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مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2014 المجلد: 45 العدد: 2

Article
THE SELECTION IN COTTON BY HONEYCOMB 1- AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS
الانتخاب بخلية النحل في القطن 1- الصفات الحقلية

المؤلفون: L. I. Mohammed ليلى إسماعيل محمد
الصفحات: 105-114
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الخلاصة

To determine the best distance in honeycomb selection method and investigate response ofcotton growth and seed cotton yield that can be attain it. Field trails were undertaken on the farm of Dept. of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during 2009-2010. Cocker130walt and Lashata cultivars were grown. Three distances (130, 105 and 80cm) among plants were applied in honeycomb design. The produced seeds from selection by honeycomb were planted to evaluate the genotypes to compare with original populations, according to a factorial experiment with RCBD under 53 and 89 thousand plant/ha. The results showed superiority of selected Cocker310walt in distance 130x113cm compared with origin. It increased from 107.33 to 136.34cm. The same selected and Lashata at the same distance gave higher no. of sympodia (23.67 and 21.17 branches, respectively), higher no. of total bolls/plant (54.67 and 46.33 boll, respectively), but they gave lower no. of nodes to first sympodial branch and no. of monopodia. The values of C.V, SE and SD decreased in all selected plants that mean increasing homogeneity. Highly heritability narrow sense was obtained from no. of total bolls/plant that associated with higher genetic gain (72.70% and 33.42%, respectively). It was clear that effect of additive gene action for improving this trait. It can be concluded that using of selection was effective to improve selected plants according on studied characters. We recommend to use honeycomb in breeding programs to improve cotton performance.


Article
THE SELECTION IN COTTON BY HONEYCOMB 1-YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS
الانتخاب بخلية النحل في القطن 2- الحاصل ومكوناته

المؤلفون: L. I. Mohammed ليلى إسماعيل محمد
الصفحات: 115-124
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الخلاصة

To determine the best distance for selection by honeycomb and comparision of selected plants under two plant densities according to seed cotton yield and its components to reach highest yield. Field trails were undertaken on the farm of Dept. of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during 2009-2010. Cocker130walt and Lashata cultivars were grown. Three distances (130, 105 and 80cm) among plants were applied in honeycomb design. The produced seeds from selection by honeycomb were planted to evaluate the genotypes to compare with unselected cultivars, according to a factorial experiment with RCBD under 53 and 89 thousand plant/ha. The results showed that selected Lashata in distance 130x113cm gave higher no. of open boll/plant (51 bolls). While Cocker310walt gave higher boll weight (4.38g) . Both selected genotypes gave higher gining % (37.67 and 34.34 %, respectively), fiber yield (34.33 and 38.78 g) and seed cotton yield (109.34 and 112.34 g). Highly heritability narrow sense was for seed cotton yield /plant that associated with higher genetic gain (46.30% and 19.87%, respectively). The selected Cocker310walt gave highly homeostaty and crop yield potential (CYP) . It can be concluded that using of selection was effective for improving selected plants according on yield and its components. We recommend to use honeycomb in breeding programs to improve seed cotton yield and testing it for distance upper than 130cm between plants, particularly if there was more than one cycle of selection.


Article
ANALYSIS OF GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION DATA USING AMMI BIPLOT
تحليل بيانات التداخل الوراثي البيئي لأصناف من فول الصويا باستخدام تحليل AMMI Biplot

المؤلفون: J. M. A. Aljumaily جاسم محمد عباس الجميلي
الصفحات: 125-132
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الخلاصة

The additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis was performed for seed yield of 14 genotypes of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown at 2 locations (Baghdad and Saladin) in Iraq over 2 successive seasons 2008 and 2009 combined to give four environments to determine yield stability and performance of genotypes. The experiments were carried out using a randomized complete block design with three replicates in each experiment.. The Seed yield data were adopted to test AMMI Biplot. AMMI Biplot grouped the additive components to produce single model of genotype and environments main effects and multiplicative components of GEI effects. The first three principal components interpreted 68.75, 25.00 and 12.50% of total GEISS. Biplot analysis showed that G1, G2, G8, and G14 and E1, E3 and E4 had the greatest effect in GE interaction. G1 and G2 possess special adaptation for E1 and E3. While G8 had special adaptation for E3 and E4 also G14 was adapted over E2. Results pointed to AMMI model adjusted data for main component and effect of interaction 98%. Thus, it was justified to use this model. Genotypes 6, 7, 10, 11 and 12 could be recommended as the most stable genotypes, due to general adaptability.


