Table of content

Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences

مجلة تكريت للعلوم الزراعية

ISSN: 18131646
Publisher: Tikrit University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences, Academic journal concerned with the basic and applied research in the field of agricultural sciences, veterinary and related sciences, one of the journal published by the Tikrit University , are required to have the papers submitted for publication research original has not been submitted and published or accepted in any journal other.

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Iraq-Salahdeen-Tikrit-Tikrit University-College of Agriculture

Table of content: 2014 volume:14 issue:1

Article
Microbial Diagnosis of Some Mayonnaise Samples and Study the Effect of Growth Factors on Three Local Strains of Bacteria Escherichia coli
التشخيص المايكروبي لبعض عينات المايونيز ودراسة تأثير عوامل النمو في ثلاث سلالات محلية لبكتري Escherichia coli

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The study included the investigation of bacterial species that present in several samples of commercial mayonnaise and a sample of mayonnaise manually made as well as the develop ment of three isolates of local bacteria Escherichia coli in one of the commercial samples and investigate the effect of growth factors of temperature and pH value on the growth of these three isolates o f the bacteria, the results showed that commercial mayonnaise is free from most forms of pathogenic bacteria, based on culture the samples on the special media, and for the sample processed manually we have noted the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and St. albus bacteria and the fungi Aspergillus niger. As for the effect of growth factors, we have seen reduced in the rate of growth of isolates pathogenesis of the bacteria E.coli as we change temperature and pH using several temperatures 22 C, 35 C and 43 C and values of PH are 3.8, 4.4 and 5.0. تضمن البحث التحري عن الانواع البكتيرية المتواجدة في عدة عينات من المايونيز التجاري من الاسواق المحلية وعينة من المايونيز المصنع يدويا فضلا عن تنمية ثلاث عزلان محلية لبكتري Escherichia coli في احدى العينات التجارية والتحري عن تأثير عوامل عوامل النمو من درجة الحرارة وتركيز الاس الهيدروجيني pH على نمو هذه العزلات ، اظهرت النتائج ان المايونيز التجاري يكون خاليا من اغلب انواع البكتيريا المرضية وذلك بالاعتماد على زرع العينة على الاوساط الخاصة بذلك .


Article
Effect of Cperus rotundus tubers aquatic and alcoholic extracts in some physiological parameters in male rats
تأثير مستخلصات درنات السعد المائية والكحولية في بعض المعايير الفسلجية لذكور الجرذان

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The study carried out to investigate the effect of orally feeding for eight days from each cyperus ro tundus tubers aqueous and alco holic extracts at 25 , 50 cyperus ro tundusand 100 mg/g concentration of animal body weight on some physiological tubers, aqueous and parameters in male rats. The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in alcoholic extracts RBCS , Hb, PCV, MCH , MCHC, WBCS, Monocyte and Neutrophil Counts, Whereas it did shows significant in the Lymp hocyte and Eosinophil, Also the a significantly decreased in of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C,Glucose, Urea, and activity of ALT, AST, and AP, and a significant increase in HDL-C, total protein,( globulin and Albumin ) concentration , with the increased of concentration of extract, when compared with the same values in control group. The alcoholic extract showed same values when compared with values of control group provides Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone. The study concluded that, the cyperus rotundas tubers aqueous and alcoholic extracts Were enhanced some erythropoiesis and biochemical parameters in male rats. اجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة تأثير التجريع الفموي لمدة ثمانية ايام من مستخلصات نبات السعد المائية والكحولبة بتراكيز 25 ، 50 و 100 ملغم / غم من وزن الجسم في المعاييرا لفسلجية لذكور الجرذان ، بينت النتائج حصول ارتفاع معنوي ( 0.05 ) في كل من خضاب الدم والاعداد الكلية لخلايا الدم الحمراء وحجم الخلايا المرصوصة ومعدل حجم الكرية ومعدل خضاب الكرية وغيرها من الصفات المدروسة ، واستنتج من ذلك ان المستخلصات المائيةو الكحولية لدرنات نبات السعد سبب في تحسين الصفات الدموية وبناء الخلايا وكيمو حيوية الدم في ذكور الجرذان .


Article
Effect of Cymbopogon citratus water extract in level of glutathione , liver activity ,the cellular and tissues changes in local rabbits treated with hydrogen peroxide and Alcohol.
تأثير المستخلص المائي لنبات حشيشة الليمون في مستوى الكلوتاثايون وفعالية الكبد والتغيرات الخلوية والنسيجية للارانب المحلية المعاملة بالكحول وبيروكسيد الهيدروجين

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Cymbopogon citrates extract to determined its ability in preventing oxidative stress of Hydrogen peroxide 2% and Al Cohol 20% consumed in drinking water by daily couple dose for 60 days in local rabbit with deferent protective effect against aging.Hydrogen peroxide 2% and Alcohol 20% treated showed significant decrease in Glutathione(GSH) and high significant increase in Malonaldehyde MDA and Peroxinitrite (Pn), also the levels of serum AST and ALT were significantly increase . these changes indicate to the ability of H2O2 2% and Alcohol 20% in the induction of oxidative stress in local rabbits. As well as the appearance pathological changes in liver tissue with the treatment with H2O2 and Al cohol. Histological examination showed Lipid changes of degeneration, Necrosis, Karyolysis and Vaceulation in the cytoplasm of hepatic cells. The treatment with water extract of Cymbopogon citrates showing significant increase in GSH and significant decrease in MDA, AST and ALT also showing improving of liver tissue and decrease in liver fat . اجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة تأثير المستخلص المائي لنبات حشيشة الليمون في قدرته على الوقاية من الاجهاد التأكسدي المستحث بواسطة بيروكسيد الهيدروجين بتركيز 2 % والكحول 20 % المستهلك في ماء الشرب بجرعة مزدوجة ولمدة 60 يوم في ذكور واناث الارانب وباعمار مختلفة ، فاظهرت النتائج ان المعاملة بالمستخلص المائي لحشيشة الليمون ادى الى ارتفاع في تركيز الكلوتاثايون ، وكذلك ادى الى انخفاض في تركيز جذر البيروكسي نتريت والمالوندالديهايد والانزيمات ALT و AST اضافة الى حدوث تحسن في حالة الخلايا الكبدية .


