma malondialdehyde concentration

الكلمات الدلالية

Malondialdehyde --- Thiol


Article
GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF ANOPHELES STEPHENSI IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN OF IRAQ USING PCR BASED TECHNOLOGY
تحليل التنوع الوراثي لبعوض Anopheles stephensi في وسط وجنوب العراق باستخدام تقنيات التفاعل التضاعفي لسلسلة الدنا

المؤلفون: شمال عبدالله المفتي
الصفحات: 473-484
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الخلاصة

A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using species-specific primers and direct sequencing was used to identify members of the Anopheles species in the central and southern regions in Republic of Iraq. Specimens were collected from 8 provinces during 2 seasonal activities in 2006–2007, identified morphologically and subjected to PCR assay and direct sequencing. Results showed that one species, Anopheles stephensi, was present in the study area. This was confirmed by the high similarity (98%–100%) of their sequences with those available in the International GenBank (IGB). The molecular data and relative distribution of this species in relation to their vectorial capacity and the epidemiology of malaria in the region were discussed. The sequence of this species was submitted in the IGB in No. Bankit1046145 and Bankit1046146 then fixed as new record in lraq according to the IGB in No. EU346652 and EU346653 respectively

الكلمات الدلالية

Anopheles stephensi --- PCR Technology.


Article
CYTOGENETIC AND MOLECULAR STUDY ON AMBIGUITY PATIENTS
دراسة خلوية وراثية جزيئية لمرضى غموض الأعضاء التناسلية Ambiguity

المؤلفون: شذى رمضان زيدان1
الصفحات: 485-495
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الخلاصة

Fifteen cases of patients with ambiguity have been investigated in this study. The patients grouped into two groups according to their phenotype of the external genitalia. Group-1 included 2 patients with male genitalia plus unclear structures while group-2 which includes 13 patients with a complex genitalia. Patients age were ranged from 1 month to 18 years. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis were performed for each case.Two 46,XY karyotypes were revealed in patients of Group-1.Patients with a complex external genitalia (Group-2) showed four types of karyotyping, seven of them were 46,XY, three cases were 46,XX and three with mosaicism (46,XX/46,XY). Also the cytogenetic analysis of all patients showed normal sex chromosomes without any type of abnormalities.The molecular analysis revealed that 14 patients were identical to their cytogenetic analysis. On the other hand, one patient (no. 4) from group -2 which was identified as female in the cytogenetic analysis showed a positive to SRY gene. Eventually the ambiguity is a complex sexual disorder caused by different genetic errors.

الكلمات الدلالية

Ambiguity --- SRY --- Chromosomes.


Article
EFFECT OF SOME CHEMICAL MUTAGENS ON PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA H3 ALGINATE PRODUCTION
تأثير المطفرات الكيميائية على قابلية بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa H3 في انتاج الالجينيت

المؤلفون: رفل سامي ذياب
الصفحات: 496-504
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الخلاصة

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of chemical mutagens on the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosaH3 in alginate production, using N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and Mitomycin C (MMC). It was achieved by incubating fresh cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa H3 with MNNG and MMC separately for 60min., then 100µl of each culture was spread on LB agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hrs. From the survival colonies that arise after subjection to lethal effect of mutagen that causes 90% killing or more, thirty colonies were selected randomly and screened for their ability in alginate production. Results showed that chemical mutagenesis using MNNG and MMC causes an increase in the ability of P. aeruginosa H3 in alginate production through out the presence of some alginate over producer mutants. Alginate concentration produced by the most highly over producer mutants H3R78, and H3R97 was 160mg/ml after subjection to MNNG and MMC, respectively in comparison with 70mg/ml produced by the wild type of Pseudomonas aeruginosa H3.Results of FT-IR spectroscopy showed that there are no any structural differences in the chemical structure of alginate produced by the wild type of P. aeruginosa H3 and the over-producer mutants H3R78 and H3R97.

الكلمات الدلالية

رفل سامي ذياب


Article
THE THROMBOCYTES AS AN IMMUNE INDICATOR
الأقراص الدموية مؤشراً للاستجابة المناعية

المؤلفون: تهاني سلمان العزاوي
الصفحات: 505-512
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الخلاصة

This study investigated the effect of vaccine as an immune enhancing on chicken thrombocyte number. Also the relation between thrombocytes and other blood cells like erythrocytes and leukocytes were studied in regard to age. A total of 100 broiler chicks of one day old were used in this study. They were divided equally into two groups. One group was kept without vaccination and the other one was vaccinated twice against Newcastle disease at 7 and 20 days of age. During the whole experiment which is lasted for eight weeks, blood samples were collected daily for the first two weeks and weekly for the other six weeks. Thrombocytes, erythrocytes and leukocytes number were calculated for both groups. The results show a significant increase in thrombocyte number as well as in leukocytic number post vaccination. Beside that a high correlation coefficient is reported between thrombocyte and leukocyte in both vaccinated and control groups (99.8% and 97.5 %, respectively). The three cell types increase gradually from the first day of age and as the animal grows up. They seem to stabilize at the fourth week of age.On conclusion, these results investigate the role of thrombocytes in immunity. Certainly, the over all results reflect that we could depend on thrombocytes as an indicator of stress as much as the H/L ratio. It could be an indicator of the physiological and immunological state of the animal. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of thrombocytes in some immune-supressive diseases.

الكلمات الدلالية

Thrombocytes --- Immunity.

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