Article
ROLE OF ABA APPLICATION TO IMPROVE SOME SUNFLOWER TRAITS UNDER WATER DEFICIT STRESS
دور اضافة ABA في تحسين بعض الصفات المظهرية لزهرة الشمس تحت الإجهاد المائي

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الخلاصة

A field study was conducted during two spring seasons 2012 and 2013 at the experimental farm of Field Crop Department، College of Agriculture، University of Baghdad. That was to study the effect of irrigation of and concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) in some morphological characteristics sunflower Helianthus annuus L. using the design of RCBD with split plot arrangement at three replications. The main plots were irrigation treatments, the control treatment (irrigation 50% of the water available), 70 %, 50%,and 30% of the amount of control water treatment coded S1, S2, S3 and S4, while secondary plots was occupied concentrations of ABA (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5) micromoles coded C0, C1, C2 and C3. Irrigation treatment 70% of the treatment (control) gave the average plant height was 128 cm and leaf area 0.45 m2.plant-1 and duration from planting to flowering to 50% 77.62 day the crop growth rate 12.80 g .m-2. d-1 and root dry weight 30.85 g. plant-1 as average for two seasons, and did not differe significantly from the irrigation treatment (control) started gave higher average rate of 136 cm and 0.45 m2.plant-1 and 78.41 days and 12.08 g.m-2.d-1 and 31.46 g.plant-1 for average two seasons respectively, while the irrigation treatment gave 30% of the treatment measurement lowest average for all irrigation treatments. Outweigh the concentration of 7.5 micromoles significant highest average dry weight of the root of 28.81 g.-1 plant and crop growth rate of 9.95 gm.m-2.d-1 on average for the two seasons and duration from planting to 50% flowering 76.83 the first day of the season only. Therefore, we recommend possibility of irrigation water by 70% of a need of the full irrigation (50% depletion of available water) without significant effect on some morphological traits, in addition to possibility treatment of sunflower plants with ABA to improvement capacity of water stress.


Article
EFFECT OF DROUGHT IN POTATO MICROTUBERS PRODUCTION AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASE IN VITRO
تأثير الجفاف في إنتاج الدرنات الدقيقة للبطاطا وفعالية البيروكسيديز خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at the University of Baghdad, College of Agriculture during 2012 and 2013 .The objective was to study the effect of plant tissue culture on producing microtubers form three clones of potato Solanum tuberosum L. cvs: Desiree, Manito and Savana. Completely randomized design with10 replications were used. The variables were; sucrose at concentrations 30, 60, 90 and 120 g.l-1, polyethlenglycol (PEG) 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% and mannitol 0, 1500, 3000, 4500 and 6000 mg.l-1. Measurements were taken on numbers of tubers under activity of peroxidase enzyme. The results of statistical analysis verealed that significant differences among factors and their interactions Treatment of sucrose at 90gl.-1 gave highest number of tubers (2.63 tubers.cutting-1).The results revealed that there was a reduction in number of tubers at all concentration of PEG and mannitol as compared with control treatment. There was high activity of peroxidase enzyme in Savanna clone grown at B5 medium that supported with different concentrations of PEG, sucrose, mannitol amount to 77.40, 45.91, 63.32 absorption unit.g-1, respectively.Thus,it was concluded from There results that increar these peroxidase enzyme activety has increased of tubers under drought. It was recommended to use enzymic antioxidant when thrse is a need to propagate potato micro tubers under drought conditions used in this study.


Article
THE OPTIMUM FIRST APPLICATION OF UREA FOR SOME SORGHUM CULTIVARS
انسب أول موعد لإضافة اليوريا لبعض أصناف الذرة البيضاء