Article
Used Different Levels of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) Leaves powder to Effect on Hematology and Biochemistry properties induced with H O in Male Quails .
استخدام مستويات مختلفة من مسحوق الزعتر ( Thymus vulgaris ) وتأثيرها على صفات الدم الفيزياوية والكيموحيوية والمعرضة الى بيروكسيد الهيدروجين في ذكور طائر السلوى

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This study was carried out in the Poultry Farm of Animal Resources , Department of Agriculture , University of Tikrit , from 24 December to 3 March ,2012 . The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on hematology and biochemistry parameters, Eighty mature male of (Cutornix cutornix) , 11 weeks old were used in the experiment . The males were divided randomly into eight groups (10 males in each group). The groups were as follow : 1- Control (basal diet), 2- Oxidative stress (basal diet + 0.5% H O ), 3,4 and 5 (basal diet supplemented with Thyme leaves at 2.5 , 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet respectively and received 0.5% H O with drinking water), anther three groups 6,7 and 8 (basal diet supplemented with Thyme leaves at 2.5 , 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet respectively). Each group was fed ad libitum its own diet for a period at 4 and 8 weeks. The results showed that the addition of 0.5% H O to the drinking water caused a significant (p<0.05) decreased in Red Blood Cells counts (RBC) and increased (p<0.05) the Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV). Also non apparent significant effects (p<0.05) of supplementing Thyme leaves to the ration at the levels of 2.5 , 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet, with respect, RBC, PCV, Hb, MCHC, Cholesterol and Glucose concentration when compared to the control group. These addition of Thyme leaves to the H O treated male lead to cause returning of these values to its natural averages at control group compared with those male treated with H O only. Moreover , it has been noticed a non-significant (p<0.05) deterrent were found between treatments with respect to Glutamic Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic Phosphate Transaminase (GPT) enzymes concentration . اجريت الدراسة ف قسم الثروة الحيوانية / جامععة تكريت ، وشملت 80 طائر السلوى الياباني بعمر 11 اسبوع ، مجموعة السيطرة غذيت بعليقة قياسية والمجموعة الثانية غذيت بعليقة قياسية مع اضافة ( 0.5 % ) من بيروكسيد الهيدروجين مع ماء الشرب واضيفت الى المجموعة الثالثة والرابعة والخامسة مسحوق اوراق الزعتر بواقع 2.5 ، 5 و 7.5 غم / كغم على الترتيب مع اضافة 0.5 % بيروكيد الهيدروجين الى ماء الشرب ، في حين اضيف للمعاملات السادسة والسابعة والثامنة نفس المستويات للمعاملات الثلاث السابقة من مسحوق اوراق الزعتر وعلى الترتيب مع عدم اضافة بيروكسيد الهيدروجين الى ماء الشرب ، وقدم العلف والماء لكافة المجاميع بشكل حر لمدة 4 و 8 اسابيع ، فاظهرت النتائج فروق معنوية في عدد خلايا الدم الحمر ونسبة حجم الخلايا المرصوصة والهيموكلوبين وفعالية انزيمي AST و ALT والكولسترول والكلوكوز مقارنة بمعاملة المقارنة.


Article
Effect of some Endogenous Compounds Extraction from some Poplar Varieties on the Poplar Worm Apatela aceris J
المنشأ المستخلصة من اورلق بعض انواع الحور في حساسيتها للاصابة بدودة اوراق الحور Apatela aceris

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The results of the effect of phenols , alkaloids and terpens extracted from poplar leaves varieties .deltoids , nigra and euphratica in worm Apatela aceris J have showed significant difference in the expelling and attracting rates according to the chemical compounds . poplar variety and the concentration being used and the highest average value of the attracting rate reached 28.2%for the deltoids phenolates . other extracts showed a difference in its general averages according to the varieties and extractions. Varieties have showed low expelling rates which were significantly indifferent with each other . the highest average value of the phenolates rate reached 23.8%for the deltoids phenolates , the low average value of the phenolates rate reached 18.2%for the euphratica respectively.


Article
Comparison Between Chemical Control And Hand Weeding Of Weeds In Broad Bean (Vicia Faba L.) Yields And Components.
مقارنة بين المكافحة الكيميايوة والعزق اليدوي للادغال في حاصل الباقلاء ( Vicia faba L. ) ومكوناته

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Experiment was conducted in one of the fields in lower zap /Hawija /Kirkuk for two years 2011/2012 to study the effect of some herbicides chemical and hand weeding on broad bean yield and its components. Treatments including hand weeding,( Trifluralin) 48% ( 2400 cm ³ / ha) pre planting ,(Fluazi fop-butyl) 25% 2000 cm ³ / ha) post emergence, ( Trifluralin) 48% ( 2400 cm ³ / ha) pre planting and (Fluazi fop-butyl) 25% 2000 cm ³ / ha) post emergence and control (Without weeding). complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications, results of this study indicated that they effect of herbicides used on the annual narrow and broad leaves weed such as Avena fatua , Phalaris minor , Sonchus oleraceus , Sinapis arvensis and Malva spp. Fluazi fop-butyl was highly effective on perennial narrow leaves weed such as Cyperus rotundus . But use of herbicides did not show any effect on perennial broad leaves weed such as Convolvulus arvensis and Cardaria draba L. The treatment showed no significant effect on the branches number per plant , pods number per plant , seed number/plant , weight of 100 seed and seed yield kg/ha. The best treatment was hand weeding and the use of trifluralin pre planting and fluazi fop-butyl post emergence with all regard to all characters for both years.


Article
The Econometrical Analysis of the Demand of the Fish in Salah – Aldean – Governerate)
التحليل الاقتصادي والقياسي للطلب على لحوم الاسماك في محافظة صلاح الدين

Authors: Yousra-Tark يسرى طارق بكر
Pages: 58-61
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In this research, the Functional relation between the consumption of fish per capeta and the Disposible income was studied for (300) families in salah- Aldean Governorate , the logarithmic , the sim –log, the invers-log and the linear modeals were applied, the double –log Function was chosen as the best according to economic and statistic criteria the income elastistity of demand mountedto (0.9) , while the in com elasticitis of protein , calories , Fat , mineral wer (o.944, 0.944 , 0.994 , 0.621 ) respectively , these elasticities indicated that the consumption of fish in Iraq was under – saturation , it was recommended in this research , to Subsidize the price of forage and medical materies , and to facilate the expanding of Agri- loans in order to increas the supply of this important commodoy in Iraq to achieve the increasing the demand of this commode to reach the saturation level of consumption.


Article
Variance in Leadership Behavior for Local Rural Leaders in Telkaif District in Ninavah Provence.
التباين في السلوك القيادي للقادة الريفيين المحليين في قضاء تلكيف / محافظة نينوى

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The research aimed at identifying the leadership behavior of the local rural leaders in Telkaif District / Ninevah Governorate from the farmers point of view ,and them to find out the differences is leadership behavior according to some variables .the research sample included 30 leaders out of 99. While the followers sample amounted to 202 .the data have been collected through two questionnaire forms ,the first included the independent variables concerning the leaders while the second one to dertemine the leadership behavior of the leaders.The results have revealed that the leadership behavior was intermediate tends to rise ,and there were sigenificant differences in the leadership behavior concerning the work dimension according to ; age,education place of residence , devotion to agri; work, period of leadership role, cultural openness ,agri ; information resources ,and attitude towards agri; work in addition ,there were significant in the leadership behavior concerning the human relation dimension according to : age ,education place of residence , devotion to agri; work, period of leadership role, cultural openness ,agri ; information resources where as there was no significant of difference according to attitude towards agri work .


Article
Knowledge Needs For Agricultural Employees In Agricultural in- stitutions southwest Nineveh Governorate In the aspect control of desertification
الحاجات المعرفية للموظفين الزراعيين في الشعب الزراعية الواقعة جنوب غرب محافظة نينوى في مجال مكافحة التصحر

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The research aimed identifying knowledge needs of the agricul- tural employees in the agricultural offices of southwest province of Nineveh in the domain control desertification and determine the rela- tionship between knowledge needs and some variables. the research population consisted (105) agricultural employees of the population. Data was collected through a questionnaire after testing face validity. Reliability was tested by half split method which was. (0.88) and data analysis used the means, frequencies and dup Spearman rank correlation. Results showed that about (69.33%) of the respondents their needs knowledge in the domain control desertification medium has received the drought and the reduction of damaging rank order with a mean of (4.142) and the results show there is no significant correlation between knowledge needs to respondents and the follow- ing variables (age, level of educational, duration of employment in work, specialization and previous training and level of exposure to sources of agricultural information). The research has included some of the conclusions and recommendations.


Article
Official Staff Cognition of Sustainable Agriculture Concept in Salahaddin
ادارة الموظفين الزراعيين لمفهوم الزراعة المستدامة في محافظة صلاح الدين

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This research aims basically some personal and functional characteristics then determining the degree of cognition of the official agricultural employees of sustainable agriculture in every item of sustainable agriculture. Finally finding the impact of all the studied independent changings at The level of cognition of official agricultural employees of the concept of sustainable agriculture. The research included all the official agricultural employees in Salahaddin directory of Agriculture and its sub departments with a number of (172) employees. After excluding the pre - test sample numbering (30) employees the research included (142) employees who were taken all. Data concerning the research were obtained by a questionnaire form of two parts; the first was about personal and functional Charac, the second included a measure, specially prepared, for the level of cognition of the official agricultural employees of the concept of sustainable agriculture. The leading item in the order of items concerning sustainable agriculture in general is: “sustainable agriculture leads to Preserving and keeping safe the environment”. The leading item in the order of items concerning the field of sustainable agriculture in general is: “sustainable agriculture leads to Preserving and keeping safe the environment”. And the first item in the order of items concerning the field of sustainable development are “maim goals of sustainable development are environmental health, Economic profitability and social justice”, and item of (one of the necessities of sustainable development is making wind shields to protect crops from high winds). On studying the relationship between the official agricultural Staff level of cognition of the concept of sustainable agriculture and the group of independent studied factors it appeared that the following variations have a Significant impact and they managed to inter the Multiple regression stages equation: trend towards sustainable agriculture, readiness for change and participating in programs concerning sustainable agriculture. In the light of what the research reached as conclusions, it gives a set of recommendation: for the relative lowness of Staff cognition of sustainable agriculture with impact on agricultural environment there is a great need for holding training courses for the official agricultural Staff aiming at concepts of sustainable agriculture and hurrying the conventional style of applicable researches in the College of Agriculture, coordination between the College of Agriculture and the Salahaddin directory of Agriculture. To publish a leaflet or a magazine under the name of sustainable agriculture and laying Rules and Regulations limiting the spread of chemicals.


Article
The Extension knowledge needs for Honey beekeepers in Salah al-Din province and its relation to some factors
الاحتياجات الارشادية المعرفية لمربي نحل العسل في محافظة صلاح الدين وعلاقتها ببعض العوامل

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This research aims basically at determining Extension knowledge needs of beekeepers in Salah al-Din province. The knowledge needs of honey-bee keepers was determined in all fields including: Establishing apiary, swarm members, managing hives, honey stealing among hives, splitting, false mothers, peptides, enemies of bees, bee diseases and honey marketing). The relationship was determined between the guide way cognitive needs of honey-bee keepers and the following factors: educational level, number of years in keeping honey-bees, annual income, participation in income, annual ratio of product, hive field environment, number of hives, possessing of hives, purpose of keeping, participating in training courses, sources of knowledge and the desire for newness). Then determining the relationship among honey-bee keepers and all the possibilities of the studied factors. After that determining the problems and difficulties facing honey-bee keepers in Salah al-Din. Results of research showed that %80 of the respondents are of a moderate tending to high need and the field of false mothers came at first rank at Weighted average of (2.2) while the field of honey stealing came last with a weighted average of (1.24). The research showed also a positive cognition correlation among level agricultural extension needs and the following factors: (educational level, number of years in keeping honey-bees, annual income, participation in income, annual ratio of product, possessing of hives, purpose of keeping bees, participating in training courses, sources of knowledge, the desire for newness). results also showed that the problem of enemies of honey-bees occupied the first rank among the problems facing the keepers while the problem of low temperature came last.The researcher concluded that the extension knowledge needs of beekeepers high pan beekeeping are asand the need for guidance In the light of the results and conclusions, the researcher recommends the following: Salah al-Din Center for Agricultural Guidance and Training should hold training courses run by honey-bee keeping specialists for as many as possible of the honey-bee keepers, Founding research centers with developed laboratories to develop bees kinds and improve the product of honey by scientific and healthy ways.


Article
Qualitative evaluation and delineation of some wells water for land Al-Jazeeramanagement and development in shirqat region
تقييم وتحديد صلاحية بعض مياه الابار لادارة وتطوير اراضي الجزيرة في منطقة الشرقاط

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The aim of the study to evaluation some wells water for land Al-Jazeeramanagement and development in various region from shirqat Al-Jazeera. The choose location Al-Msehly, AL-Jumiala, and Tlool- Albaj as optical location in this studies. Preparation and chosen soil pedons in each location(exploitation cultivate and non exploitation cultivate) and described morphological. The collected soil samples from each horizons and brought to laboratory for measurement some soil physical and chemical properties, and collected wells water samples and measurement of ionic soluble and applied on these some indicators which included (SAR, adj.SAR, Na%, PS, TDS, RSC). Results indicated that wells water were classified C4S1 and C4S2 and the values of these indicators above was higher in Al-Jumiala location where reached(6.74, 17.38, 44.44, 48.90, -48.60, 5266 ) respectively in exploitation location . Results indicated that increase in EC where reached (9.98, 3.52, 3.48) respectively for exploitation cultivate while it was lower in non exploitation cultivate , there is also increase in the CaCO3, CaSO4.2H2O, and O.M. in soil pedons exploitation cultivate and decrease pH, and that increase in value bulk density but decrease in porosity for exploitation locations cultivated compared with non exploitation cultivated. It was also noted that there is a negative impact to the quality of water in some morphological characteristics of the soil, especially soil-structure. Thus, the study emphasizes the importance of a style and management system in compatiblewith the characteristics of soil and water.تهدف الدراسة لتقييم صلاحية بعض مياه الابار لادارة وتطوير بعض اراضي الجزيرة في مناطق مختلفة من جزيرة الشرقاط ، حيث اختيرت مواقع المسيحلي والجميلة وتلول الباج كمواقع للدراسة ، واظهرت النتائج بان مياه الابار صنفت ضمن C4S1 و C4S2 وكانت قيم هذه المؤشرات اعلاه عالية في موقع جميلة واقلها في في المواقع غير المستغلة ...... كما ولوحظ بان هناك تأثير سلبي لنوعية مياه الابار في بعض الصفات المورفولوجية لاسيما بناء التربة ، وبالتالي فان الدراسة تؤكد على اهمية اتباع اسلوب ونظام ادارة يتلاءم مع خصائص المياه والتربة .