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الخلاصة

The research aims to determine the most appropriate date to add the first batch urea fertilizer for crop sorghum, carried out an experiment in seed Technology Laboratory of the Department of field crop science_ college of Agriculture_ University of Baghdad during the autumn season of 2013. Used for this purpose dishes germination dimensions of 30×40 cm containing afixedamount of washed silica sand, planted three varieties of sorghum (Rescue and Rabeh and Undersecretary) four dates added urea (when agriculture and after 5, 10 and 15 days from sowing). The dishes were distributed randomly in the order factorial experiments raindomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed the existence of significant effect of the global study and the overlap between them in all traits. Undersecretary product has given the highest average rate of emergence and fresh weight and dry weight (87.83% and 236.4 mg and 20.69 mg) respectively, while breed rescue initiatives gave the highest average for the content of seeding nitrogen 4.63%. the results showed the superiority date added after 15 days from sowing and emergence in the proportion of wet and dry weight and nitrogen content of seeding (20.99%, 311.2 mg, 36.69 mg and 6.33%). Conclude from the results of this study that the addition of the first batch of urea fertilizer has anegative impact on the number of seeding emerging from the soil and the increased rate of longer we later added the first batch of compost. As the seedling weight of wet and dry as well as the content of the element nitrogen seedling has increased with the delay in the start data of the first compost therefore we recommend not to start the first batch of urea fertilizer for agriculture when their negative impact on seedling emergence and the the loss for much of it due to the delay in washing and members of delay seedling basic kaljdhur differentiation and proliferation soil to help them to increase their efficiency in the absorption of this element.


Article
YIELD AND SHELF LIFE OF OYSTER MUSHROOM UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN SOURCES
الحاصل والقابلية الخزنية للفطر المحاري بتأثير مصادر نيتروجينية مختلفة

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الخلاصة

Three experiments were conducted in the project of fungi-Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Unit-College of Agric./Univ.of Baghdad from 1/11/2010 to15/6/2011. The spawn of white strain of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) was produced using tissue culture. Three different sources of nitrogen was added to the plastic bag after incubation stage at the following concentrations: Urea concentrations 0 or 500 or 1000 or 2000 or 4000 ppm or poly amino acids solution or water extract of faba bean dry seeds each concentrations following 0 or 0.5% or 1% or 2% or4%. The results showed that the fresh and dry yield , the biological efficiency and dray matter percentage and protein percentage significantly increased with using three different sources of nitrogen than control treatment. Use of 1000 ppm increased fresh yield to 774.0 g/kg of substrate and to 914.0g/kg when used 2% poly amino acids solution and to1020.0 g/kg of substrate when used 2% water extract of faba bean dry seeds compared with used water (control treatment) 406.4g/kg of substrate. The concentration of different sources of nitrogen increased of the biological efficiency and the percentage of the protein significantly in the fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom. Treatments with 2%, 4% urea and 4% water extract of faba bean dry seeds had no significant effects on the percentage of decay after storage.


Article
THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF PRODUCING WHEAT AT AL-ABAICHI FARM
التقييم الاقتصادي لإنتاج القمح في مزرعة العبايجي

المؤلفون: D. S. Barbaz ضرغام سلمان برباز
الصفحات: 165-173
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الخلاصة

The most important factor in the success of any developed economic plan is the project itself, In regardless of size and type. In many countries, the agricultural and cooperative projects are considered the base of agricultural development. The feasibility of planning and producing wheat at Al-Abaichi Farm-Ishaqi Research Station in Salah Al-Din governorate was the main goal of this research. The data was collected via a questionnaire during the crop production season of 2011-2012. The results showed that the estimated criteria of economic feasibility which has been applied to the sample were positive. The project made net profit about 146 million Iraqi Dinars. Whereas the returning rate of invested Dinar was 1.802, and the total efficiency was 1.3. The efficiency of the input variables raised to 2.3 for every Dinar was spend on inputs. This was measured by the productivity of the invested capital criteria about 3.3. The farm produces about 172.2 tons of wheat in order to make economic profit. In conclusion, the farm is economically and financially efficient in producing wheat which is attributed to the pricing policy. We recommend that further studies should be done considering the technical efficiency of producing wheat.


Article
EXTENSION PLANNING CAMPAIGNS TO DIFFUSE DATE PALMS PRODUCED BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUE AND AGRICULTURE EXTENSION STAFF
تخطيط حملة ارشادية لنشر تقانة زراعة فسائل النخيل المنتجة بالزراعة النسيجية من قبل الفنيين والمرشدين الزراعيين

المؤلفون: R. M. I. Al-Khazragi رعد مسلم اسماعيل الخزرجي
الصفحات: 174-184
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الخلاصة

This research aimed the study of an extension planning campaign importance that deals with tissue culture produced date palm that produced in General Board labs, by its staff as a development side adopts the planning for this campaign with help of its stations with extension system and branches in different provinces of Iraq to enhance and increase the date palms farms production. The data collected from sample contain 147 persons by using a questionnaire made for this purpose. Ascale was set up to measure the planning importance level for this campaign, contain 5 levels, 3 fields, 14 axis, 72 steps, and the value of maximum and minimum degree betwen 72-346 degrees. The important level was average 208.6 degrees. The result showed that most of these persons (81-167) they ensure the extension campaign to diffuse tissue culture date palms that produced by the tissue culture with importance level 300.8 on 3 category classification. The research conclusion that there was a great importance to start an extension planning campaign to diffuse the tissue culture date palms and technique which should cover all the agricultural parts that are dealing with date palms and in all Iraqi provinces to treat to reform the bad realty in these farms in Iraq.