Article
Effect of Water Ionic Strength on Potassium Desorption for Some Calcareous Soils in Nineveh Province
تأثير القوة الايونية للمياه على تحرر البوتاسيوم من بعض الترب الكلسية في محافظة نينوى

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A laboratory study was conducted to determine potassium desorption behavior from ex change- able and non-exchangeable phases by using miscible displacement technique for disturbed soil columns sampled from two locations in Mosul at northern of Iraq which were classified within soil great group (Calcid) for ten continuous irrigation cycles to study effect of flow time of two qualities of water differ in their ionic strength on rate and capacity of potassium desorption and diffusion from soils. Results showed higher values of accumulative desorbed K+ by sulfuric water, a high significant correlation of flow time on K+ desorption capacity R2 (0.79 - 0.98). Desorption process appeared two different pathways representing exchangeable and non-exchangeable K+ respectively. Also a graduate depression of desorption process is occurred by alternative irrigation cycles. Soils coefficient K+ desorption by low ionic strength waters were ranged from (0.048 - 0.146) , (0.125 - 0.256) C.mole.kg-1.mint.-½ for high and low ionic strength for both studied soils respectively.اجريت دراسة مختبرية لتحديد سلوكية وتحرر البوتاسيوم من طوريه المتبادل وغير المتبادل بطريقة الجريان الهادئ ( الازاحة الامتزاجية ) في عدة تربة مستثارة جمعت من منطقتي الفاضلية والحمدانية شرق مدينة الموصل في شمالي العراق والمصنفة ضمن مجموعة الترب العظمى Calcid ولعشر دورات ري مستمرة بهدف دراسة تأثير مدة الجريان على سعة وسرعة التحرر والانتشار من التربة باستخدام نوعين من المياه مختلفين في القوة الايونية . اشارت النتائج الى تفوق البوتاسيوم المتحرر التجميعي للمياه ذات القوة الايونية العالية على ما تم تحرره بفعل المياه ذات القوة الايونية المنخفضة ، وان هناك علاقة ارتباط عالية المعنوية لمدة الجريان على سعة التحرر R2 ( 0.79 -0.98 ) وان عملية التحرر كشفت عن وجود مسارين الاول يمثل البوتاسيوم المتحرر من الطور المتبادل والثاني يمثل البوتاسيوم المتحرر من الطور غير المتبادل ، كما حصل انخفاض تدريجي لعملية التحرر بتعاقب دورات الري وقد بلغ معامل السرعة من ترب الدراسة حسب معامل الانتشار ( 0.048 – 0.146 ) و ( 0.125 – 0.256 ) سنتي مول . كغم-1 . دقيقة -1 بفعل المياه ذات القوة الايونية العالية والمنخفضة على التوالي .


Article
Effect of Biofertilizer ( Aspergillus niger ) on potassium availability in some calcareous soils in Northern of Iraq
تأثير التلقيح بالفطر Aspergillus niger في جاهزية البوتاسيوم في بعض الترب الكلسية من شمالي العراق

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Three different soil textures from Mosul city in northern Iraq ( clay , Sandy loam and Loam sand ) were collected and classified as calciorthids ,to study the effect of biofertilizers (Aspergillus niger ) on natural release of potassium. The soils were inculcated and incubated at constant temperature 28°C during four weeks at filed capacity , by using complete randomize block designe. The results showed that biofertilizer gave a significant increase in available potassium ( 675, 140 and 124% ) for (clay , S.L and Loam sand Textures ) respectively. Also clay texture give a good reserve and high ability in potassium release and K. suppling comparing with coarse texture. Also the results showed that increasing in time of incubation during four weeks caused an increasing of exchanged potassium release .تم اختيار ثلاث نسجات لترب كلسية ( طينية ومزيجية رملية ورملية مزيجية ) ضمن رتبة Calciorthids من مدينة الموصل شمالي العراق لدراسة تأثير التسميد الحيوي بفطر (Aspergillus niger ) على التحرر الطبيعي للبوتاسيوم ولاجل ذلك تم تلقيح الترب الثلاث بالفطر المذكور اعلاه وتم تحضينه على درجة حرارة ثابتة 28 ± 2 ولمدة اربعة اسابيع وذلك بالحفاظ على المحتوى الرطوبي عند السعة الحقلية باستخدام تجربة عاملية وفق نظام القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة ، اظهرت النتائج ان التلقيح بالفطر ادى الى زيادة معنوية في البوتاسيوم الجاهز بنسبة 675 و 140 و 124 % للترب الثلاث على التوالي مقارنة بمعاملة المقارنة ، كما ان النسجة الناعمة ( الطينية ) احتوت على خزين جيد وذات قابلية عالية على تحرير وتجهيز البوتاسيوم قياسا بالترب الخشنة القوام ، كما ان زيادة الفترة الزمنية لمدة اربعة اسابيع الى زيادة في تحرير البوتاسيوم المتبادل .


Article
The Effect of Interaction Between Phosphogypsum and Soil Texture and Saline Type on Some Soil properties Chemical after binary Leaching
تأثير التداخل بين الجبس الفوسفاتي ونسجة التربة ونوع الملوحة في بعض صفات التربة الكيميائية بعد الغسل الثاني

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Laboratory study was conducted to show the Role of phosphogypsum on leaching efficiency for soils different in salinity type and texture using saline and River water .The experiment content three treatments soil texture ( clay loam and sandy loam ), type of soil salinity ( saline and sodic saline) and phosphogypsum levels (0,9,18 T.H-1). The soil were sieved by 2mm diameter size and packed in plastic columns of 120 cm length and 10 cm diameter. .The experiment was factorial in a complete randomized design(CRD) with three replicates using Leaching continuous method in the first stage was used saline water 8.3 ds.m-1 and then using river water 1.0 ds.m-1 in the second stage .soil columb was cutted before leaching cutting to four parts 0-20 , 20-40,40-60,60-80cm. The result showed that Soil texture caused a significantly effect on ECand SAR The which showed that the high mean in clay loam soil while the low mean was in sandy loam this decreased was 33.17%,57.3%,was respectively . Type Quality of soil salinity caused a significant effect on EC, and SAR ,the high values were in saline sodic of soil compared with saline soil significant decrease was4.2% and 67.6% respectively. Addition of phosphogypsum levels showed significantly effected on Ece ,SAR and PH high addition( 18 T.H-1) of phosphogypsum compared with control (0 T.H-1) caused asignificantly increase on Ece was 7.5% and caused significantly decrease pH and SAR ( 5.6% , 52.3% )respectivelyأجريت دراسة مختبرية لمعرفة دور الجبس الفوسفاتي في كفاءة غسل الأملاح في ترب مختلفة النسجة والملوحة باستعمال مياه مالحة ومياه نهر. إذ شملت التجربة ثلاثة عوامل .العامل الأولى نسجة التربة (S ) ويتضمن نوعين من النسجة الأولى مزيجة طينية ( S1 ) والثانية مزيجية رملية ( S2 ) أما العامل الثاني نوعية الملوحة ( C ) الأولى تربة ملحية ( Ci ) والثانية تربة ملحية صودية ( C2 ) أما العامل الثالث فكان الجبس الفوسفاتي ( GP ) بثلاثة مستويات المستوى الاول بدون اضافة 0 طن. هكتار-1 ( GP1 ) والمستوى الثاني 9 طن. هكتار-1 (GP2) والمستوى الثالث 18 طن. هكتار-1 ( GP3 ). استخدمت أعمدة بلاستيكية ذات ارتفاع 120 سم وقطر 10 سم عبئت هذه الأعمدة بالتربة بعد إجراء عملية الطحن والنخل بمنخل قطر فتحاته 2 ملم بحيث أصبح عمق التربة 80 سم صممت التجربة وفق التصميم العشوائي الكامل (CRD ) وبثلاث مكررات، استخدمت طريقة الغسل المستمر باستخدام ماء بزل ذو ملوحة 8.3 ديسي سيمينز.م -1 في المرحلة الاولى وبعدها استخدم ماء النهر ذو ملوحة 1.0 ديسي سيمينز.م-1 في المرحلة الثانية من عملية الغسل بعدها قطعت الاعمدة الى اربعة اقسام من 20-0 , 40-20 , 60-40 , 80-60 سم . اظهرت النتائج تأثير نسجة التربة معنويآ في الايصالية الكهربائية اونسبة امتزاز الصوديوم ( SAR ), إذ بينت النتائج ان أعلى معدل لها كان في التربة المزيجية الطينية بينما اقل معدل كان في التربة المزيجية الرملية وبنسبة انخفاض معنوي بلغت 33.17 % و 57.3 % على التوالي . اثرت نوع ملوحة التربة معنويا في SAR و ECe فقد كان أعلى معدل EC و SAR في التربة الملحية صودية بينما كان اقل معدل في التربة الملحية وبنسبة انخفاض بلغت 4.2 % و 67.6 طن. هكتار-1 على التوالي. أدت إضافة الجبس الفوسفاتي إلى تأثير معنوي في قيم EC و SAR و PH فقد أدت إضافته إلى زيادة معنويا في قم EC حيث كان اقل معدل في معاملة المقارنة وأعلى معدل عند المستوى 18 طن. هكتار-1 جبس فوسفاتي وبنسبة زيادة مقدارها 7.5 % ' في حين أدت إضافته إلى انخفاض معنوي في قيم EC و SAR و PH اذ كان اعلى معدل عند معاملة المقارنة واقل معدل عند المستوى 18 طن. هكتار-1 وبنسبة انخفاض بلغت 50.6 % و 52.3 % على التوالي.


Article
The effect of mulching and foliar fertilization on growth and yield of Pea ( Pisium sativum L)
تأثير تغطية التربة mulching والتسميد الورقي في نمو وحاصل البزاليا Pea ( Pisium sativum L. )

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The Experimental field conducted in search station /Agricultur college/Tikrit university,in agricultural season 2012 – 2013 to study the effect of deference number of sprays(control , 2 sprays, 4 sprays,6 sprays, 8 sprays) of the foliar (starter plus bloomtastic )and soil mulch ( no mulching and mulching by black nylon) on growth and yield of pea The experiment conducted by split plot system with three replication that mulch in main plot while spray number of foliar in sub plot which are divided randomly by using randomized complete block design The results showed increase in mulch significant in more studied characters .mulch treatment increase in giving higher plant length , more branch numbers, higher chlorophyll rate, higher pod numbers ,higher pod length , and higher plant yield 238.51 gm compared with 117.63 gm to no mulch treatment while spray treatments 8spray treatment to foliar significant in giving higher pod length reached 9.81 cm compared with less length 2foliar spray reached 9.07cm and didn’t show significant in other characters. The interaction between mulch and foliar sprays showed more student significant in characters.The interaction between mulch and 4sprays gave higher rate of plant yield weight reached 252.98 gm /plant consequent , the interaction treatment between mulch and 8sprays which gave the of yield 240 gm/plant compared with less yield of interaction treatments between no mulch and 2sprays which gave 86 gm/plantنفذت تجربة حقلية في محطة أبحاث كلية الزراعة /جامعة تكريت في الموسم الزراعي 2012 - 2013 لدراسة تأثير أعداد مختلفة من الرشات ( بدون رش و رشتان و 4 رشات و 6 رشات و8 رشات ) من السماد الورقي starter plus bloomtastic وتغطية التربة ( بدون تغطية و التغطية بالنايلون الأسود ) في نمو وحاصل البزاليا Pisium sativum L . نفذت التجربة بنظام القطع المنشقة Split plot Design وبثلاث مكررات حيث أخذت التغطية mulching القطع الرئيسية Main plot بينما أخذت عدد رشات السماد الورقي القطع الثانوية Sub plot والتي تم توزيعها بصورة عشوائية باستخدام تصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة ( R.C.B.D. ) ، وبينت النتائج تفوق التغطية بشكل معنوي في اغلب الصفات المدروسة حيث تفوقت معاملة التغطية في إعطاء أعلى طول نبات وأكثر عدد أفرع وأعلى معدل للكلوروفيل وأعلى عدد قرون وأعلى طول قرون وأعلى حاصل نبات بلغ 238.51 غم مقارنة بـ 117.63 غم للمعاملة بدون تغطية . اما معاملات الرش فقد تفوقت معاملة عدد الرشات 8 رشة للسماد الورقي المستخدم معنويا في إعطاء أعلى طول للقرن بلغ 9.81 سم مقارنة باقل طول لمعاملة 2 رشة سماد بلخ 9.77 سم ولم تظهر فروقات معنوية في بافي الصفات .واظهر التداخل تفوق معنوي للتداخل بين التغطية والرش بالسماد الورقي في اغلب الصفات المدروسة. حيث أعطت معاملة التداخل بين التغطية و 4 رشة أعلى معدل وزن لحاصل النبات بلغ 252.98 غم / نبات تليها معاملة التداخل بين التغطية 83 رشة والتي أعطت حاصل 240 غم / نبات مقارنة بأفل حاصل لمعاملة التداخل بين عدم التغطية و 2 رشة التي أعطت 86.00 غم / نبات .


Article
Estimation of heterosis , Combining ability and heritability for six inbred lines and single crosses by using half diallel in corn (Zea mays L.).
تقدير قوة الهجين والمقدرة الاتحادية والتوريث لستة سلالات نقية وهجنها الفردية باستعمال التهجين التبادلي النصفي في الذرة الصفراء ( Zea mays L. )

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Six inbred lines of maize ( (1)HS ,(2) ZM7, (3)OH40 ,(4) W13R ,(5) DK , and (6) IK8 ) were used in this study using half diallel cross analysis , These parents were planted in spring season of 2012 to produce fifteen F1 single crosses. In autumn season of 2012 the parents and crosses were planted using R. C. B. D. with three replicates to determine the heterosis , combining ability , Heritability and expeeted genetic advance . Data were collected for plant height, ear length, number of rows per ear, number of grains per row, 300 grains weight and grain yield per plant. Data analyzed statistically to study the effects of general and specific combining abilities and genetic parameters for studied traits , The results showed that the mean square of genotypes ,general and specific combining ability, were highly significant for all characters. The hybrid (Zm7×OH40) gave the highest ear length (20.12 cm )and grain yield per plant (285.2 gm). The (Zm7×OH40) gave the highest heterosis in grain yield per plant(92.54%) .The cross (HS×IK8) gave a good specific combiner for all characters except grain weight .The additive gene action was more important from dominance gene action .The broad sense heritability ranged from (21.17%) for number of grain per row to (91.7 %) for ear length .The narrow sense heritability ranged from (5.75%) for number of grain per row to (88.71%) for ear length .The expected genetic advance from selection was middle for ear length (23.11%) and high for number of rows per ear (34.41%) while were low for other studied characters .استخدمت ست سلالات نقية من الذرة الصفراء ، وادخلت في تهجينات تبادلية دون الهجن العكسية في الموسم الربيعي 2012 ، بهدف دراسة قوة الهجن والمقدرة الاتحادية والتوريث والتحسين الوراثي المتوقع ، فاظهرت النتائج ان متوسط المربعات للتراكيب الوراثية وقابليتي الائتلاف العامة والخاصة كانت عالية المعنوية لجميع الصفات المدروسة .