الكلمات الدلالية

camapaigns --- transfer --- palms --- tissue. --- حملة --- نشر --- فسائل --- نسيجية.


Article
EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOCONTROL AGENTS TO CONTROL MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA ON WATER MELON
الفعالية الكيمياوية والاحيائية لمكافحة الماكروفومينا على البطيخ

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to evaluate the activity of the fungicides, Beltanol, Elsa, Topsin, Dividend and Flint with Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens against Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot on melon. Results indicated that the T. harzianum had high antagonism ability (antagonism degree was 2 according to the used System on PDA) against M. phaseolina. The bacteria P. fluorescens achieve complete inhibition of M. phaseolina. Results revealed that combination between Flint and P. fluorescens achieved highest percentage of seed germination and lowest disease severity 96.7 and 11.1 respectively. However, there was no significant differences compared to treatments of Beltanol+ P. f., Flint+ T. h. , Elsa + T. h., Beltanol + T. h., Flint, Elsa in percentage of germination which was 93.3, 86.6, 83.3, 80, 83.3 and 80 respectively. Also, there was no significant difference between the treatment of flint + P. f. and treatment of Flint + T. h. ,Beltanol + P. f., Elsa + T. h . in disease severity which reached 16.6, 16.6 and 19.4 respectively. Activity of different treatment were reflected on increase length of plants and dry weight of shoots and roots of cantaloupe plants .Results showed that there was compatibility between results of greenhouse and field experiment. Treatment of Flint + P. f. showed superiority in increasing percentage of germination and decreased disease severity to 60.7 and 27.8 respectively compared to control treatment (M. phaseolina) 23.8 abd 74.9 respectively. Although, there was no significant difference between most treatment and treatment of flint + P. f., there was significant difference in increasing of seed germination in treatments of Elsa , Beltanol, P. f. 41.6, 44.4 and 41.7 respectively. Activity of fungicide on M. phaseolina was reflected in increasing fruit number and weight of fruit/plant compared to control treatment (M. phaseolina). Results revealed that combination between biorational fungicide and chemical fungicide in half dosage showed high efficacy in controlling M. phaseolina in greenhouse and field experiment.


Article
EFFECT OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS CRUDE EXTRACT IN REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF ALBINO MALE RATS
تجريع المستخلص الخام لنبات المديد وتأثيره في الاداء التناسلي لذكور الجرذان البيض

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الخلاصة

This study was conduced to investigate the effect of alchoholic extract of the Convolvulus arvensis (C. arvensis) on the reproductive performance and fertility of Albino male rats as the following parameters: testes weight, seminal vesicles, prostate gland weights, testosterone concentrations in the serum, some sperm characteristics, structural changes in testicular tissue, as well as the reproductive indices (fertility index). Forty adult male rats (180-200gm) were randomly divided into four equal groups, 1st group was not treated with C. arvensis extract and considered as control group while the other three groups were treated with 400, 600 and 800mg/kg B.W of C. arvensis orally using special gavage tube for rats and considered as T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined at zero (before treatments) and after 35 days of experiment. After 35 days of experiment, 8 rats weighted from each group and sacrificed to collect the testicular, epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland weights and examined the concentration, motility, morphology, viability of the sperms. Histological sections of the testes were done for structural changes in testicular tissue. The results showed that treatment with C. arvensis led to significant(P< 0.05) decrease in serum testosterone concentrations and a significant(P<0.05) decreased in the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland weights and in sperm concentration, motility, morphology, viability as well as abnormal structural changes in testicular tissue. Reproductive indices examined in non treated females mated with treated rats showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the fertility index. In conclusion, negative effect of C. arvensis was noticed on testes functions manifested by some histological changes resulting in a decrease of testosterone and inhibition of spermatogenesis.

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