Article
THE EFFECT OF POTASSUM AND BORON ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF FLAX (Linum usitatissimum L)
تأثير البورون والبوتاسيوم في نمو وحاصل الكتان

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The experiment was conducted out at the College farm of Basic Education-Mosul University. during the seasons of 2007 2008 and 2008 2009 in at two locations in salty loam soil. The experiment included two factors, the first, four levels of Potassium fertilizer (0, 20, 40 and 60) kg K /.ha add as the form of potassium sulfate, and the second, three levels of boron fertilizer (0, 0.5 and 1) kg B / ha add as the form of boric acid. using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates. The objectives of this experiment were to study the effect potassium and boron fertilizer by adding them to the soil on growth and yield of flax. The results showed that the use of potassium fertilizer with 40 kg K/ ha or boron fertilizer with 0.5kg B/ ha or their interactions caused a significant increase in the following parameters: no. of fruiting branches / plant, No. of capsules / plant, and no. of seeds / capsule. Where as with potassium fertilizer at 40 and 60 kg K / ha or boron fertilizer with 1kg B / ha or their interactions showed significant increase in wt.of 1000seed and the yield of seeds and oil. It considered that the temperature and amount of rainfall are the critical factors determining the yield of flax seed and oil. Increased the potassium fertilizer adding to the soil had a positive response to boron effect in the plant. The estimated correlation coefficients (r) were positively and significant between no, of capsules / plant with each: no. of seeds / capsule. 1000 seed wt., seed and oil yield.اجريت الدراسة في حقل كلية التربية الاساسية في مدينة الموصل - محافظة نينوى ، وشملت دراسة ابعة مستويات من البوتاسيوم وثلاثة مستويات من البورون والتي اضيفت الى التربة لدراسة تأثيرها على نمو وحاصل الكتان ، واشارت النتائج الى ان اضافة السماد البوتاسي بمقدار 40 كغم / هـ او البورون بمقدار 0.5 كغم / هـ او التداخل بينهما قد ادى الى زيادة معنوية في عدد من الصفات المدروسة ومنها عدد الافرع الثمرية / نبات وعدد الكبسولات / نبات وعدد البذور / كبسولة، كما ادت الاضافات المتزايدة من السماد البوتاسي الى التربة الى زيادة استجابة النبات لتأثير البورون .......


Article
Effect of picking dates on qualitative characters of four genotypes of cotton
تأثير مواعيد الجني على الصفات النوعية لاربع تراكيب وراثية من القطن

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A field experiment was carried out during summer season of 2011 to study the effect of picking dates on qualitative characters of four genotypes of cotton crop in two locations ,first was at college of agriculture/ tikrit university, and second was at ramadi city (200km) eastren south of tikrit city , by studing twio factors first was four genotypes of cotton ( lachata,alexander,lk and condor) and second factor was four dates of picking,to get an aim of effect of picking dates of four genotypes of upland cotton on qualitative charactrs arandomized complete block design was applied with three replications , the study included six qualitative characters, the results showed that there were significant differences between the genotypes for all these characters except fiber length and elongation characters in two location of the study and its average, while picking dates showed significant differences in all these characters in two location and it average ; The interaction between genotypes and picking dates was significant for all of these characters, where as genotypes with location were significantly interacted, also there was significant interaction between dates of picking and the location for all studied characters.اجريت الدراسة خلال الموسم الصيفي 2011 في موقعين ( جامعة تكريت و مدينة الرمادي ) وتضمت عاملين الاول اربعة تراكيب وراثية والثاني اربعة مواعيد جني بهدف دراسة تأثير موعد الجني في الصفات النوعية لتلك التراكيب ، واظهرت النتائج ان لمواعيد الجني تأثير معنوي في الصفات النوعية لكلا الموقعين وان كل من التراكيب الوراثية والموقع وموعد الجني كان له تأثير في الصفات المدروسة فضلا عن التداخل بين عوامل الدراسة .


Article
Effect of Piking Dates on Yield and its Components properties of four genotypes of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. )
تأثير مواعيد الجني على مواصفات الحاصل ومكوناته لاربع تراكيب وراثية من القطن

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This study was carried out during the summer planting season of 2011 and included a field experiment was carried out in two locations, first in the field of Agronomy Department / College of Agriculture - University of Tikrit, and second in the city of Ramadi (200) kilometers southwest of the city of Tikrit. Included at each location two factors , first four genotypes (for Latshata , Alexander , lk and Condor), and second factor four Dates genie, in order to study the effect of dates picking of four genotypes of cotton apland of piking on yield and its components for five characters . the results showed significant differences for all the characters of genotypes except number of opened balls and seed index in both of locations of study and its average .اجريت الدراسة خلال موسم النمو الصيفي 2011 في موقعين ( جامعة تكريت ومدينة الرمادي )وتضمنت عاملين الاول اربعة تراكيب وراثية من القطن والثاني اربعة مواعيد جني بهدف معرفة تأثير مواعيد الجني في صفات الحاصل ومكوناته ، فاظهرت النتائج وجود فروق معنوية للتراكيب الوراثية لجميع صفات الحاصل ومكوناته عدا صفة عدد الجوز المنفتح / نبات وصفة دليل البذور في كلا الموقعين ......


Article
Effect of Humic acid and Spraying of Auxins in Percentage of Volatile Oil and its physicsl properities of Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citatus L.)
تأثير حامض الهيوميك والرش بالاوكسينات في نسبة الزيت الطيار وصفاته النوعية لنبات حشيشة الليمون (Cymbopogon citatus L.)

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Apot experiment was conducted in a lath house on lemon grass plant in university of tikrit as complete randomized design exeperiment with tow factors and Humic acid as ( Liq humus18) without and with 16L/h (sprying and addition on soil directly)and(IAA and IBA) without and with 150 mg/L.The results Showed superior the treatment of addition of organic fertilizer with mixture of IAA and IBA gave higher essential oil concentrant by(1.04%),Specific gravity reached(0.9460),Density reached(0.9260) and Refractive index reached (1.4839 ).نفذت تجربة سنادين في الظلة البلاستيكية في مشتل جامعة تكريت في الموسم الزراعي 2010 لدراسة تأثير حامض الهيومك كسماد عضوي والرش بمنظمي النمو IAA و IBA ، فاظهرت النتائج تفوق معاملة اضافة حامض الهيوميك مع ماء السقي والرش بخليط نوعي الاوكسين فاعطى اعلى نسبة زيت طيار وبلغ 1.04 % ومستخلص وزن نوعي بلغ 0.946 وكثافة بلغت 0.926 ومعامل انكسار للضوء بلغ 1.4839 .


Article
Effect of Artificial Sweeteners and Sugar Alcohol on the Quality of Peach Nectar
تأثير المحليات الصناعية والسكريات الكحولية في نوعية نكتار الخوخ

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Peach Nectar was prepared by replacing sucrose with alternative sweeteners Sucralose, rebaudioside-A, xylitol and sorbitol at ratio 100% and theirs mixture 50% for each sweetener . Were studied properties of physicochemical and sensory evaluation for duration three months, It was observed a significant increase in acidity, the percentage of soluble solids, viscosity , the value of hydroxymethyl furfural and value of color index a *, while decreased significantly pH values and value of color index L * and b * for all treatment with increasing duration of storage The results showed that the highest significant increase in acidity value at the end of the storage in the treatment that sweetened with sucralose and rebaudioside-A, it was reaching (0.453%) for each other and theirs mixture (0.450%) . Increased total soluble solids , the treatment that sweetened with sorbitol obtained the highest significant increase, it was (18.51%) and their mixtures , Thus viscosity increased in this treatment and their mixtures compared to the rest treatment . It obtained the highest change in peach nectar color that sweetened with sucrose, represented by HMF value that reached (1.870 mg /l) , this led to rise in index value of red color a* in it when estimating color, it reached (1.840) but decreased index values of color L * and b * (bright yellow) in the same treatment, they reached (26,06and 16.48) respectively compared to the rest treatment. The pH value decreased in treatment that sweetened with artificial sweeteners and theirs mixture that reached (2.310). This means that the duration of storage and treatment influenced significantly on the sensory properties (odor, taste, color and appearance) for samples of peach Nectar. All the treatments were rise in the odor acceptance degree in the end period of storage, but decreased in the control treatment, and decreased the degree of acceptance of taste in treatment that sweetened with sorbitol (4.73) compared to all treatment but the taste improved slightly after mixed with other alternative sweeteners under study. The highest degree of color and appearance acceptance in all treatment special those that sweetened with artificial sweeteners.تم تحضير نكتار الخوخ باستبدال السكروز بالمحليات البديلة السكرالوز ، الريبوديوسايد -1 ، الزايليتول والسوربيتول بنسبة 100% ومزج كل محليين بنسبة 50 % . وتمت دراسة الخواص الفيزيوكيميائية والحسية للمعاملات اثناء خزنها لمدة ثلاثة اشهر . اظهرت النتائج ارتفاعا معنويا في الحموضة والـ TSS% واللزوجة وقيمة هيدروكسي مثيل فرفورال وقيمة مؤشر اللون a ، بينما انخفضت معنويا قيمة الاس الهيدروجيني ومؤشري اللون L و b للمعاملات جميعها مع زيادة مدة الخزن ......


Article
The study of some physical wool characteristics in Karadi ewes depending on fiber type ratio
دراسة بعض صفات الصوف الفيزيائية في الأغنام الكرادية أعتماداً علي نسبة الألياف

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Abstract

This study was carried out at the native field in Binaslawa District belongs to the Erbil Government in the year (2012)، on the varied aged Karadi ewes (1 to 6 years) each age group 12 ewes. Samples were taken at May from mid-side of ewes. The overall means of each of the raw and clean fleece weight (2.26 & 1.294 Kg respectively، washing yield 57.79 %. The percentage of the fibers of each of (Coarse، Fine and Kemp) were 49.97، 43.88 and 6.13 % respectively، staple length 9.895cm، The effect of ewes age were non-significant on all studied characters except on raw fleece weight was significant (P≤0.01)The total fiber length of each limited numbers of measured 100 , 40 , 30 , 20 and 10 fibers were (14.76 , 15.39 , 15.41 , 15.42 and 15.45 cm respectively, and for fiber diameter for 200 , 40 , 30 , 20 and 10 fibers were 30.73 , 30.55 , 29.77 , 28.01 and 24.36 micron respectively, also length for each of (Coarse، Fine and Kemp) were studied. The ewe’s age were non-significant on total and coarse fiber length, while significant (P ≤0.01) on kemp length for limited numbers of fiber measured (40 and 30 fibers) and significant (P ≤0.05) on remain fiber lengths and fiber diameter.The coefficient regression for all total fiber lengths and fiber diameter on limited numbers of fiber measured were significant (P ≤0.01) and (R2) for the total fiber lengths coefficient regression on limited numbers of fiber measured highly while for fiber diameter under medium between (0.23 and 0.35. also the correlation coefficient were done among all studied characteristics.اجريت هذه الدراسة في حقل اهلي في ناحية بنصلاوة / اربيل سنة 2012 وعلى نعاج مختلفة الاعمار ( 1 – 6 سنوات ) ، وكل فئة ضمت 12 نعجة ، اخذت العينات في شهر ايار وفي منطقة الوسط الجاني للنعاج ( Side sample Mid ) ، ودرست عدة صفات فكان تأثير العمر غير معنوي على جميع الصفات المدروسة عدا وزن الجزة الخام ........


Article
Effect of The Toxic Culture Filterate of The Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina Isolated From Sesame Seeds on Soil Microorganisms and Germination of Some Plant Seeds
تأثير الراشح السمي للفطر Macrophamina phaseolina المعزول من بذور السمسم على احياء التربة المجهرية وانبات بذور بعض النباتات

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Abstract

Different concentrations ( 0, 1, 5, 10, and 20% ) of the toxic culture filterate of the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina grown on Potato Sucrose Broth was tested against four species of gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, and gram positive basteria Sreptococcus sp. Staphyllococcus aureus. Results showed that K. pneumonia does not respond to all concentrations of the culture filterate while it caused significant inhibition to other bacterial species tested and the inhibition increased with the increase of concentration untill 10%. Effect of different concentrations of the culture filterate on four species of fungal plant pathogens, Fusarium solani,F. oxysporum,Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria alternata showed significant inhibition on the growth of fungi, and also the inhibition increased with increasing the concentration. Maximum inhibition was noticed with A. alternata (59.64%) .When culture filterate was tested on seed germination, root elongation of four types of plants i.e. lentile, sunflower, cowpea and bean, maximum inhibition was recorded with cowpea (22.7%). Also, it caused inhibition to root elongation, seedling length and fresh weight of the four plants tested , lentile showed maximum inhibition (51.5 , 24.23 and 34.7% respectively ) .اختبر تأثير تراكيز مختلفة ( 0 ، 1 ، 5 ، 10 و 20 % ) من الراشح السمي للفطر Macrophamina phaseolina المنمى على وسط سكروز البطاطا السائل في نمو اربعة انواع من البكتريا اثنان منها سالبة لصبغة كرام واثنان موجبة للصبغة ، فاظهرت النتائج عدم استجابة بكتريا K. pneumomniae لجميع تراكيز الراشح المختبرة في حين سبب تثبيطا معنويا لبقية انواع البكتريا وقد ازداد التثبيط بزيادة التركيز الى 10% ، كما سببت التراكيز المختلفة من الراشح تثبيطا في نسب انبات بذور نباتات العدس وزهرة الشمس واللوبيا والفاصوليا وحدث اعلى نسبة تثبيط لبذور اللوبيا ( 22.7% ) كما لوحظ اعلى تثبيط لطول الجذير وطول البادرات والوزن الطري في بادرات العدس بنسبة 51.5 24.23 34.7 % على التوالي .


Article
Spatial Variability of Some Physical and Chemical Properties from Mid- Mesoptamian Plain Using Statistics Concepts Pedology
دراسة التغايرات المكانية لبعض الصفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية للتربة في وسط السهل الرسوبي باستخدام مفاهيم الاحصاء البيدولوجي

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Abstract

The study area was chosen in the Mid Mesopotamian plain (Lattifiya project ) adjacend to Euphrates south east Baghdad between N 33 03 – 33 49 and E 44 23 – 44 10 , in order to study the variability of properties for the most extensive and fieqnented map units , Acartographic analysis of soil map was conducted to know a percentages and frequencies of map units , transect of 7776 m was selected passes through out the most extensive and frequented map units ,the soil series determined Lateral spatial variability of physical , chemical properties were studied for these pedons and their horizons , using the time series analysis ,pedostatistics ,vertical rates of changes were measured and results were ;- There are variations in some properties physical and chemical , when pedostatistics used , soil then variable property was bulk density , then clay content , sand content , silt content .the most variable property was organic matter content , then, soil salinity ( EC) , CEC and CaCO3 .The suitable statistical model of describing the most frequested soil properties was AM (1) , 59.30 % , AR (1) in 36.05 % while the statistical models when pedostatistics used , the spherical model was the most suitable model of soil properties in 97.56 % , then circular model in 2.45 % .The most suitable technique of soil sampling that efficiently. representative was depending on the range and variogram where they showed :Soil properties that have spatial dependency resulted in low numbers of soil samples to represent the transect when compared to the randomized soil samples that where more samples were needed soil samples,The physical properties samples number that represent studied transect between 2 – 7 samples, the highest was for clay content in the case of spatial dependency , while the number of samples was larger 1455 samples in the case of randomizing low dependency , the largest number for total surface area .The chemical properties samples number were 2 – 20 samples, the highest was for organic matter that required 7686 samples in the case of randomizing low dependency, the highest number was for EC Soils were classified according to USDA 2010 , under the sub group level ( Typic haplosalids) for pedons 5,7,10, and ( Typic Torrifluvents ) for pedons 1,2,3,4,6,8,9,11,12


Article
Estimating of Some Genetic Parameters and Path Coefficient Analysis For Quantitative and Qualitative Characters, of Bread Wheat Genotypes.(Triticum aestivum L.)
تقدير بعض المعالم الوراثية وتحليل معامل المسار للصفات الكمية والنوعية في تراكيب وراثية من حنطة الخبز (Triticum aestivum L.)

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This study was conducted estimate of some parameters and analysis path coefficient of fifteen genotypes of wheat wheat, the seeds planted in the district of Tuz (100 km sothern east) Salah al din province's in(2011-20012) season by using randomized complete Block design (R. C. B. D) Breed wheat , Correlation , path coeffietion: With three replications, each Block contained fifteen units with three lines longed (3 m) and the distance among lines was (0.2m).planted by(160kg. ha-1)seding ratesome characters were studied : number of spikes. m2-, number of grains. spike -1, 1000 kernel weight(gm), grain yield (kg/ha), specific weight( kg / hl), percentage extraction flour(%), protein(%), wet gluten( %), dry gluten( %),the volume of sedimentation (ml) and yield flour (kg/ha), and results could be summarized as follows: Highly significant different appeard among genotypes at 1% probability level for all studied traits. except Specific weight (kg / hl) and protein percent(%).Abu- Ghraib 3was superior in grain yield and quality traits (specific weight and dry Gluten percentage ,and sedimentation volume). Genetic variances were significant in all traits besides moderate phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variations were moderate in no. spikes. m2-,grain yield(kg/ha), sedimentation volume (ml) and flour yieldHigh heritable value of heritability in the broad sense in most studied characters companied with high genetic advance in sedimentation volume (44.81), while no.spikes. m2-inhibited phenotypically and genetically positively significant with grain yield (kg/ha) also genetic correlation positive and significant between flour yield (kg/ha)and each wet gluten( %), extraction percentage and specific weight( kg /hl). Direct effect of no.spikes. m2- was high and indirect effect were moderate in grain yield and 1000 grain weight respectively, while extraction ratio and specific weight had direct effects which were high and indirect effects were positive with quality flour characters as result wet Gluten regarded as the minor important. In addition of these characters protein percentage had important Direct effect.


Article
Effect of Gumboro D78 vaccine on some lymphoid organs in domesticated fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus).
تأثير لقاح الكمبورو D78 نسيجيا في بعض الاعضاء اللمفية في دجاج المنزل (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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Abstract

This study was done in animal house of the Veternary Medicine / University of Tikrit from 20 / 3 / 2013 to 16 / 4 / 2013 to determine the gross and histological changes in domesticated fowls vaccinated with Gumboro vaccine (D 78) by eye drops at one day. Samples of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were taken at age 4 , 7, 14, 21, 28 days post vaccination. Results indicate, gross changes were characterized by atrophy of thymus and congestion, congestion of spleen, with showed presence of gelatinous material in bursa of Fabricius in some samples. Histologically, the thymus showed disappearance parts of the cortex at age 4 days old. Also showed present hyperplasia around the splenic artery at 21 days old post vaccination, in addition to their showed lymphocytes aggregation in the nodes at 28 days old . The bursa of Fabricius showed follicular atrophy with perifollicular hemorrhagic on days 4 and 7 post vaccination, whereas showed intrafollicular lymphatic necrosis with severe degenerations in follicles on days 14 , 21 , 28 post vaccination . This study concludes that Gumboro vaccine, where it led to appearance atrophy and congestion on some lymphoid organs with intrafollicular lymphatic necrosis and severe degenerations in vaccinated domesticated fowls.


Article
The effect of zinc and selenium on blood pictures and concentration of some hormones in albino male rats exposed to oxidative stress.
تأثير عنصري الزنك والسيلينيوم في صور الدم وتراكيز بعض الهورمونات في ذكور الجرذان البيض المعرضة للاجهاد التأكسدي ببيروكسيد الهيدروجين

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Abstract

The study aimed to investigate some effects of the zinc and selenium on some blood picture (Hb, Pcv and WBCs) and the concentrations of Testosterone hormone (testo.), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Prolactin (PRL) in the male rates testo exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. The study included (40) male albino rats,(3-4) months ages and (245-280) gm weight were divided to (8) groups both group with (5) rats as follows:Control group, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 1% group, zinc(100 mg Zn/Kg of food)+ H2O2 (1%) group,selenium(100 μg Se/Kg of food)+ H2O21% group, zinc (100mg) and selenium(100 g)+ H2O2(1%)group, zinc group(100 mg Zn/Kg of food), selenium group(100 μg Se/Kg of food) and zinc(100mg) and selenium(100 μg) together group.The results showed a significant decrease(p≤ 4.45) in the concentration of (testo), (LH) and the values of Hb , PCV in the group exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide compared with the control group. The WBCs showed significant increase in the group exposed to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide compared with the control group While non significant differences showed in the concentration of prolactin hormone in the study group.The groups exposed to oxidative stress and treatment with zinc, selenium and zinc,selenium together showed significant increase in the in concentration of testo, LH, Hb, and PCV, significant decrease in WBCs when compared with a hydrogen peroxide group.The group treatment zinc and selenium shwed significant increase in value Hb, While non significant differences showed in the concentration of Tsto, LH, PCV and WBCs when compared with control group.The treatment of animals by zinc and selenium together showed significant increase in the in concentration of Testototo, LH and Hb, While non showed significant differences in the values of PCV, WBCs when compared with control group.

Table of content: volume:14 issue:1